The sub-region is bordered by the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the south and west, by South Sudan to the north and by the Albert Nile to the east. The town of Arua, is the largest town in the sub-region. Arua lies approximately 498 kilometres (309 mi), by road, northwest of Kampala, the capital of Uganda, and the largest city in that country.
West Nile sub-region consists of the following districts, as of February 2014:
The sub-region received its name from being located on the western side of the Albert Nile. Military leader and former president of Uganda, Idi Amin, first gained prominence in the West Nile region before staging a military coup and usurping Milton Obote in 1971.
As of May 2019, West Nile is supplied by the 3.5 megawatts Nyagak Hydroelectric Power Station, located at Paidha, Zombo District. This is boosted by the newly-installed 4.6 megawatt Yumbe Thermal Power Station, operated by Electromaxx. Another 8 megawatts thermal installation is expected in June 2019.
Meantime, construction of the 6.6 megawatts Nyagak III Hydroelectric Power Station, is ongoing, with commissioning expected in 2022. With 16 megawatts to the sub-region now, the current power shortage can be mitigated until the national grid connections arrive in the next 2 to 3 years. Electromaxx has received authorization to transfer 12.6 megawatts of its installation at Tororo to West Nile, to alleviate the acute power shortage there.