United States sanctions against Iran

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The US imposed sanction of 1995 bans aviation companies from selling aircraft and repair parts to Iranian airlines. Iranian commercial airplanes were also banned from entering U.S. airspace due to sanctions.

The United States applies economic, trade, scientific and military sanctions against Iran.[why?] U.S. economic sanctions are administered by the U.S. Office of Foreign Assets Control. Currently, the U.S. sanctions against Iran include an embargo on dealings with the country by the U.S., and a ban on selling aircraft and repair parts to Iranian aviation companies.[1]

On 17 May 2018 the European Commission announced its intention to implement the blocking statute of 1996 to declare the US sanctions against Iran null and void in Europe and ban European citizens and companies from complying with them. The Commission also instructed the European Investment Bank to facilitate European companies' investment in Iran.[2][3][4]

Legal framework

The first United States sanctions against Iran were imposed by President Carter in November 1979 by Executive Order 12170 after a group of radical students seized the American Embassy and took hostage the people inside in Tehran after the U.S. permitted the exiled Shah of Iran to enter the United States for medical treatment.[5] The Executive Order froze about $12 billion in Iranian assets, including bank deposits, gold and other properties. Some assets—Iranian officials say $10 billion, U.S. officials say much less—still remain frozen pending resolution of legal claims arising from the revolution.

After the invasion of Iran by Iraq, the United States increased sanctions against Iran. In 1984, sanctions were approved to prohibit weapon sales and all U.S. assistance to Iran. The Iran and Libya Sanctions Act (ILSA) was signed on 5 August 1996 (H.R. 3107, P.L. 104-172).[6] ILSA was renamed in 2006 the Iran Sanctions Act (ISA) when the sanctions against Libya were terminated.[6]

On 31 July 2013, members of the United States House of Representatives voted 400 to 20 in favor of toughened sanctions.[7]

Rafsanjani government

The term of President Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani was marked by some of the toughest sanctions against Iran. In March 1995, President Bill Clinton issued Executive Order 12957 prohibiting U.S. trade in Iran's oil industry. In May 1995, President Clinton issued Executive Order 12959 prohibiting any U.S. trade with Iran. Trade with the United States, which had been growing following the end of the Iran–Iraq War, ended abruptly.

In 1995, the United States Congress passed the Iran and Libya Sanctions Act (ILSA). Under ILSA, all foreign companies that provide investments over $20 million for the development of petroleum resources in Iran will have imposed against them two out of seven possible penalties by the U.S.:[8]

  • denial of Export-Import Bank assistance,
  • denial of export licenses for exports to the violating company,
  • prohibition on loans or credits from U.S. financial institutions of over $10 million in any 12-month period,
  • prohibition on designation as a primary dealer for U.S. government debt instruments,
  • prohibition on serving as an agent of the United States or as a repository for U.S. government funds,
  • denial of U.S. government procurement opportunities (consistent with WTO obligations), and
  • a ban on all or some imports of the violating company.

Khatami government

After the election of Iranian reformist President Mohammad Khatami in 1997, President Clinton eased sanctions on Iran. In 2000 the Khatami government managed to reduce the sanctions for some items like pharmaceuticals, medical equipment, caviar and Persian rugs. In the debate in the U.S. Congress on whether ILSA should expire, some legislators argued they hindered bilateral relations, and others argued they would be seen as a concession on an effective program. ILSA was to expire on 5 August 2001, and was renewed by the Congress and signed by President George W. Bush.[9]

In February 2004, during the final year of Khatami's presidency, the U.S. Department of the Treasury ruled against editing or publishing scientific manuscripts from Iran, and stated that U.S. scientists collaborating with Iranians could be prosecuted. In response, the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) temporarily stopped editing manuscripts from Iranian researchers and took steps to clarify the OFAC guidelines concerning its publishing and editing activities. In April 2004 IEEE received a response from OFAC which fully resolved that no licenses were needed for publishing works from Iran and that the entire IEEE publication process including peer review and editing was exempt from restrictions.[10] On the other hand, the American Institute of Physics (AIP), the American Physical Society and the American Association for the Advancement of Science, which publishes Science, refused to comply, saying that the prohibition on publishing goes against freedom of speech.[11]

Ahmadinejad government

In December 2008 the U.S. government sought 40 percent interest in 650 Fifth Avenue on the edge of Rockefeller Center which it said was co-owned by Bank Melli.[12]

After being elected president in 2005, President Ahmadinejad lifted the suspension of uranium enrichment that had been agreed with the EU3, and the International Atomic Energy Agency reported Iran's non-compliance with its safeguards agreement to the UN Security Council. The U.S. government then began pushing for UN sanctions against Iran over its nuclear program.[13]

The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) adopted Resolution 1737 in December 2006, Resolution 1747 in March 2007, Resolution 1803 in March 2008, and Resolution 1929 in June 2010.

In June 2005, President George W. Bush issued Executive Order 13382 freezing the assets of individuals connected with Iran's nuclear program. In June 2007, the U.S. state of Florida enacted a boycott on companies trading with Iran and Sudan, while New Jersey's state legislature was considering similar action.[14]

On June 24, 2010, the United States Senate and House of Representatives passed the Comprehensive Iran Sanctions, Accountability, and Divestment Act of 2010 (CISADA), which President Obama signed into law July 1, 2010. The CISADA greatly enhanced restrictions in Iran. Such restrictions included the rescission of the authorization for Iranian-origin imports for articles such as rugs, pistachios, and caviar. In response, President Obama issued Executive Order 13553 in September 2010 and Executive Order 13574 in May 2011, and Executive Order 13590 in November 2011.


Iranian financial institutions are barred from directly accessing the U.S. financial system, but they are permitted to do so indirectly through banks in other countries. In September 2006, the U.S. government imposed sanctions on Bank Saderat Iran, barring it from dealing with U.S. financial institutions, even indirectly. The move was announced by Stuart Levey, the undersecretary for treasury, who accused the major state-owned bank in Iran of transferring funds for certain groups, including Hezbollah. Levey said that since 2001 a Hezbollah-controlled organization had received 50 million U.S. dollars directly from Iran through Bank Saderat. He said the U.S. government will also persuade European banks and financial institutions not to deal with Iran.[15] As of November 2007, the following Iranian banks were prohibited from transferring money to or from United States banks:[16]

In other words, these banks were placed on the Office of Foreign Assets Control (OFAC) Specially Designated Nationals List (SDN List). The SDN List is a directory of entities and individuals who have been prohibited from accessing the U.S. financial system. Although difficult there are ways to carry out an OFAC SDN List removal.[17]

As of early 2008, the targeted banks, such as Bank Mellat, had been able to replace banking relationships with a few large sanction-compliant banks with relationships with a larger number of smaller non-compliant banks.[18] The total assets frozen in Britain under the EU (European Union) and UN sanctions against Iran are approximately £976,110,000 ($1.64 billion).[19] In 2008, the US Treasury ordered Citigroup Inc. to freeze over $2 billion held for Iran in Citigroup accounts.[20][21]

For individuals and small businesses, these banking restrictions have created a large opportunity for the hawala market, which allows Iranians to transfer money to and from foreign countries using an underground unregulated exchange system.[22] In June 2010, in the case United States v. Banki, the use of the hawala method of currency transfer led to a criminal conviction against a U.S. citizen of Iranian origin. Banki was sentenced to two and a half years in federal prison; however, on the sentencing guidelines, this type of offense could result in imprisonment of up to 20 years.[23]

The United States imposed additional financial sanctions against Iran, effective 1 July 2013. An administration official explained that according to the new Executive Order "significant transactions in the rial will expose anyone to sanctions," and predicted “it should cause banks and exchanges to dump their rial holdings.”[24] This took place as Iran's president-elect Hassan Rouhani was scheduled to take office from August 3, 2013.[25]

Hassan Rouhani government

On 3 August 2013, Hassan Rouhani was elected as Iran's next president.[25]

Sanctions against third parties

In 2014, American authorities put a $5 million bounty on Chinese businessman Li Fangwei, whom they alleged to have been instrumental in evading sanctions against Iran's missile programs.[26]

In 2014, French bank BNP Paribas agreed to pay an $8.9 billion fine, the largest ever for violating U.S. sanctions at that time. Germany's Commerzbank, France's Credit Agricole and Swiss UBS have also been fined.[27] French President François Hollande said: "When the (European) Commission goes after Google or digital giants which do not pay the taxes they should in Europe, America takes offence. And yet, they quite shamelessly demand 8 billion from BNP or 5 billion from Deutsche Bank."[28]

In 2015, Germany's largest bank Deutsche Bank was fined $258 million for violating U.S. sanctions against Iran, Libya and Syria.[29]

In April 2018, the U.S. Justice Department joined the U.S. Treasury Department's Office of Foreign Assets Control, or OFAC, and the Department of Commerce to investigate possible violations of U.S. sanctions against Iran by China's Huawei. The U.S. inquiry stems from an earlier sanctions-violation probe that ultimately led to penalties against another Chinese technology company, ZTE Corporation.[30] Huawei's deputy chair and CFO Meng Wanzhou, daughter of the company's founder Ren Zhengfei, was arrested in Canada on December 1, 2018 based on an extradition request by U.S. authorities.[31]

In May 2019, the US warned Banks, Investors, Traders, and Companies of the UK which trade with Iran through the Instrument in Support of Trade Exchanges (Instex) special purpose vehicle, that they will be punished somehow by Washington.[32][33]

Post-JCPOA sanctions

After the U.S. withdrawal from the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA or Iran nuclear deal), the United States has imposed several new non-nuclear sanctions against Iran,[vague] some of which are being condemned by Iran as a violation of the deal. In July 2017, most Congressional Democrats and Republicans voted in favor of the Countering America's Adversaries Through Sanctions Act (CAATSA) that grouped together sanctions against Iran,[vague] Russia and North Korea.[34][35] The United States has been considering new penalties,[vague] which reportedly seek to punish several companies and individuals from Iran.[36][37]

These treasury and other arms of the government, both under Obama and Trump, have basically weakened the JCPOA extensively, which has kept a lot of the sanctions regime intact.[vague][38] In August 2018 the Trump administration reimposed the sanctions and warned that anyone doing business with Iran will not be able to do business with the United States.[39][40] However, the US will be granting waivers to certain countries. For example, Iraq was granted a waiver that would allow the country to continue purchasing gas, energy and food products from Iran on the condition that the purchases were not paid for in US dollars.[41]

In 2018, the United Nations International Court of Justice (ICJ) "ordered" the United States to stop the sanctions.[vague] The decision was unanimous, and was based on the 1955 U.S.-Iran "Friendship Treaty" that was signed with the government overthrown by the 1979 Islamic Revolution.[42] In response, United States withdrew from two international agreements.[43]

In October 2018, Reuters reported that American J.P. Morgan Chase Bank "agreed to pay $5.3 million to settle allegations it violated Cuban Assets Control Regulations, Iranian sanctions[vague] and Weapons of Mass Destruction sanctions 87 times, the U.S. Treasury said".[44]

British bank Standard Chartered faces $1.5 billion fine by U.S. agencies for violating Iran sanctions.[vague][45]

In November 2018, the United States officially reinstated all sanctions[vague] against Iran that were previously lifted before the U.S. withdrew from the JCPOA.[46][47]

In April 2019 the U.S. threatened to sanction countries continuing to buy oil from Iran after an initial six-month waiver announced in November expired.[vague][48]

In June 2019, Trump imposed the sanctions on Iranian Supreme Leader Ayatollah Ali Khamenei, his office and those closely affiliated with his access to key financial resources.[vague][49][50]

On 31 July 2019, The United States placed sanctions on Iran's foreign minister, Mohammad Javad Zarif.[vague][51]

In August 2018, Total S.A. officially withdrew from the Iranian South Pars gas field because of sanctions pressure from the US,[vague][52] leaving CNPC to take up their 50.1% stake in the natural gas field, of which it had already 30%.[53] It held this 80.1% share until it withdrew its investment in October 2019 due once again to the US sanctions regime, according to Oil Minister Bijan Zangeneh and the SHANA news agency.[53]

Iran reactions

On 8 May 2019, according to article 36 of the agreement, Iran was allowed to reply in case of non-compliance by other signatories. President Rouhani announced that Tehran was acting in reply to "the European countries' failure" and held on to stockpiles of excess uranium and heavy water used in nuclear reactors.[54] Rouhani said that Iran gave a 60-day deadline to remaining signatories of the JCPOA to protect it from US sanctions[55] and provide additional economic support.[56] Otherwise, at the end of that deadline, Iran would exceed the limits on its stockpile of enriched uranium.[57] In September 2019, as a third major step to scale down commitments to the 2015 nuclear accord, after another 60-day deadline, Iran nullified all limits on nuclear research and development.[58]

Sanctions against IRGC

On 21 April 2019, a few days before United States sanctions were due to take effect, Iran Supreme Leader Ali Khamenei appointed Hossein Salami as the new commander-in-chief of the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps (IRGC).[59][60]

On April 8, 2019, the United States imposed economic and travel sanctions on the IRGC and organizations, companies and individuals affiliated with it.[61][62] Hossein Salami was one of the individuals listed.

On 15 April 2019, the US designated the IRGC as a terrorist organization.[63] The designation is still in force.

On 7 June 2019, the US imposed sanctions on Iran's petrochemical industry for financially supporting the IRGC.[64]

On 24 June 2019, the US imposed sanctions on eight senior commanders of the navy, aerospace and ground forces components of IRGC.[50]

On 25 October 2007, the US designated the Quds Force, a part of IRGC, a terrorist organization under Executive Order 13224, for providing material support to US-designated terrorist organisations, prohibiting transactions between the group and U.S. citizens, and freezing any assets under U.S. jurisdiction.[65] On 18 May 2011, the US imposed sanctions on Qasem Soleimani, the commander of the Quds Force, along with Syrian president Bashar al-Assad and other senior Syrian officials, due to Soleimani's alleged involvement in providing material support to the Syrian government.[66] He was listed as a known terrorist, which forbade U.S. citizens from doing business with him.[67][68]

Sanctions on education courses

Some tech companies like as GitHub, Google and Apple and Microsoft began limiting users linked to Iran, and several other countries under US sanctions, access to its services.[69][70]

Other sanctions

On September 3, Trump added the Iran Space Agency, the Iranian Astronautics Research Institute and the Iranian Space Research Center to its sanctions list.[71]

On 20 of September, as part of its counter-terrorism authority per Executive Order 13224, the Office of Foreign Assets Control under the Department of Treasury imposed sanctions on the Central Bank of Iran (CBI), the National Development Fund of Iran (NDF) and Etemad Tejarate Pars Co., Iranian company that was used to transfer money to the Ministry of Defence and Armed Forces Logistics.[72]

In October 2019, the United States imposed sanctions on Iranian construction sector, claiming it has links to Iran's Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps (IRGC), which it regards as a foreign terrorist organization. The US State Department also identified four “strategic materials” being used in connection with military, nuclear, or ballistic missile programs, making trade in them subject to sanctions. However, the department extended nuclear-cooperation waivers on Iran's civil nuclear program, renewing them for 90 days.[73]

On November 4, 2019, the US imposed new sanctions on the core inner circle of advisers to the Supreme Leader Ayatollah Ali Khamenei. The new sanctions included one of his sons, Mojtaba Khamenei, the newly appointed head of Iran's judiciary, Ebrahim Raisi, the supreme leader's chief of staff, Mohammad Mohammadi Golpayegani, and others. The Trump administration also issued $20 million to a reward for information about a former FBI agent who disappeared in Iran 12 years ago.[74]

Effects and criticism

Changes in Iranian oil production in response to sanctions, 2011–2018

According to an Iranian journalist, the effects of sanctions in Iran include expensive basic goods and an aging and increasingly unsafe aircraft fleet. "According to reports from Iranian news agencies, 17 planes have crashed over the past 25 years, killing approximately 1,500 people."[75]

The U.S. forbids aircraft manufacturer Boeing to sell aircraft to Iranian aviation companies.[76] However, there are some authorizations for the export of civil aviation parts to Iran when those items are required for the safety of commercial aircraft.[77] An analysis by The Jerusalem Post found that a third of the 117 Iranian planes designated by the U.S. had experienced accidents or crashes.[78]

A 2005 report, presented at the 36th session of the International Civil Aviation Organization, reported that the U.S. sanctions had endangered the safety of civil aviation in Iran because it prevented Iran from acquiring parts and support essential for aviation safety. It also stated that the sanctions were contrary to article 44 of the Chicago Convention (to which the U.S. is a member). The ICAO report said aviation safety affects human lives and human rights, stands above political differences, and that the assembly should bring international public pressure on the United States to lift the sanctions against Iran.[79]

The European Union had been critical of most of the U.S. trade sanctions against Iran. Some EU member states have criticized ILSA as a "double standard" in U.S. foreign policy, in which the United States vigorously worked against the Arab League boycott of Israel while at the same time promoted a worldwide boycott of Iran. The EU member states had threatened formal counter-action in the World Trade Organization.[9][80]

According to a study by Akbar E. Torbat, "overall, the sanctions' economic effect" on Iran "has been significant, while its political effect has been minimal."[81]

According to the U.S. National Foreign Trade Council, in the medium-term, lifting US sanctions and liberalizing Iran's economic regime would increase Iran's total trade annually by as much as $61 billion (at the 2005 world oil price of $50/bbl), adding 32 percent to Iran's GDP. In the oil-and-gas sector, output and exports would expand by 25-to-50 percent (adding 3 percent to world crude oil production).

Iran could reduce the world price of crude petroleum by 10 percent, saving the United States annually between $38 billion (at the 2005 world oil price of $50/bbl) and $76 billion (at the proximate 2008 world oil price of $100/bbl). Opening Iran’s market place to foreign investment could also be a boon to competitive US multinational firms operating in a variety of manufacturing and service sectors.[82]

In 2009, there was discussion in the U.S. of implementing "crippling sanctions" against Iran, such as the Iran Refined Petroleum Sanctions Act of 2009, "if diplomatic overture did not show signs of success by the autumn". Professor Hamid Dabashi, of Columbia University, said in August 2009 that this was likely to bring "catastrophic humanitarian consequences", while enriching and strengthening the "security and military apparatus" of "the Pasdaran and the Basij," and having absolutely no support from "any major or even minor opposition leader" in Iran.[83] According to Bloomberg News, Boeing and Exxon have said that new Iran sanctions would cost $25 billion in U.S. exports.[84]

It has also been argued the sanctions have had the counter effect of protecting Iran in some ways, for example the 2007 imposition of U.S. sanctions against Iranian financial institutions to a high degree made Iran immune to the then emerging global recession.[85] Iranian officials argued that the sanctions created new business opportunities for Iranian companies to develop in order to fill the gap left by foreign contractors.[86][87] According to U.S. officials, Iran may lose up to $60 billion in energy investments due to global sanctions.[88]

On 18 January 2012 Russian Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov warned that sanctions are aimed at strangling the economy of Iran and would create much discontent toward Western nations, and potentially provoke a negative recourse.[89]

On 13 August 2018 Iran Supreme leader, Ayatollah Ali Khamenei, said that "mismanagement" harmed Iran more than U.S. sanctions did. "More than the sanctions, economic mismanagement (by the government) is putting pressure on ordinary Iranians ... I do not call it betrayal but a huge mistake in management," Khamenei was quoted as saying.[90]

On 22 August 2018, United Nations Special Rapporteur Idriss Jazairy described the sanctions against Iran as "unjust and harmful". "The reimposition of sanctions against Iran after the unilateral withdrawal of the United States from the Iran nuclear deal, which had been unanimously adopted by the Security Council with the support of the US itself, lays bare the illegitimacy of this action," said Jazairy. According to Jazairy, "chilling effect" caused by the "ambiguity" of recently reimposed sanctions, would lead to "silent deaths in hospitals".[91]

According to Pakistan's Prime Minister Imran Khan, U.S. sanctions against Iran are affecting neighboring Pakistan. He stated that "The last thing the Muslim World needs is another conflict. The Trump administration is moving towards that direction."[92]

On 5 May 2019, White House announced the United States has stationed an aircraft carrier strike group and Air Force bombers to the Middle East for “troubling and escalatory signs and warnings” connected to Iran.[93] Mr. Bolton said the purpose of the action is sending a message to the Iranian regime that any attack on US interests or on those of our allies by Iran will be faced with our unremitting response.[94] Also, he declared in the statement, we are not looking for war with Iran but ready to repel to any attack, whether by proxy, the Islamic Revolutionary Guards Corps or regular Iranian forces.[93]

On 19 May 2019, Trump threatened Iran and said in his Twitter post "If Iran wants to fight, that will be the official end of Iran. Never threaten the United States again!"[95]

Donald J. Trump Twitter

If Iran wants to fight, that will be the official end of Iran. Never threaten the United States again!

May 19, 2019[96]

On 27 September 2019, Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan said that it is "impossible" for his country to stop buying oil and natural gas from Iran, despite US sanctions against the latter.[97]

Impact on overseas students

As of December 2018, US sanctions were reportedly affecting hundreds of Iranian university students in the UK, preventing them from being able to readily pay their tuition fees and forcing them to choose between abandoning their studies or using dangerous means to transfer funds.[98]


In December 2010 it was reported that the U.S. Treasury Department's Office of Foreign Assets Control had approved nearly 10,000 exceptions to U.S. sanctions rules worldwide over the preceding decade by issuing special licenses for American companies.[99]

European and U.S. sanctions do not affect Iran's electricity exports, which creates a loophole for Iran's natural gas reserves.[100]

See also


  1. ^ Haidar, J.I., 2015."Sanctions and Exports Deflection: Evidence from Iran," Paris School of Economics, University of Paris 1 Pantheon Sorbonne, Mimeo
  2. ^ "EU to reactivate ′blocking statute′ against US sanctions on Iran for European firms". Deutsche Welle. 17 May 2018. Retrieved 17 May 2018.
  3. ^ "EU to start Iran sanctions blocking law process on Friday". Reuters. 17 May 2018. Retrieved 17 May 2018.
  4. ^ "EU moves to block US sanctions on Iran". Al Jazeera. 17 May 2018. Retrieved 17 May 2018.
  5. ^ Moin Khomeini, (2000), p.220
  6. ^ a b Katzman, Kenneth (13 June 2013). "Iran Sanctions" (PDF). Federation of American Scientists. Congressional Research Service. Retrieved 29 July 2013.
  7. ^ "Tehran is changing, pity about DC". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 9 August 2013. Retrieved 9 August 2013.
  8. ^ Wright, Steven. The United States and Persian Gulf Security: The Foundations of the War on Terror, Ithaca Press, 2007 ISBN 978-0863723216
  9. ^ a b "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-12-19. Retrieved 2017-06-25.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  10. ^ "US Reverses Journal Embargo", The Scientist, 7 April 2004
  11. ^ Brumfiel, Geoff (2004). "Publishers split over response to US trade embargo ruling". Nature. 427 (6976): 663. doi:10.1038/427663a. PMID 14973440.
  12. ^ Kessler, Glenn (18 December 2008). "U.S. Links Iranian Bank to Fifth Avenue Building". Washington Post. Retrieved 26 May 2010.
  13. ^ "Iraq prime minister to visit Iran". Al Jazeera. 9 September 2006. Archived from the original on 18 April 2010.
  14. ^ "New Jersey mulls banning Iran investments". The Jerusalem Post. Associated Press. 14 June 2007.[permanent dead link]
  15. ^ U.S. imposes sanctions on Iranian bank, People's Daily, 9 September 2006
  16. ^ John B. Reynolds, III, Amy E. Worlton and Cari N. Stinebower, "U.S. Dollar Transactions with Iran are Subject to New Restrictions – Tough Policy Decisions Face International Financial Institutions", Wiley Rein LLP, 28 November 2007
  17. ^ "OFAC SDN List removal".
  18. ^ "Iran gets around US bank sanctions", By Najmeh Bozorgmehr in Tehran, Financial Times, August 21, 2008.
  19. ^ "Over $1.6 bn of Iranian assets frozen in Britain", PressTV, June 18, 2009
  20. ^ "U.S. froze $2 billion held for Iran in Citibank: report". Reuters. 12 December 2009.
  21. ^ Solomon, Jay (30 December 2011). "Iran to File Motion in U.S. Court to Unfreeze Funds". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 6 April 2013.
  22. ^ Farnaz Fassihi and Chip Cummins, "Iranians scheme to elude sanctions", Wall Street Journal, 6 February 2008
  23. ^ Federal Sentencing Guidelines
  24. ^ Gladstone, Rick (3 June 2013). "U.S. Adds to Its List of Sanctions Against Iran". The New York Times.
  25. ^ a b "Iran's next president, Hassan Rouhani, seen as best hope for ending nuclear standoff with West". The Washington Post.
  26. ^ Arrouas, Michelle (30 April 2014). "Wanted: Li Fangwei, Alias Karl Lee. Reward: $5 Million". Time. Retrieved 5 May 2014.
  27. ^ "French bank fined for violating US sanctions". Deutsche Welle. October 20, 2015.
  28. ^ "France's Hollande criticises huge U.S. fines against corporate Europe". Reuters. October 12, 2016.
  29. ^ "U.S. Fines Deutsche Bank $258 Million for Violating Sanctions". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. November 5, 2015.
  30. ^ Sheridan Prasso (25 April 2018). "Huawei Said to Be Probed by FBI for Possible Iran Violations". Bloomberg Technology. Retrieved 9 August 2018.
  31. ^ Wakabayashi, Daisuke; Rappeport, Alan (2018-12-05). "A Top Huawei Executive Is Arrested in Canada for Extradition to the U.S." The New York Times. Retrieved 2018-12-06.
  32. ^ Erlanger, Steven. "Nuclear Deal Traps E.U. Between Iran and U.S." nytimes.
  33. ^ Rasheed, Zaheena. "'Dangerous game': US, Europe and the 'betrayal' of Iran". aljazeera.
  34. ^ "Senate overwhelmingly passes new Russia and Iran sanctions". The Washington Post. 15 June 2017.
  35. ^ Editorial, Reuters (2 August 2017). "Iran says new U.S. sanctions violate nuclear deal, vows 'proportional reaction'".
  36. ^ "Plane with freed Americans leaves Iran; U.S. imposes new sanctions". Washington Post.
  37. ^ Feb 03, 2017, U.S. Announces New Sanctions on Iran Over Ballistic Missile Test, Haaretz.
  38. ^ "Why are people protesting in Iran?".
  39. ^ Trump signs order reimposing sanctions on Iran - a move the EU said it 'deeply' regrets, The Independent.
  40. ^ Iran sanctions: Trump warns trading partners, BBC.
  41. ^ "U.S. to grant Iraq waiver over Iran sanctions for gas, food items:..." Reuters. 2018-11-02. Retrieved 2018-11-08.
  42. ^ "US ordered to halt 'humanitarian' Iran sanctions in blow for Donald Trump". Times of India. Agence France Presse. 3 October 2018. Retrieved 4 October 2018. Judges in The Hague unanimously ruled that the sanctions on some goods breached a 1955 "friendship treaty" between Iran and the US that predates Iran's Islamic Revolution.
  43. ^ "U.S. withdraws from international accords, says U.N. world court 'politicized'". Reuters. 4 October 2018. Retrieved 10 October 2018.
  44. ^ "J.P. Morgan to settle allegations of violating sanctions: U.S. Treasury". Reuters. October 5, 2018.
  45. ^ "StanChart braces for possible new Iran fine of about $1.5 billion: Bloomberg". Reuters. October 1, 2018.
  46. ^ Donna Borak and Nicole Gaouette. "US officially reimposes all sanctions lifted under 2015 Iran nuclear deal". CNN. Retrieved 2019-01-31.
  47. ^ "Donald Trump restores Iran sanctions, hitting oil exports over its support for militant groups". ABC News. 2018-11-03. Retrieved 2019-01-31.
  48. ^ Wroughton, Lesley (22 April 2019). "U.S. to end all waivers on imports of Iranian oil, crude price jumps". Reuters. Retrieved 22 April 2019.
  49. ^ Holland, Kalin, Steve, Stephen. "Trump puts sanctions on Iranian supreme leader, other top officials". reuters.
  50. ^ a b "This article is more than 2 months old Donald Trump orders fresh sanctions against Iran's Ali Khamenei". theguardian.
  51. ^ "US imposes sanctions on Iranian Foreign Minister Zarif". aljazeera.
  52. ^ "French energy giant Total officially pulls out of Iran". 20 August 2018.
  53. ^ a b "Iran says China's state oil firm withdraws from US$5-billion natural gas deal; U.S. sanctions may be to blame". The Globe and Mail Inc. Associated Press. 6 October 2019.
  54. ^ "Iran set to begin 'unlimited' nuclear research and development". aljazeera.
  55. ^ "Iran nuclear deal in jeopardy after latest enrichment breach". theguardian.
  56. ^ "Iran nuclear deal: Government announces enrichment breach". bbc.
  57. ^ El-Ghobashy, Birnbaum and Morello, Tamer, Michael and Carol. "Iran announces it will stop complying with parts of landmark nuclear deal". washingtonpost.
  58. ^ "Iran lifts more limits on nuclear programme as deal unravels". aljazeera.
  59. ^ Al Ketbi, Salem. "Why Khamenei Changed the Head of the Revolutionary Guards?". Retrieved 2019-05-02.
  60. ^ Hafezi, Parisa. "Khamenei names new chief for Iran's Revolutionary Guards". reuters.
  61. ^ Wong and Schmitt, Edward and Eric. "Trump Designates Iran's Revolutionary Guards a Foreign Terrorist Group". nytimes.
  62. ^ Zimmt, Dr. Raz. "Hossein Salami The New Commander of the Iranian Revolutionary Guards Corps" (PDF).
  63. ^ Brice, Makini (2019-04-15). "U.S. officially designates Iran's Revolutionary Guards a terrorist group". Reuters. Archived from the original on 16 April 2019. Retrieved 2019-04-16.
  64. ^ Chiacu, Doina. "New U.S. sanctions target Iran's petrochemical industry". reuters.
  65. ^ "Fact Sheet: Designation of Iranian Entities and Individuals for Proliferation Activities and Support for Terrorism". U.S. Department of the Treasury. 25 October 2007. Archived from the original on 10 November 2014. Retrieved 11 November 2014.
  66. ^ Alfoneh, Ali (July 2011). "Iran's Most Dangerous General" (PDF). Middle Eastern Outlook. 4. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 July 2012. Retrieved 18 February 2013.
  67. ^ "Iranian who brokered Iraqi peace is on U.S. terrorist watch list". McClatchy Newspapers. 31 March 2008. Archived from the original on 18 July 2008. Retrieved 7 April 2008.
  68. ^ "Designation of Iranian Entities and Individuals for Proliferation Activities and Support for Terrorism". United States Department of State. 25 October 2007. Archived from the original on 4 February 2009. Retrieved 7 April 2008.
  69. ^ Motamedi, Maziar. "Locked out: Did US tech company over-comply with Iran sanctions?". aljazeera.
  70. ^ Stone, Richard. "New U.S. sanctions put spotlight on Iranian research institute".
  71. ^ "U.S. Sanctions Iran Space Agency After Launch Trump Mocked". Risk Screen. Retrieved 4 September 2019.
  72. ^ "Treasury Sanctions Iran's Central Bank and National Development Fund". U.S. DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY. Retrieved 6 October 2019.
  73. ^ "New US Sanctions Against Iran Nuclear Program Target IRGC's Control of Construction Sector". The Algemeiner. Retrieved 1 November 2019.
  74. ^ "Iran Supreme Leader's Son, Chief of Team Amid Nine Top rated Aides Sanctioned by US". Asume Tech. Retrieved 4 November 2019.
  75. ^ Sara Shams|Tehran|29 January 2009 Archived February 4, 2009, at the Wayback Machine
  76. ^ Aircraft, November 2001, Iran Air Rare and Exclusive, Kian Noush, p.68
  77. ^ Aircraft Safety in Iran: OFAC is Not (Entirely) in The Way Archived 2011-07-16 at the Wayback Machine Sanction Law. 7 April 2010. Retrieved 17 February 2014.
  78. ^ Tracking the impact of U.S. sanctions on Iran civil aviation The Jerusalem Post. 21 March 2014. Retrieved 21 March 2014.
  79. ^ The safety deficiencies arising out of the United States sanctions against the civil aviation of the Islamic Republic of Iran, International Civil Aviation Organization, 20 September 2007.
  80. ^ Ibp Usa (May 2001). Iran: Foreign Policy & Government Guide. International Business Publications, USA; 6 edition (January 1, 2009). p. 252. ISBN 978-1433024153.
  81. ^ Torbat, Akbar E. (March 2005). "Impacts of the US Trade and Financial Sanctions on Iran" (PDF). The World Economy (3 ed.). 28 (3): 407–434. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9701.2005.00671.x.
  82. ^ Dean A. DeRosa & Gary Clyde Hufbauer, "Normalization of Economic Relations", National Foreign Trade Council, 21 November 2008
  83. ^ Hamid Dabashi, Commentary: Huge risks in Iran sanctions, CNN. 5 August 2009.
  84. ^ "Boeing, Exxon say Iran sanctions would cost $25 billion". Payvand. 10 May 2009. Retrieved 6 April 2013.
  85. ^ Parsi, Massoud (22 May 2010). "The tragicomedy of Iran sanctions". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 6 April 2013.
  86. ^ "Sanctions an 'opportunity' for local companies: Iran". AFP via Google. 14 October 2010. Retrieved 6 April 2013.
  87. ^ "Sanctions should be taken as opportunity: Larijani". 29 September 2010.
  88. ^ . 1 December 2010 Missing or empty |title= (help)
  89. ^ "Russia: Iran Attack Would Cause Catastrophe". Huffington Post. 18 January 2012.
  90. ^ "Khamenei says mismanagement hurts Iran more than US sanctions". The Business Times. Retrieved 14 August 2018.
  91. ^ "Iran sanctions are unjust and harmful, says UN expert warning against generalised economic war". OHCHR. United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights. Archived from the original on 23 August 2018. Retrieved 23 August 2018.
  92. ^ Steele, Jonathan; Oborne, Peter (22 October 2018). "Imran Khan: Pakistan cannot afford to snub Saudis over Khashoggi killing". Middle East Eye. (updated 8 November 2018).
  93. ^ a b Wong, Edward. "Citing Iranian Threat, U.S. Sends Carrier Group and Bombers to Persian Gulf". nytimes.
  94. ^ "US sends aircraft carrier and bomber task force to 'warn Iran'". bbc.
  95. ^ "Trump threatens Iran's 'end' if it seeks fight with the US". aljazeera.
  96. ^ Donald J. Trump [@realDonaldTrump] (May 19, 2019). "If Iran wants to fight, that will be the official end of Iran. Never threaten the United States again!" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
  97. ^ "Erdogan says Turkey will continue oil, natural gas trade with Iran: NTV". Reuters. 27 September 2019. Retrieved 27 September 2019.
  98. ^ Townsend, Mark (15 December 2018). "UK university tells Iranian student: go home and get tuition fees in cash". Retrieved 15 December 2018.
  99. ^ "US Iran business". Yahoo. 24 December 2010. Retrieved 6 April 2013.[dead link]
  100. ^ Mirsaeedi-Glossner, Shabnam (15 July 2013). "Iran's Flourishing Regional Influence: Electricity Exports as a Loophole to Sanctions". Science & Diplomacy. 2 (3).

External links

What is Wiki.RIP There is a free information resource on the Internet. It is open to any user. Wiki is a library that is public and multilingual.

The basis of this page is on Wikipedia. Text licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0 Unported License..

Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. is an independent company that is not affiliated with the Wikimedia Foundation (Wikimedia Foundation).

Privacy Policy      Terms of Use      Disclaimer