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United States Army Futures Command

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United States Army Futures Command
Army Futures Command SSI.png
Active1 July 2018–present
Country United States
Branch United States Army
TypeArmy Command
Garrison/HQAustin, TX
Motto(s)"Forge the future"[1]
Websitearmyfuturescommand.com
Commanders
Commanding General[2]GEN John M. Murray
Deputy Commanding Generals[2]LTG Eric J. Wesley
LTG James M. Richardson
Command Sergeant Major[2]CSM Michael A. Crosby
Insignia
Distinctive unit insignia[1]
Army Futures Command Distinctive Unit Insignia.png

United States Army Futures Command (AFC)[3][4] is a United States Army command aimed at modernizing the Army.[5][6][7] It focuses on six priorities:[Note 1] long-range precision fires,[8][9] next-generation combat vehicle,[10] future vertical lift platforms,[11] a mobile & expeditionary Army network,[12] air & missile defense capabilities,[13] and soldier lethality.[14][15] AFC's cross-functional teams (CFTs)[16] are Futures Command's vehicle for sustainable reform of the acquisition process for the future.[17][18] [19]

Futures Command (AFC) was established in 2018 as a peer of FORSCOM, TRADOC, and Army Materiel Command (AMC), the other Army commands (ACOMs—providing forces, training and doctrine, and materiel respectively).[20][21] Previously the United States military focused on fighting insurgents, since 2001.[22][23][24] The other Army commands focus on their readiness to "Fight tonight" when called upon by the nation. In contrast, AFC is focused on future readiness[25] for competition with near-peers, who have updated their capabilities.[26][27]

AFC declared its full operational capability (FOC) in July 2019,[28][29] after an initial one-year period.[30] The FY2020 budget allocated $30 billion for the top six modernization priorities over the next five years.[31] The $30 billion came from $8 billion in cost avoidance and $22 billion in terminations.[31][32] Over 30 projects[33][34] are envisioned to become the materiel basis needed for overmatching any potential competitors in the continuum of conflict over the next ten years,[35][36] in Multi-domain operations (MDO).[37][38][39][40][41]

Transition to multi-domain operations (MDO)

We're moving out and there's no turning back. We've shown the will to act over the last year, and now we have to show the will to follow through.

— Then-Under Secretary McCarthy[42][43]

In the view of Secretary McCarthy, there will be three elements in Futures Command:[44]

  1. Futures and Concepts: assess gaps (needs versus opportunities,[45] given a threat).[44] Concepts for realizable future systems (with readily harvestable content)[46][47]:for definitions of terms, such as '6.3' will flow into TRADOC doctrine, manuals, and training programs.
  2. Combat Development: stabilized concepts.[46][47] Balance the current state of technology and the cash-flow requirements of the defense contractors providing the technology, that they become deliverable experiments, demonstrations, and prototypes, in an iterative process of acquisition.[48] (See #Value stream)
  3. Combat Systems: experiments, demonstrations, and prototypes.[49] Transition to the acquisition, production, and sustainment programs of AMC.[49][50]

Then-Secretary Esper emphasized that the 2018 administrative infrastructure for the Futures and Concepts Center (formerly ARCIC) and United States Army Combat Capabilities Development Command (CCDC) (formerly RDECOM) remains in place at their existing locations.[51] What has changed or will change is the layers of command (operational control, or OPCON)[52] needed to make a decision.[51]

You've got to remain open to change, you've got to remain flexible, you've [got] to remain accessible. That is the purpose of this command.

— Secretary Esper[51][53]

Cross-functional teams (CFTs)

Under Secretary McCarthy characterized a Cross-functional team (CFT) as a team of teams, led by a requirements leader, program manager, sustainer, tester.[54] Each CFT must strike a balance for itself amid constraints: the realms of requirements, acquisition, science and technology, test, resourcing, costing, and sustainment. A balance is needed in order for a CFT in order to produce a realizable concept before a competitor achieves it.[16]

Cross-functional teams[16][55] for materiel and capabilities were first structured in a task force, in order to de-layer the Army Commands. Each CFT addresses a capability gap, which the Army must now match for its future: there can be a Capability development integration directorate (CDID), for each CFT.[Note 1] Initially, the CFTs were placed as needed; eventually they might each co-locate at a Center of Excellence (CoE) listed below. For example, the Aviation CoE at Fort Rucker, in coordination with the Aviation program executive office (PEO), also contains the Vertical Lift CFT and the Aviation capability development integration directorate (CDID). Modernization reform is the priority for AFC, in order to achieve readiness for the future.

The CFTs will be involved in all three of AFC's elements: Futures and concepts, Combat development, and Combat systems.[56] "We were never above probably a total of eight people" — BG Wally Rugen, Aviation CFT.[57] Four of the eight CFT leads have now shifted from dual-hat jobs to full-time status. Each CFT lead is mentored by a 4-star general.[57]

Although AFC and the CFTs are a top priority of the Department of the Army, as AFC and the CFTs are expected to unify control of the $30 billion-dollar modernization budget,[58][29] "The new command will not tolerate a zero-defects mentality. 'But if you fail, we'd like you to fail early and fail cheap,' because progress and success often builds on failure." —Ryan McCarthy:[59] Holland notes that prototyping applies to the conceptual realm ('harvestable content') as much as prototyping applies to the hardware realm.[46][47]

A 2019 GAO report[60] cautions that lessons learned from the CFT pilot[16] are yet to be applied; Holland notes that this organizational critique applies to prototyping hardware, a different realm than concept refinement ("scientific research is a fundamentally different activity than technology development").[46][47]

Joint collaboration on modernization

The Secretaries of the Army, Air Force, and Navy meet regularly to take advantage of overlap in their programs:[61][62]

  • Hypersonics — The US Army (August 2018) has no tested countermeasure for intercepting maneuverable hypersonic weapons platforms,[63][64] and in this case the problem is being addressed in a joint program of the entire Department of Defense.[65] The Army is participating in a joint program with the Navy and Air Force, to develop a hypersonic glide body.[66][67][68][69][70][71][72] The Long range precision fires (LRPF) CFT is supporting Space and Missile Defense Command's pursuit of hypersonics.[70][73][74] Joint programs in hypersonics are informed by Army work;[75][76] however, at the strategic level, the bulk of the hypersonics work remains at the Joint level.[77][78][79][80][72] Long range precision fires (LRPF) is an Army priority, and also a DoD joint effort.[76] The Army and Navy's Common hypersonic glide body (C-HGB) had a successful test of a prototype in March 2020.[81][80] A wind tunnel for testing hypersonic vehicles will be built in Texas (2019).[82] The Army's Land-based Hypersonic Missile "is intended to have a range of 1,400 miles".[71]:p.6 [72] By adding rocket propulsion to a shell or glide body, the joint effort shaved five years off the likely fielding time for hypersonic weapon systems.[61][83] Countermeasures against hypersonics will require sensor data fusion: both radar and infrared sensor tracking data will be required to capture the signature of a hypersonic vehicle in the atmosphere.[84][85][86]
  • Multi-Domain Operations (MDO)[38][87][88][89] — Joint planning and operations are also part of the impending DoD emphasis on multi-domain operations.[26][90][23][91][92] Multi-domain battalions, first stood up in 2019,[93][94] comprise a single unit[95][96] for air, land,[97] space,[98][99][84][100]— and cyber [101][102] domains.[103][61][102] A hypersonics-based battery similar to a THAAD battery is under consideration for this type of battalion,[67][81] denoted a strategic fires battalion.[104][105]
    • The ability to punch-through any standoff defense of a near-peer competitor is the goal which Futures Command is seeking.[106][40][107][108] For example, the combination of F-35-based targeting coordinates, Long range precision fires, and Low-earth-orbit satellite[109] capability overmatches the competition, according to Lt. Gen. Wesley.[110]
      Multi-domain operations (MDO) span multiple domains: cis-lunar space, land, air, maritime, cyber, and populations.[111]:minute 17:45 Echelons above brigade (division, corps, and theater army) engage in a continuum of conflict.
      [112][37][113][114][88][115][97][72] Critical decisions to meet this goal will be decided by data from the results of the Army's ongoing tests of the prototypes under development.[107][70]

Partners

AFC is actively seeking partners outside the gates of a military reservation,[116] including research funding to over 300 colleges and universities.[29] "We will come to you. You don't have to come to us. — General Mike Murray, 24 August 2018"[30]:minute 6:07 Multiple incubator tech hubs are available in Austin,[117] especially Capital Factory, with offices of DIUx and AFWERX (USAF tech hub).[118] Gen. Murray will stand up an Army Applications Lab[Note 2] there to accelerate acquisition and deployment of materiel to the Soldiers, using AI [119] as one acceleration technique; Murray will hire a Chief Technology Officer for AFC.[120][121] Gen. Murray, in seeking to globalize AFC,[122] has embedded U.S. military allies into some of the Cross-functional teams (CFTs).[123][29]

  • Artificial Intelligence (AI) Modernization[124][125] — The Secretary of the Army has directed the establishment of an Army AI task force (A-AI TF) to support the DoD Joint AI center. The execution order will be drafted and staffed by Futures Command:[119][126]
    • Army AI task force[127][128] (its relationship with the CFTs is cross-cutting, in the same sense as the Assured Position, Navigation, Timing CFT (A-PNT) and the Synthetic Training Environment CFT (STE) are also cross-cutting) will use the resources of the Army to establish scalable machine learning projects at Carnegie Mellon University
    • the CIO/G-6 will create an Identity, Credential, and Access Management system to efficiently issue and verify credentials to non-person entities (AI agents and machines)[129]
    • DCS G-2 will coordinate with CG AFC, and director of A-AI TF, to provide intelligence for Long-Range Precision Fires
    • CG AMC will provide functional expertise and systems for maintenance of materiel with AI
    • AFC and A-AI TF will establish an AI test bed for experimentation, training, deployment, and testing of machine learning capabilities and workflows.[130][131] Funding will be assured for the Fiscal Year 2019.[61]

AFC is seeking to design signature systems in a relevant time frame according to priorities[Note 1] of the Chief of Staff of the Army (CSA).[56] AFC will partner with other organizations such as Defense Innovation Unit Experimental (DIUx) as needed.[75][134] If a team from industry presents a viable program idea to a CFT, that CFT connects to the Army's requirements developers, Secretary Esper said, and the program prototype is then put on a fast track.[135]

The Secretary of the Army has approved an Intellectual Property Management Policy, to protect both the Army and the entrepreneur or innovator.[136][137]

For example, the Network cross-functional team (CFT) and the Program Executive Office Command, Control, Communications—Tactical (PEO C3T) hosted a forum on 1 August 2018 for vendors to learn what might function as a testable/deployable[138] in the near future.[139][101][140] A few of the hundreds of white papers from the vendors, adjudged to be 'very mature ideas', were passed to the Army's acquisition community, while many others were passed to CERDEC for continuation in the Army's effort to modernize the network for combat.[141] Although some test requirements were inappropriately applied, the Command post computing environment (CPCE) has passed a hurdle.[142]

While seeking information, the Army is especially interested in ideas that accelerate an acquisition program, in for example the Future Vertical Lift Requests for Information (RFIs): "provide a detailed description of tailored, alternative or innovative approaches that streamlines the acquisition process to accelerate the program as much as possible".[143] In January 2020 the current Optionally manned fighting vehicle (OMFV) solicitation was cancelled when the OMFV's requirements added up to an unobtainable project;[144] In February 2020 Futures command was now soliciting the industry for do-able ideas for an OMFV.[144]

The 2020 xTechSearch top 10 semifinalists (who will each receive $120,000) are:[145]

  • Bounce Imaging, for a tactical throwable camera (self orienting, pointable camera)
  • GeneCapture, for deployable medical tests
  • Inductive Ventures, for magnetic braking of helicopters
  • IoT/AI, for hardware IoT AI devices
  • LynQ Technologies, for a GPS beacon
  • KeriCure, for wound care
  • MEI Micro, for Micro Electronic-Mechanical System Inertial Measurement Unit (assured position, navigation, and timing)
  • Multiscale Systems, for meta-material
  • Novaa, for single-aperture antennas ( multi-band rather than 1 dedicated antenna per application)
  • Vita Inclinata, stabilized anti-spin hoisting for pulling injured people on a stretcher into a hovering helicopter

AFC events

See the AFC events below

Acquisition

DoD (2007) Acquisition process denoting Milestones A, B, C along a timeline. When a milestone has been met, the triangle then points downward, at this time. Otherwise the milestone is planned, but not yet met at this time.

Futures Command partners with the ASA(ALT),[146][18] who, in the role of the Army Acquisition Executive (AAE),[147] has milestone decision authority (MDA)[49] at multiple points in a Materiel development decision (MDD).[148] (Thus, from the perspective of AFC, which seeks to modernize, consolidate the relevant expertise into the relevant CFT. The CFT balances the constraints needed to realize a prototype, beginning with realizable requirements, science and technology, test, etc. before entering the acquisition process (typically the Army prototypes on its own, and currently initiates acquisition at Milestone B, in order to have the Acquisition Executive, with the concurrence of the Army Chief of Staff, decide on production as a program of record at Milestone C).[149] Next, refine the prototype to address the factors needed to pass the Milestone decisions A, B, and C which require Milestone decision authority (MDA) in an acquisition process.[149] This consolidation of expertise thus reduces the risks in a Materiel development decision (MDD), for the Army to admit a prototype into a program of record.) The existing processes (as of April 2018) for a Materiel development decision (MDD) have been updated to clarify their place in the Life Cycle of a program of record:[147][148][46] over 1200 programs/projects were reviewed;[150] by October 2019, over 600 programs of record have been moved from the acquisition (development for modernization) phase to the sustainment phase (for mature projects, to continue their manufacture and fielding to the brigades).[150] An additional life cycle management action is underway, to re-examine which of these projects/programs should be divested.[150] (Surplus materiel might well go to the Security Assistance Command, perhaps to Foreign Military Sales.)

The emphasis remains with Futures Command, which selects programs to develop.[150] In order to achieve its mission of achieving overmatch,[151][87][45] each Futures Command CFT partners with the acquisition community.[152] This community (the Army acquisition workforce (AAW)) includes an entire Army branch (the Acquisition Corps),[153][154][155][156][157] U.S. Army Acquisition Support Center (USAASC), Army Contracting Command, (.. This list is incomplete).[148] The Principal Military Deputy to the ASA(ALT) is also deputy commanding general for Combat Systems, Army Futures Command,[147] and leads the PEOs; he has directed each PEO who does not have a CFT to coordinate with, to immediately form one, at least informally.[158]

The current acquisition system has pieces all throughout the Army. ... There’s chunks of it in TRADOC and chunks of it in AMC and then other pieces. So really all we’re trying to do is get them all lined up under a single command…..from concept, S&T, RDT&E, through the requirements process, through the beginnings of the acquisition system — Milestone A, B, and C — ….aligned under that same commander. ... We will finally achieve… unity of command — Secretary Esper.[44]

The PEOs work closely with their respective CFTs.[152] The list of CFTs and PEOs below is incomplete.[Note 1] Operationally, the CFTs offer "de-layering" (fewer degrees of separation between the echelons of the Army — Rugen estimates two degrees of separation),[57] and provide a point of contact (POC) for Army reformers[45] interested in adding value in the midst of constraints to be balanced while modernizing.[57] "... and if we're really good, we'll continue to adapt. Year over year over year." —Secretary Esper[30]:minute 19:00[5] (See #Value streams.)

Prototyping and experimentation

"Our new approach is really to prototype as much as we can to help us identify requirements, so our reach doesn’t exceed our grasp. ... A good example is Future Vertical Lift: The prototyping has been exceptional." —Secretary of the Army Mark Esper.[159] The development process will be cyclic,[160] consisting of prototype, demonstration/testing, and evaluation,[135] in an iterative process designed to unearth unrealistic requirements early, before prematurely including that requirement in a program of record.[29]

AFC activities include at least one Cross-functional team, its Capability development integration directorate (CDID),[161]:Para. 2b and the associated Battle Lab,[161]:Para. 2b for each Center of Excellence (CoE) respectively. Each CDID and associated Battle Lab work with their CFT[53] to develop operational experiments and prototypes to test.

ASA(ALT), in coordination with AFC, has dotted-line relationships between its PEOs and the CFTs. In particular, the Rapid Capabilities and Critical Technologies Office of ASA(ALT) has a PEO who is charged with developing experimental prototype 'units of action' for rapid fielding to the Soldiers. The prototypes are currently for Long range hypersonic weapons, High energy laser defense, and Space, as of June 2019.[162][68][163][65][83][104][164]

Tests are run by JMC and WSMR, which hosts ATEC.[165] As ATEC reports directly to the Army Chief of Staff,[21] the test support level from ATEC[166] is to be specified by the CFT,[53] or PEO.[167] Fort Bliss and WSMR together cover 3.06 million acres, large enough to test every non-nuclear weapon system in the Army inventory.[168]:minute 1:26:00 JMC runs live developmental experiments to test and assess MDO concepts or capabilities that support the Army's six modernization priorities which are then analyzed by The Research and Analysis Center, denoted TRAC based out of Fort Leavenworth,[53] or AMSAA, denoted the Data Analysis Center at APG. CCDC (formerly RDECOM, at APG) includes the several Army research laboratory locations (ARLs),[169] as well as research, development and engineering centers (RDECs) listed:[161][53][5]

In internal partnerships, CCDC (formerly RDECOM) has taken Long range precision fires (LRPF) as its focus in aligning its organizations (the six research, development and engineering centers (RDECs), and the Army Research Laboratory (ARL)); as of September 2018, RDECOM's 'concept of operation' is first to support the LRPF CFT,[170] with ARDEC. AMRDEC is looking to improve the energetics and efficiency of projectiles. TARDEC Ground Vehicle Center is working on high-voltage components for Extended range cannon artillery (ERCA) that save on size and weight.[170] Two dedicated RDECOM people support the LRPF CFT, with reachback support from two dozen more at RDECOM.[171] In January 2019 RDECOM was reflagged as CCDC; General Mike Murray noted that CCDC will have to support more Soldier feedback, and that prototyping and testing will have to begin before a project ever becomes a program of record.[172][5]

Although the Army Research Laboratory has not changed its name, Secretary Esper notes that the CCDC objectives supersede the activities of the Laboratory;[53][46][47] the Laboratory remains in its support role for the top-six priorities for modernizing combat capabilities.[Note 1]

Acquisition specialists are being encouraged to accept lateral transfers to the several research, development and engineering centers (RDECs), where their skills are needed: Ground vehicle systems center (formerly TARDEC, at Detroit Arsenal), Aviation and missile center (formerly AMRDEC, at Redstone Arsenal), C5ISR center (formerly CERDEC, at Aberdeen Proving Ground), Soldier center (formerly NSRDEC, Natick, MA), and Armaments center (formerly ARDEC, at Picatinny Arsenal) listed below.[173]

AFC branch locations

The following activities for Futures Command are at 23 locations.[174] (A 'CoE', or TRADOC Center of Excellence, can be co-located near a CFT, along with the associated CDID —Capability Development Integration Directorate— and Battle Lab)

  1. AFC HQ, Austin TX[29][4][30][87][175]
  2. AFSG Army Future Studies Group,[46][47] 2530 Crystal Dr, Arlington, VA 22202
  3. Futures and Concepts Center of AFC,[176] formerly ARCIC Fort Eustis VA
  4. JMC Joint Modernization Command,[118] Fort Bliss, which is contiguous to WSMR
  5. WSMR White Sands Missile Range NM,[165] also houses ARL,[177] TRAC,[178] and ATEC.[168]:minute 1:19:00
  6. FT LVN Operations research: Mission Command Battle Lab,[179][180][88] Capability development integration directorate (CDID),[181] The Research Analysis Center (TRAC), formerly TRADOC Analysis Center,[178][182] Fort Leavenworth KS
    Example of the use of simulations —"a simulation places leadership teams in a situation akin to a Combat Training Center rotation, an intellectually and emotionally challenging environment that forgives the mistakes of the participants"[183][184] "It is important for Soldiers to have an open and clear mind during the simulation so that they learn something from the experience."—Tim Glaspie [185]Train the trainer: A trainer (not shown) is interviewing a virtual Soldier in a role-playing session. The virtual Soldier has a leadership role in an Army unit. The trainer must tell the virtual Soldier what the Soldier is not doing correctly. Trainers using this program show a 40% increase in their knowledge of the SHARP policy.Trainers using this role-playing program can review missed concepts and practice lessons they didn't get right during their first trial. "Repetition increases a team’s situational understanding of the tactics they’ll use ..."—Maj. Anthony Clas[186] These simulations are created at Army Research Laboratory (ARL) West, and ICT, Playa Vista, CA
  7. CCOE Cyber CoE - (its CDID and Battle Lab),[193] Fort Gordon GA
    • CFT: Mobile and Expeditionary Network[138]
  8. MCOE Maneuver CoE - (its CDID and Battle Lab),[194] Fort Benning GA
    • CFT: Next-Generation Combat Vehicle (NGCV)[195]
    • CFT: Soldier Lethality
  9. AVNCOE Aviation CoE - (its CDID),[196][108] at Fort Rucker
    • CFT: Future Vertical Lift (FVL)
  10. FCOE Fires CoE - (its CDID and Battle Lab),[197][198][199] Fort Sill OK
    • CFT: Long Range Precision Fires (LRPF)[83][198]
    • CFT: Air and Missile Defense
  11. ICOE Intelligence CoE - (its CDID),[200] Fort Huachuca AZ
  12. MSCOE Maneuver Support CoE - (its CDID and Battle Lab),[201] Fort Leonard Wood MO
  13. SCOE Sustainment CoE - (its CDID),[202] Fort Lee VA
  14. APG[203][204] Aberdeen Proving Ground, Aberdeen MD, also houses Combat Capabilities Development Command,[205] formerly RDECOM), Army Materiel Systems Analysis Activity (AMSAA), and C5ISR center[206][207][208] (the Command, Control, Communications, Computers, Cyber, Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance Center was formerly CERDEC)
    • CFT: Assured Positioning, Navigation and Timing (A-PNT)[206]
    • CFT: Network CFT (N-CFT)[203]:p.5
    • CFT: Long Range Precision Fires,[170]
  15. Armaments center (formerly Armament research, development and engineering center —ARDEC), Picatinny Arsenal, PEO AMMO, and the Cross Functional Team for Long Range Precision Fires
    • CFT: Long Range Precision Fires
  16. Ground vehicle systems center (formerly Tank Automotive research, development and engineering center —TARDEC), Detroit Arsenal (Warren, Michigan)
    • CFT: Next-Generation Combat Vehicle (NGCV)
  17. Aviation and missile center (formerly Aviation and Missile research, development and engineering center —AMRDEC), Redstone Arsenal, Huntsville AL[209]
    • CFT: Air and Missile Defense
  18. Soldier center[210] (formerly Natick Soldier research, development and engineering center —NSRDEC), General Greene Ave, Natick, MA 01760
  19. ARL-Adelphi Army Research Laboratory,[211][212][213][214] Adelphi MD
    CCDC Army Research Laboratory Neuroscience Big Data: over ten years of EEG data, comprising over 1,000 recording sessions (The Cognition and Neuroergonomics Collaborative Technology Alliance)[214]
  20. ARL-Orlando Army Research Laboratory,[190][191][50]:p.27 Orlando FL
  21. ARL West, Playa Vista[215] CA
  22. ARL-RTP Army Research Laboratory, Raleigh-Durham NC
  23. AI task force at Carnegie-Mellon University[124][53]

Need for modernization reform

Between 1995 and 2009, $32 billion was expended on programs such as the Future Combat System[216] (2003-2009), with no harvestable content by the time of its cancellation.[217] The Army has not fielded a new combat system in decades.[218][91][219][220][35]

Secretary of the Army Mark Esper has remarked that AFC will provide the unity of command and purpose needed to reduce the requirements definition phase from 60 months to 12 months.[221][25][52] A simple statement of a problem (rather than a full-blown requirements definition) that the Army is trying to address may suffice for a surprising, usable solution. —General Mike Murray, paraphrasing Trae Stephens[43]:minute 41:50 (One task will be to quantify the lead time for identifying a requirement; the next task would then be to learn how to reduce that lead time.—Gap analysis )[30]:minute 11:00[222][223][5] Process changes are expected.[222][46] The development process will be cyclic, consisting of prototype, demonstration/testing, and evaluation, in an iterative process designed to unearth unrealistic requirements early, before prematurely including that requirement in a program of record. The ASA(ALT) Bruce Jette[152] has cautioned the acquisition community to 'call-out' unrealistic processes which commit a program to a drawn-out failure,[224] rather than failing early, and seeking another solution.[225]

Secretary Esper scrubbed through 800[226] modernization programs to reprioritize funding[227] for the top 6 modernization priorities,[58] which will consume 80% of the modernization funding,[228] of 18 systems.[228] The Budget Control Act will restrict funds by 2020.[229][230][231][232][233][234][235][236][237][31][32][238][239][240] Secretary McCarthy has cautioned that a stopgap 2019 Continuing resolution (CR) would halt development of some of the critical modernization projects.[241][242] Realistically, budget considerations will restrict the fielding of new materiel to one Armor BCT per year;[243] at that rate, updates would take decades.[243][239] The Budget Control Act (BCA) expires in 2022.[244][245] The "night court" budget review process realigned $2.4 billion for modernization away from programs which were not tied to modernization or to the 2018 National Defense Strategy.[246] The total FY2021 budget request of $178 billion is $2 billion less than the enacted FY2020 budget of $180 billion.[246][247][248]

The CIO/G6 has targeted Futures Command (Austin) in 2019 as the first pilot for "enterprise IT-as-a-service"-style service contracts; General Murray now (July 2019) has a sensitive compartmented information facility in his headquarters, as a result of this pilot.[28] Two other locations are to be announced for 2019. Six to eight other pilots are envisioned for 2020. However, 288 other enterprise network locations remain to be migrated away from the previous "big bang" migration concept from several years ago, as they are vulnerable to near-peer cyber threats.[249][168]:minute 16:50 The CIO/G6 emphasizes that this enterprise migration is not the tactical network espoused in the top six priorities (a 'mobile & expeditionary Army network').[249][250]

  1. After AFC, the following G6 service contracts are high priority:[249]
  2. The Combat Training Centers (Fort Irwin, Fort Polk, and Grafenwöhr)
  3. TRADOC and its Centers of Excellence (CoEs)
  4. The power projection bases from which deployments spring

By February 2020 the Vice Chief of Staff could assess that Army modernization was perceptibly speeding up.[251]

Silos

Chief Milley noted that AFC would actively reach out into the community in order to learn,[29] and that Senator John McCain's frank criticism of the acquisition process was instrumental for modernization reform at Futures command.[30]:minute 7:30[25] In fact, AFC soldiers would blend into Austin by not wearing their uniforms [to work side-by-side with civilians in the tech hubs],[29][252] Milley noted in 24 August 2018 press conference.[30]:minute 6:20 Secretary Esper said he expected failures during the process of learning how to reform the acquisition and modernization process;[30]:minute 18:20 the Network CFT and PEO have detected a process failure in the DOT&E[253] requirements process: some test requirements were inappropriately applied.[142][254]

In the Department of Defense, the materiel supply process was underwritten by the acquisition, logistics, and technology directorate of the Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD), with a deputy secretary of defense (DSD) to oversee five areas, one of them being acquisition, logistics, and technology (ALT).[255] ALT is overseen by an under secretary of defense (USD).[256] (Each of the echelons at the level of DSD and USD serve at the pleasure of the president, as does the secretary of defense (SECDEF).) The Defense Acquisition University (DAU) trains acquisition professionals for the Army as well.

In 2016 when RDECOM reported to AMC (instead of to AFC, as it does as of 2018), AMC instituted Life cycle management command (LCMC)[152] of three of RDECOM's centers for aviation and missiles, electronics, and tanks:[257] AMRDEC,[258] CERDEC,[259][260] and TARDEC[261] respectively, as well as the three contracting[262] functions for the three centers.[224]

This Life Cycle Management (formulated in 2004)[263][264] was intended to exert the kind of operational control (OPCON)[52] needed just for the sustainment function (AMC's need for Readiness today),[224] rather than for its relevance to modernization for the future, which is the focus of AFC. AFC now serves as the deciding authority when moving a project in its Life Cycle, out of the Acquisition phase and into the Sustainment phase.[150]

In light of the 2020 coronavirus pandemic, the Acquisition Executive has created a COVID-19 task force to try to project supplier problems 30, 60, and 90 days out.[265]

Relevance for modernization

The CFTs,[Note 1] as prioritized 1 through 6 by the Chief of Staff of the Army (CSA), each have to consider constraints: a balance of requirements, acquisition, science and technology, test, resourcing, costing, and sustainment.[16][54]

The DOTMLPF method of mission planning was instituted to quantify tradeoffs in joint planning.[52] TRADOC's Mission Command CoE uses DOTMLPF.[266] DOTMLPF will be used for modernization of the Army beyond materiel alone, which (as of 2019) is the current focus of the CFTs.[267] The updated modernization strategy, to move from concept to doctrine as well, will be unveiled by summer 2019.[267] DOTMLPF (doctrine, organization, training, materiel, leadership and education, personnel, and facilities) itself is planned as a driver for modernization.[25][267] The plan is to have an MDO-capable Army by 2028, and an MDO-ready Army by 2035.[267][23]

TRADOC, ASA (ALT), and AFC are tied together in this process, according to Vice Chief McConville.[268] AFC will have to be "a little bit disruptive [but not upsetting to the existing order]" in order to institute reforms within budget in a timely way.[269]

The ASA(ALT), or Assistant Secretary of the Army for acquisition, logistics, and technology is currently (2018) Dr. Bruce Jette. The ASA(ALT) is the civilian executive overseeing both the acquisition and the sustainment processes of the Department of the Army. The ASA(ALT) will coordinate the acquisition portion of modernization reform with AFC.[161]:Para. 1c[18]

Congress has given the Army OTA (Other Transaction Authority),[270][Note 2] which allows the PEOs to enter into Full Rate Production quicker by permitting the services to control their own programs of record, rather than DoD.[158] This strips out one layer of bureaucracy as of 2018.[158][271][72] MTA (middle tier acquisition authority) is another tool available to Program Managers and Contracting Officers.[272]

Besides the AFC Cross-Functional Teams, the Army Requirements Oversight Council (AROC)[273][274][275] could also play a part in acquisition reform;[276][277] as of September 2018 the Deputy Chief of Staff G-8 (DCS G-8), who leads AROC and JROC (Joint Requirements Oversight Council) has aligned with the priorities of AFC.[278] The DCS G-8 is principal military advisor to the ASA (FM&C).[147]

In addition, the Program Executive Officers (PEOs) of ASA (ALT) are to maintain a dotted-line relationship[Note 1] (i.e., coordination) with Futures Command.[152][44]

There is now a PEO for Rapid Capabilities, to get rapid turnaround. The Rapid capabilities office (RCO)'s PEO gets two program managers, one for rapid prototyping, and one for rapid acquisition, of a capability.[279] The Rapid capabilities office (RCO) does not develop its own requirements; rather, the RCO gets the requirements from the Cross-functional team (CFT).[280] Rapid Capabilities (RCO) was headed by Tanya Skeen as PEO RCO[152] but Skeen moved to DoD, in late 2018.[281] In 2019 RCO became the Rapid Capabilities and Critical Technologies Office (RCCTO)[282] Redstone arsenal, headed by LTG L. Neil Thurgood,[68] lately of ASA(ALT)'s Army Hypersonics office.[163][67]

Progress toward MDO

The CG of Army Futures Command (AFC) is set to announce full operational capability (FOC) 31 July 2019.[283][284]

XM1299[285] Extended Range Cannon Artillery (ERCA) a descendant of the Paladin self-propelled howitzer. Picatinny Arsenal

The Army G8 is monitoring just how producible (Milestone C) the upcoming materiel will be; for the moment, the G8 is funding the materiel.[34] Follow-up on Modernization reviews is forthcoming, on a regular basis, according to the G8.[286][287][288]

The progress in the top six priorities being:[Note 1][50][35][135][289][40][106]

  1. Long Range Precision Fires (LRPF) is a systematic program to extend the artillery's range.[290] The current tests show the range has doubled.[170][291]
    • The current Paladin (M109A6) cannon range is doubling (M109A7).[292]:minute 2:30[293] An operational test of components of Long range cannon (LRC) is scheduled for 2020.[294] LRC is complementary to Extended range cannon artillery (ERCA),[294][290] the XM1299 Extended Range Cannon Artillery howitzer.[285][295] Investigations for ERCA in 2025: rocket-boosted artillery shells:[170] Tests of the Multiple launch rocket system (MLRS) XM30 rocket shell have demonstrated a near-doubling of the range of the munition, using the Tail controlled guided multiple launch rocket system, or TC-G.[296] The TRADOC capability manager (TCM) Field Artillery Brigade - DIVARTY has been named a command position.[Note 3]
      • An autoloader for ERCA's 95-pound shells is under development at Picatinny Arsenal,[285] to support a sustained firing rate of 10 rounds a minute from ERCA.[295] A robotic vehicle for carrying the shells is a separate prototyping effort at Futures Command's Army Applications Lab.[285][297]
    • The Precision Strike Missile (PrSM) is slated to replace the Army Tactical Missile System (ATACMS) in 2023.[170] PrSM flight testing is delayed beyond 2 August 2019, the anticipated date for the expiration of the INF Treaty, which set 499 kilometer limits on intermediate-range missiles.[298] (David Sanger and Edward Wong project that the earliest test of a longer range missile could be a ground-launched version of a Tomahawk cruise missile,[299] followed by a test of a mobile ground launched IRBM with a range of 1800-2500 miles before year-end 2019.[299][300]) The 2020 National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA)[301] was approved 9 December 2019, which allows the Pentagon to continue testing such missiles in FY2020; Paul McCleary points out that Congress will still need an Analysis of Alternatives (AoA) for the prospective missile acquisitions.[300] The Lockheed PrSM prototype flew its 10 December 2019 first launch at White Sands Missile Range, in a 150-mile test, and an overhead detonation; the Raytheon PrSM prototype is delayed from its planned November launch,[302] and Raytheon has now withdrawn from the PrSM risk reduction phase.[303] The PrSM's range and accuracy, the interfaces to HIMARS launcher, and test software, met expectations.[302][304]
    • The Long range hypersonic weapon (LRHW) will use precision targeting data against anti-access area denial (A2AD) radars and other critical infrastructure of near-peer competitors by 2023.[305][72] LRHW does depend on stable funding.[287][69][306]
  2. Next Generation Combat Vehicle (NGCV) portfolio:[308][309][310][311][312]
    • Armored Multi-Purpose Vehicle (AMPV): in Limited User Tests[309] General purpose variant supports Blue force tracking[50]:p.40
      • An Advanced Powertrain Demonstrator, compact enough for AMPVs, Bradleys, OMFVs, or RCVs, can generate 1,000 horsepower from diesel.[313] Alternatively, the demonstrator can generate electrical power: 160 kiloWatts for SHORAD high-energy lasers, or for propulsion of a 50-ton vehicle in quiet mode, for brief periods.[313]
    • A ground mobility vehicle competition, bids closing 26 October 2018[314]
      • The JLTV was approved for full rate production in June 2019.[315] Joint Modernization Command (JMC) is supporting a TCM Stryker study on the optimum number of JLTVs for light infantry brigades.[316]
    • Mobile Protected Firepower (MPF):[317][318] approved by joint requirements oversight council.[309] Two vendors were selected to build competing prototype light tanks (MPF), with contract award in 2022.[319] A unit of 82nd Airborne Division will begin assessment of prototype MPFs beginning in March 2020.[320]
    • Optionally Manned Fighting Vehicle (OMFV):[135] soliciting input, in requirements definition stage; the 2018 requirement was that 2 OMFVs fit in a C-17.[309][321][46][47] A request for proposal (RFP) for a vehicle prototype was placed 29 March 2019.[135][322] On 16 January 2020 the Optionally Manned Fighting Vehicle solicitation was cancelled, as a middle tier acquisition in its early stage; the requirements and schedule are being revisited.[144] The FY2021 budget request has been adjusted accordingly.[245]
    • Robotic Combat Vehicles (RCVs):[323][135] General Murray envisions that by FY2023 critical decisions will be made on RCVs after years of experimentation.[107][324]
    • Next Generation main battle tank:[325] § Futures
  3. Future Vertical Lift (FVL)[46][11][326]
    • Under Secretary McCarthy notes that Soldier feedback remains an item for discussion in the Future Vertical Lift CFT.[327][328][329]
    • Future Vertical Lift will use the DoD modular open systems approach (MOSA),[11][330] an integrated business and technical strategy in FARA,[331][332][333][334][335] and in FLRAA:[336][337][143]
      • Joint Multi-Role Technology Demonstrator (JMR-TD): prototypes by two teams to replace UH-60 with Future Long-Range Assault Aircraft (FLRAA).[338] The tilt-rotor FLRAA demonstrator by Bell is flying unmanned (October 2019); it logged 100 hours of flight testing by April 2019.[339] Both Bell and Sikorsky-Boeing received contract awards to compete in a risk reduction effort (CDRRE) for FLRAA in March 2020.[340][339][341] The risk reduction effort will be a 2-phase, 2 year competition. The competition will transition technologies (powertrain, drivetrain and control laws) from the previous demonstrators (JMR-TDs) of 2018-2019 to requirements, conceptual designs, and acquisition approach for the weapon system.[340][342] The Aviation PEO would then be able to present an acquisition strategy to the Acquisition Executive (potentially a full and open competition for FLRAA in a future Fiscal Year).[340][343] [344]
      • The Future Attack Reconnaissance Aircraft (FARA) is smaller than FLRAA. The Army issued requests for proposals (RFPs) for FARA.[345] RFPs were due in December 2018;[346][347][332][348] in April 2019, the Army awarded 5 Other transaction authority (OTA) contracts[349] to vendors with a Milestone C in 2028.[350][351] Each agreement spans the entire acquisition process, from design, to prototype, to flight test, to low-volume production, to fielding, to full-rate production (Milestone C);[350][352] but each agreement is subject to cancellation, if need be. Competing FARA demonstrators will also be built by Bell, and by Sikorsky, in three year efforts beginning in 2020.[353][354]
      • Future tactical unmanned aircraft systems (FTUAS): drones which do not require runways[355][356][357]
  4. Mobile, Expeditionary Network: In Fiscal Year 2019, the network CFT will leverage Network Integration Evaluation 18.2[358] for experiments with brigade level scalability.[359] Integrated Tactical Network (ITN) "is not a new or separate network but rather a concept"—PEO C3T.[360] Avoid overspecifying the requirements for Integrated Tactical Network[50][360][361][362][363][364][365] Information Systems Initial Capabilities Document. Instead, meet operational needs,[366][359][121] such as interoperability with other networks,[367][168]:minute 26:40[365] and release ITN capabilities incrementally.[368][50][360]
    • Up through 2028, every two years the Army will insert new capability sets for ITN (Capability sets '21, '23, '25, etc.).[369][50][360] and take feedback from Soldier-led experiment & evaluation.[370][371][372][12][373]
    • Five Rapid Innovation Fund (RIF) awards have been granted to five vendors via the Network CFT and PEO C3T's request for white papers. That request, for a roll-on/roll-off kit that integrates all functions of mission command on the Army Network, was posted at the National Spectrum Consortium and FedBizOpps, and yielded awards within eight months.[374][Note 2] Two more awards are forthcoming.
    • The Rapid Capabilities Office (RCO)'s Emerging Technologies Office structured a competition to find superior AI/Machine Learning algorithms for electronic warfare, from a field of 150 contestants, over a three-month period.[375][Note 2]
    • The Multi-Domain Operations Task Force (MDO TF) is standing up an experimental Electronic Warfare Platoon to prototype an estimated 1000 EW soldiers needed for the 31 BCTs of the active Army.[376][87]
    • An Army leader dashboard from PEO Enterprise Information Systems is underway.[377][378] The dashboard has been renamed Vantage.[379]
  5. Air, Missile Defense (AMD):[380][381][382][13]
    Schematic 6-layer Air Defense dome, one of multiple arrays linked by Integrated Air and Missile Defense Battle Command System (IBCS)
    • Integrated Air and Missile Defense Battle Command System (IBCS)[50]:p.42 second limited user test is scheduled to take place in the fourth quarter of FY20.[382] On 1 May 2019 an Engagement Operations Center (EOC) for the Integrated Air and Missile Defense (IAMD) Battle Command System (IBCS) was delivered to the Army, at Huntsville, Alabama.[383] IAMD[384][385] is intended to integrate the following:
      • Lower tier air and missile defense sensor (LTAMDS)[382] —PEO RCO is accelerating LTAMDS experimentation by downselecting to two competitors with award by 2023[386][Note 2][387] The fielding aim for LTDAMDS is 2022.[388]
        • LTAMDS uses gallium nitride (GaN) RF elements. It replaces the Patriot radar,[389] fits on a C-17, and feeds data to IBCS.[387][388]
      • Indirect fire protection capability (IFPC) Multi-mission launcher (MML)[390][382][391][392][393]
      • Maneuver short-range air defense (MSHORAD)[382][394] with laser cannon prototypes in 2020,[395]
        High Energy Laser Tactical Vehicle Demonstrator (HEL-TVD) 2019
        fielding 50 kW lasers on Strykers[105][305] in 2021 and 2022 to two battalions per year.[90][396]
      • F-35,[397] Aegis, Patriot, LTAMDS, and THAAD radars will interoperate.[389][86] On 30 August 2019 at Reagan Test Site on Kwajalein atoll, THAAD Battery E-62 successfully intercepted a medium range ballistic missile (MRBM), using a radar which was well-separated from the interceptors;[398][399] the next step tested Patriot missiles as interceptors[384] while using THAAD radars as sensors;[398] a THAAD radar has a longer detection range than a Patriot radar.[398] THAAD Battery E-62 engaged the MRBM without knowledge of just when the medium range ballistic missile had launched.[398][399]
    • Although on 21 August 2019 the Missile defense agency (MDA) cancelled the $5.8 billion contract for the Redesigned kill vehicle (RKV),[400][401][402][86] the Army's 100th Missile Defense Brigade will continue to use the Exo-Atmospheric Kill Vehicle (EKV). The current Ground-based Midcourse Defense (GMD) programs continue per plan, with 64 ground-based interceptors (GBIs) in the missile fields for 2019.
      • The TRADOC capability manager (TCM) for Strategic Missile Defense (SMD) has accepted the charter for DOTMLPF for the Space and Missile Defense Command (SMDC/ARSTRAT).[403][23]
    • U.S. Army Space and Missile Defense Command/Army Forces Strategic Command's High Energy Laser Tactical Vehicle Demonstrator (HEL TVD) laser system, a 100 kilowatt laser demonstrator for use on the Family of Medium Tactical Vehicles, was awarded 15 May 2019.[404][68] A 300 kilowatt laser demonstrator (HEL-IFPC) effort supersedes the HEL TVD (after the critical design review).[405][395][406] System test at White Sands Missile Range in 2023.[404][391][392][393]
  6. Soldier Lethality:[15][362][14][407][408]
    • Next-generation squad weapon: Expect 100,000 to be fielded to the Close Combat Force:[14] Infantry, Armor, Cavalry, Special Forces, and Combat engineers. Tests at Fort Benning in 2019. —Chief of Staff Milley[409]
    • Nine thousand systems, with two drones apiece are being purchased over a three-year period for the 9-man infantry squads heading to Afghanistan.[410]
    • Enhanced night vision goggles (ENVG)-B, will be fielded to an Armor brigade combat team (ABCT) going to South Korea in October 2019[411][412][14]
    • Synthetic training environment (STE)—a CFT devoted to an augmented reality system[190][413] to aid planning, using mapping techniques, even at squad level[414][415] will begin fielding by 2021.[416][188][417] In October 2019 the Synthetic Training Environment (STE) prototype is being used by Special Operations for planning actual missions.[418][192]

Enterprise campaign planning

In 2019 DoD planners are exercising DOTMLPF in planning, per the National Defense Strategy (NDS),[419] in the shift from counterinsurgency (COIN) to competition with near-peer powers.[419] The evaluations from planners' scenarios will be determining materiel and organization by late 2020.[419][23][420][421]

Futures Command is formulating multiyear Enterprise campaign plans, in 2019.[422][180] The planning process includes Army Test and Evaluation Command (ATEC), AFC's cross-functional teams (CFTs), Futures and Concepts (FCC), Combat Capabilities Development Command (CCDC), and Army Reserve's Houston-based 75th Innovation Command. At this stage, one goal is to formulate the plans in simple, coherent language which nests within the national security strategic documents.[422][423]

Futures

AFC faces multiple futures, both as threat and opportunity. The Army's warfighting directive, viz., "to impose the nation's political will on its enemy" —Chief of Staff Milley, is to be ready for multiple near-term futures.[424] Under Secretary McCarthy notes that Gen. Murray functions as the Army's Chief Investments Officer[120] (more precisely, its "chief futures modernization investment officer").[147]:Section 4[Note 2][45] Funding for the top six priorities could mean that existing programs might be curtailed.[425]

In the top six priorities:

  1. LRPF Long range precision fires[426][427]
  2. NGCV Next generation combat vehicle
    • Much smaller and lighter ground combat vehicles, optionally unmanned[195] (See Dedicated short-range communications (DSRC)) for robotic vehicles[432]
      • If robotic combat vehicles (RCVs) do not need to be manned, neither would they need to be armored; use of sensors and batteries could replace the armor.[433][434] Soldiers have learned to remotely operate the weapons on such RCVs in several days;[433] the CCDC RCV Center and CFT are placing RCV prototypes and the Soldier's vehicle prototypes in company-level scenarios in Europe, in 2020 and forward.[433]
    • Robotic warfare, as a concept or capability at the Joint Corps echelon, was demonstrated at the operational level using Joint Warfighting assessment (JWA) 18.1 in April 2018.
    • JWA 19 (April–May 2019): I Corps, at JLBM (Joint base Lewis-McChord), is getting modernization training on the robotic complex breaching concept (RCBC),[435] and the command post computing environment (CPCE)[436] from Joint modernization command (JMC) training staff.[437]
      • Create decisive lethality:[438][107] Robotic experiments[439]
        • Jen Judson reports that Lt. Gen. Eric Wesley is proposing that the brigades begin to electrify their vehicles using hybrid, or all-electric propulsion, or perhaps other mobile power plants.[440][441]
  3. FVL[442] "Our new approach is really to prototype as much as we can to help us identify requirements, so our reach doesn’t exceed our grasp. ... A good example is Future Vertical Lift: The prototyping has been exceptional." —Secretary of the Army Mark Esper[159]
    • The FARA (Future Attack Reconnaissance Aircraft) scout helicopter prototypes are to be designed to fly along urban streets, to survive air defenses.[350] Five design vendors were selected, with downselect to two for prototyping by February 2020.[350]
    • These aircraft are envisioned as platforms for utilizing sensor networks to control and enable weapons delivery, as demonstrated in a 2019 experiment.[443][444] In preparation for FVL platforms, the FVL CFT demonstrated a 2020 Spike non-line of sight missile launch from an Apache gunship at Yuma Proving Ground, for extended range capability;[445] a forward air launch of an unmanned sensor aircraft (UAS) from a helicopter was demonstrated at YPG as well.[446]
  4. Mobile & Expeditionary Network / MDO Multi-domain operations[37][243]
    • In the battlefield of the future, where nowhere is safe for long, "you will miss opportunities to get to positions of advantage if you don't synthesize the data very quickly"—LTG Wesley (AI for multi-domain command and control: MDC2)[95][447][88][448]
      • ISR (intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance) needs to match the range of the upcoming LRPF (Long range precision fires) and thousand-nautical-mile missile standoff capability of the Army.[449]
      • Cybersecurity[450][451][452][453] RAND simulations show Blue losses[90]
    • Cyber warfare[454] / urban warfare[23][455][456][457] / Underground warfare / Multi-domain combined maneuver[458][107][323][459][88][460]
    • Assured Positioning, Navigation and Timing (A-PNT)[461][462][463] A solar-powered drone successfully stayed aloft at Yuma Proving Ground for nearly 26 days, at times descending to 55,000 feet to avoid adverse weather conditions, while remaining well above the altitudes flown by commercial aircraft, and landing per plan in the summer of 2018, to meet other testing commitments.[464]
      • An A-PNT event is scheduled at WSMR for August 2019[50]:pp220-3[465]:Positioning, Navigation and Timing Assessment Exercise (PNTAX)[466][50]:pp220-1[467][468]
      • Prototype jam-resistant GPS kits are being fielded to 2nd Cavalry Regiment in EUCOM before year-end 2019.[160] More than 300 Strykers of the 2nd Cavalry Regiment are being fitted with the Mounted Assured Precision Navigation & Timing System (MAPS), with thousands more planned for EUCOM.[469]
      • A Modular Open Systems Approach (MOSA) to Positioning, Navigation and Timing (PNT) is under development.[470][103][140]
        • Low Earth orbit satellites for Assured Positioning, Navigation and Timing— "When you look at the sheer number of satellites that go up and the reduced cost to do it, it gives us an array of opportunities on how to solve the problems" in A-PNT[471]
      • CCDC Army Research Laboratory (ARL) researchers have proposed and demonstrated a way for small ground-based robots with mounted antennas to configure phased arrays, a technique which usually takes a static laboratory to develop. Instead the researchers used robots to covertly create and focus a highly directional parasitic array (see Yagi antenna).[472]
  5. Air,Missile Defense[427][93][391][389][473][474]
      • Integrated Air and Missile Battle Command System (IBCS)[475] award, including next software build.[476][93] $238 million also funds initial prototypes of the command and control system for fielding in FY22.[382]
        • Hypersonic glide vehicle launch preparations,[72] beginning in 2020, and continuing with launches every six months.[67]
        • At Naval Air Weapons Station China Lake an FVL CFT-sponsored demonstration of interconnected sensors handed-off the control of a glide munition which had been launched from a Grey Eagle unmanned aircraft system (UAS). During the flight of that munition, another group of sensors picked up a higher-priority target; another operator at the Tactical Operations Center (TOC) redirected the glide munition to the higher-priority target and destroyed it.[443][477][329]
  6. Soldier lethality
    • Sensor-to-shooter prototype for multi-domain battle, 2019 operational assessment: Air Force RCO / Army RCO / Network CFT[113][114][115]
    • Night vision goggles thermal polarimetric camera.[478] Integrated vision augmentation system (IVAS)[479][480][481][362][482][483][484]
    • CCDC ARL researchers are developing a flexible, waterproof, lithium-ion battery of any size and shape, for soldiers to wear; the electrolyte is water itself. In 2020 the batteries were engineering prototypes; by 2021 soldiers will wear the battery for themselves for the first time.[485]
      • CCDC ARL and DoE's PNNL are examining the solid-electrolyte-interphase (SEI) as it first forms during the initial charging of a Lithium-ion battery. They have found an inner SEI (thin, dense, and inorganic —most likely lithium oxide) between the copper electrode, and an outer SEI which is organic and permeable — a finding which will be useful when building future batteries.[486]
    • CCDC ARL is undertaking an Essential research program (ERP) in the processes underlying Additive manufacturing (3D printing), which is applicable to munitions.[487]
    • Natick Soldier RDEC has awarded an Other Transaction Authority (OTA) contract to prototype soldier exoskeletons which augment human leg strength under harsh conditions.[488][489][490]
    • Plans for the Infantry squad vehicle (ISV) are underway.[491][492] An ISV is meant to be airdropped for a squad of 9 paratroopers.[493]
      • Assured pointing, navigation and tracking (A-PNT) devices are being miniaturized, with increased redundant positioning sources. This aids wearability.[466][50]:pp220-3
      • In September 2019 in the Maneuver CoE's Battle Lab at Fort Benning, OneSAF simulations[494] of a platoon augmented by UAS drones, ground robots, and AI were able to dislodge a defending force 3 times larger, repeatedly. But by current doctrine, a near-battalion would have been required to accomplish that mission.[494]

Other Armies

The British Army is also investigating innovations, such as robots and drones, including 70 technologies funded by a $1 billion (₤800 million) innovation fund launched in 2016.[495] Two hundred troops will engage in "surveillance, long-range, and precision targeting, enhanced mobility and the re-supply of forces, urban warfare and enhanced situational awareness".[495]

"By 2020 the Army's programs for modernization were now framed as a decades-long process of cooperation with allies and partners,[496][497] for competition with potential adversaries who historically have blurred the distinction between peace and war,[498]" — from: Reorganization plan of United States Army

  1. In 2020, one measure of military power projection ranks the competition between the armies of the world (after the US Army, which is ranked atop this list).[499] The list of armies, a mixture of allies, partners, and competitors is estimated to be:
  2. Russia[499] jammed the GPS signal during NATO exercises in November 2018.[500][160][501] In 2014 the DoD's research and engineering chief Alan Shaffer warned that the 'US lost dominance of the electromagnetic spectrum'[502] (EMS), in part due to the US government selloff of EMS radio frequencies, and also due in part to the proliferation of digital technologies which allow for low-cost jammers.[502] (See: meaconing)[503][504] General Valery Gerasimov advocates hybrid warfare, a "blend of political, economic and military power to bear against adversaries".[505][506][507]
  3. China[499] — RAND simulations show Blue losses.[90] Six of the top 15 defense companies in the world are now Chinese, in 2019 for the first time.[508] The competition with China is being shaped in the current decade 2010–2020, according to David Kriete.[509][510][511] In 2017 China adopted the National Intelligence Law which obligates Chinese companies to subordinate themselves to intelligence-gathering measures for the state.[512]
  4. India — faces Pakistan[499]
  5. Japan — faces North Korea[499]

Headquarters (HQ) and commander

On 13 July 2018, U.S. Army Secretary Mark Esper said AFC's headquarters would be based in Austin, Texas.[513] AFC spreads across three locations totalling 75,000 square feet;[116] one of the locations in a University of Texas System building at 210 W. Seventh St. in downtown Austin,[514][515] on the 15th and 19th floors.[516] The UT Regents will not be charging rent to AFC until December 2019.[516] The command began initial operations on 1 July 2018.[517]

On 16 July 2018, Lieutenant General John M. Murray was nominated for a fourth star and appointment as Army Futures Command's first commanding general.[518][519] His appointment was confirmed 20 August 2018[520] and he assumed command during the official activation ceremony of AFC on 24 August 2018, in Austin, Texas.[116]

Value stream

The AFC commander, in a hearing before Congress' House Armed Services Committee, projects that materiel will result from the value stream below, within a two-year time frame,[18] from concept to Soldier. The commanding general is assisted by three deputy commanders.

  • the Futures and Concepts Center,[176] led by AFC deputy commanding general Lt. Gen. Eric Wesley,[521][75] who is seeking 4 value streams for reducing the time invested to define a relevant requirement:[222][46][47]
  1. Science and technology (S&T: discovery / collection of ideas with usable effects)[522][252]
  2. Experiments (Testing of a system to a known expectation of effects, or else observation of that system, in the absence of a specific expectation of effects)
  3. Concepts development[45] (Development of a relevant idea about that system)[182][179]
  4. Requirements development (Development of the terms and conditions for that system)[39]
  • Combat Development element,[205][523] Army Futures Command.[176] Lt. Gen. James M. Richardson is the deputy commander. He assists the commander with efforts to assess and integrate the future operational environment, emerging threats, and technologies to develop and deliver concepts, requirements, and future force designs to posture the Army for the future.[524][190][228]
    • The Capability development integration directorate (CDID) of each Center of Excellence (CoE), works with its CFT[Note 1] and its research, development and engineering center (RDEC) to develop operational experiments and prototypes to test.
    • The Battle Labs and The Research Analysis Center (TRAC)[178][182] prototype and analyze the concepts to test.
    • JMC is capable of providing live developmental experiments to test those concepts or capabilities, "scalable from company level to corps, amid tough, realistic multi-domain operations".[118][26][94]
    • RDECOM becomes the Combat Capabilities Development Command (CCDC), part of the Combat Development element, on 3 February 2019.[205][53][172][525][46][47]
  • Combat Systems Directorate[523] will be led by Lt. Gen. Paul Ostrowski[526][527] (Principal Military Deputy (PMILDEP) to the ASA(ALT))[147]:AD2018-15,6b:PMILDEP will additionally be AFC director, Combat Systems [158] who will produce those developed solutions and seek feedback.[49][528]
    • Gen. Robert Abrams has tasked III Corps with providing Soldier feedback for the Next Generation Combat Vehicles CFT, XVIII Corps for the Soldier feedback on the Soldier lethality CFT, the Network CFT, as well as the Synthetic training CFT, and I Corps for the Long Range Precision Fires CFT.[327]
    • Combat Systems refines, engineers, and produces the developed solutions from Combat Development.[529][530]
    • An analysis by AMSAA can then assess that concept or capability, as a promising system for a materiel development decision.[148]

... what I do think you will see is some of the capabilities the cross-functional teams are working will be in production and being delivered and in the hands of soldiers in the next two years" —Gen. John "Mike" Murray (2018).[18]

Army Chief of Staff Milley is looking for AFC to attain full operational capability (FOC) by August 2019.[30][36][60]

[531]

I think we have been actually executing the mission for the last six to eight months if not longer.[28] —Gen. John "Mike" Murray, 19 July 2019

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i The capabilities as prioritized by the Chief of Staff, will use subject matter experts in the realms of requirements, acquisition, science and technology, test, resourcing, costing, and sustainment, using Cross Functional Teams (CFTs) for:
    1. Improved long-range precision fires (artillery):—(Fort Sill, Oklahoma) Lead: BG John Rafferty ... PEO Ammunition (AMMO)
    2. Next-generation combat vehicle—(Detroit Arsenal, Warren, Michigan) Lead: BG Ross Coffman ... PEO Ground Combat Systems (GCS)
    3. Vertical lift platforms—(Redstone Arsenal, Huntsville, Alabama) Lead: BG Wally Rugen ... PEO Aviation (AVN)
    4. Mobile and expeditionary (usable in ground combat) communications network (Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland)
      1. Network Command, Control, Communications and Intelligence— Lead: MG Pete Gallagher ... PEO Command Control Communications Tactical (C3T)
      2. Assured Position Navigation and Timing— (Redstone Arsenal, Huntsville, Alabama) Lead: William B. Nelson, SES
    5. Air and missile defense—(Fort Sill, Oklahoma) Lead: BG Brian Gibson, ... PEO Missiles and Space (M&S)
    6. Soldier lethality
      1. Soldier Lethality—(Fort Benning, Georgia) Lead: BG David M. Hodne ... PEO Soldier
      2. Synthetic Training Environment —(Orlando, Florida) Lead: MG Maria Gervais ... PEO Simulation, Training, & Instrumentation (STRI)
    • Above, 'dotted line' relationship (i.e., coordination) is denoted by a ' ... '
  2. ^ a b c d e f Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (23 October 2018) Army Futures Command Wants YOU (To Innovate)
    • —Adam Jay Harrison's list for types of Funding Authority
  3. ^ Tribune staff (22 August 2019) Colonel named division artillery director TCM to do what needs to be done across the Army for MLRS, HIMARS

References

  1. ^ a b c Futures Command reveals new insignia as it 'forges' ahead; by Sean Kimmons, Army News Service; dated 6 December 2018, last accessed 3 February 2019
  2. ^ a b c Army Futures Command: Meet Our Leadership
  3. ^ Army Futures Command Task Force (Wednesday, 28 March 2018) Army Futures Command
  4. ^ a b Vergun, David A. (13 July 2018). "Austin to be U.S. Army Futures Command location, says Army". Army.mil. Retrieved 17 July 2018.
  5. ^ a b c d e Army Directive 2017-33 (Enabling the Army Modernization Task Force) (7 November 2017) References Decker-Wagner 2011
  6. ^ Vergun, David A. (7 December 2017). "US Army Futures Command to reform modernization, says secretary of the Army". Army.mil. Retrieved 5 June 2018.
  7. ^ Roper and Grassetti (1 October 2018) Seizing the High Ground – United States Army Futures Command
  8. ^ Capt. Steve Draheim and Maj. Paul Santamaria (22 June 2018) Long-range, short term
  9. ^ Ed Lopez (21 June 2018) Picatinny Arsenal, PEO (AMMO) Army modernization advances with early team collaboration
  10. ^ John Liang (27 August 2018) Inside the Army highlights
  11. ^ a b c New Army aircraft will be durable, lethal, unmanned for modern conflicts
  12. ^ a b Maj. Gen. Cedric T. Wins, U.S. Army Combat Capabilities Development Command (22 July 2019) CCDC's road map to modernizing the Army: the network 4th in a series
  13. ^ a b MG Cedric T. Wins (09.10.2019) CCDC’S road map to modernizing the Army: air and missile defense DVIDS release
  14. ^ a b c d Bridgett Siter, Communications Director, Soldier Lethality CFT (10 September 2019) Soldier Lethality team delivers first big win for AFC Enhanced night vision goggle - binocular (ENVG-B) significantly aids marksmanship by the Close Combat Force
  15. ^ a b Maj. Gen. John A. George, U.S. Army Combat Capabilities Development Command (2 January 2020) CCDC's Road Map to Modernizing the Army: Soldier lethality
  16. ^ a b c d e (6 Oct 2017) Army Directive 2017-24 (Cross-Functional Team Pilot In Support of Materiel Development)
  17. ^ Phillip B. Fountain, U.S. Army Futures Command (8 October 2019) Army Futures Command to highlight modernization efforts at 2019 AUSA
  18. ^ a b c d e Matthew Cox (14 Sep 2018) Head of Army Futures Command Fields Tough Questions From Congress
  19. ^ Michael A. Grinston, James C. McConville, and Ryan McCarthy (October 2019) 2019 Army Modernization Strategy as cited by Sydney Freedberg, Jr. (16 October 2019) Army Launches 16-Year Plan To Tackle Russia, China Summary
  20. ^ Source: Organization, United States Army. For detail, see AR10-87
  21. ^ a b Army Commands, Army Service Component Commands, and Direct Reporting Units ARN2541_AR10-87_WEB_Final.pdf section 20-2a, p.27
  22. ^ Jim Garamone, Defense.gov (2 December 2019) US Forces reset in Syria, ISIS struggles to re-form Combined Joint Operation Inherent Resolve status
  23. ^ a b c d e f Arpi Dilanian and Matthew Howard (31 August 2018) An interview with retired Gen. David McKiernan
  24. ^ Michael Hardy (24 Aug 2018) Austin’s New Army Futures Command Marks ‘Biggest Reorganization of the Army Since 1973’
  25. ^ a b c d Arpi Dilanian and Matthew Howard (1 April 2019) The number one priority: An interview with Gen. Mark Milley: Readiness (both current and future)
  26. ^ a b c Gen. David G. Perkins, U.S. Army (Nov-Dec 2017) Multi-Domain Battle: The Advent of Twenty-First Century War
  27. ^ Sébastien Roblin (11 Oct. 2019) China's stealth drones and hypersonic missiles surpass — and threaten — the U.S.
  28. ^ a b c Scott Maucione (19 July 2019) Army Futures Command fully operational, dinged by GAO on announcement
  29. ^ a b c d e f g h Sean Kimmons, Army News Service (10 July 2019) Embracing a new culture at Army Futures Command
  30. ^ a b c d e f g h i DVIDs video, 24 August 2018 press conference
  31. ^ a b c Army Devon L. Suits, Army News Service (26 February 2019) FY20 budget proposal realigns $30 billion
  32. ^ a b Sydney J Freedberg Jr (29 May 2019) Army Big 6 Gets $10B More Over 2021-2025
  33. ^ Michael A. Grinston, James C. McConville, and Ryan McCarthy(2019) 2019 Army Modernization Strategy revision 7, CFTs' 31 signature efforts
  34. ^ a b Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (19 September 2019) Can Army Control Costs Of Its New Weapons? Currently the Army has 692 programs of record
  35. ^ a b c Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (14 March 2019) Army ‘Big Six’ Ramp Up in 2021: Learning From FCS
  36. ^ a b Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (11 January 2019) 12 Moments Of Truth For Army Modernization In 2019
  37. ^ a b c d TRADOC Pamphlet 525-3-1 (6 December 2018) The U.S. Army in Multi-Domain Operations 2028 "describes how US Army forces, as part of the Joint Force, will militarily compete, penetrate, dis-integrate, and exploit our adversaries in the future."
  38. ^ a b APG News (13 June 2018) News Briefs: The U.S. Army Modernization Strategy
  39. ^ a b CRS Insight (IN11019) (17 January 2019) The U.S. Army and Multi-Domain Operations
  40. ^ a b c Yasmin Tadjdeh (10/10/2018) Army to Focus on Defeating Enemies’ Standoff Capabilities Summary of standoff
  41. ^ Sydney Freedberg, Jr. (14 January 2020) Army Chief Seeks ‘Minimally Manned’ Vehicles, Joint C2 LRPF, ITN, IBCS, FARA, FLRAA, and "We need a joint command and control system" —Army Chief of Staff James C. McConville
  42. ^ Sean Kimmons (October 9, 2018) After hitting milestones, Futures Command looks ahead to more
  43. ^ a b AUSA 2018 CMF #1: Army Futures Command Unifies Force Modernization DVIDS video of panelists Gen. Murray, Sec. McCarthy, Dr. Jette, and Trae Stephens
  44. ^ a b c d Sydney Freedberg, Jr. (26 March 2018) Army Outlines Futures Command; Org Chart In Flux
  45. ^ a b c d e Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (25 October 2017) Can The Pentagon Protect Young Innovators? Fixing the 'up or out' culture, which favors generalists
  46. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Lt. Col. Thomas "Bull" Holland, PhD, U.S. Army (15 January 2019) Proposed Army Futures Command Process Tenets
    1. 'Scientific research is a fundamentally different activity than technology development';
    2. Incorporate 'scientific research into "Appendix C: Functional Concepts" and specify pathways for technology development';
    3. Buy into the 'fail fast' mentality;
    4. '6.3-funded projects to produce knowledge (technical data) that can be consumed by requirements developers as opposed to PMs';
    5. Use 'evidence-based requirements process' (early hypothesis testing) with citations for evidence:
      • All projects will be executed in no less than two increments.
      • No new requirements once an increment is started.
    6. Summary: 'advances on the battlefield requires comprehensive, coordinated changes in the entire acquisition system';
  47. ^ a b c d e f g h i The RAND Corporation (2000) Discovery and Innovation: Federal Research and Development in the Fifty States, District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico RAND MR1194 Appendix B: Government-Wide and DOD Definitions of R&D See Appendix B p.615 for DOD Financial Management Regulation (Volume 2B, Chapter 5)
  48. ^ Neil Hollenbeck and Benjamin Jensen (6 December 2017) Why the Army needs a Futures Command Enable a culture of experimentation, and develop concepts and technology together.
  49. ^ a b c d Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (13 Sep 2018) Futures Command Won’t Hurt Oversight, Army Tells Congress
  50. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l ASA(ALT) Weapon Systems Handbook 2018 update Page 32 lists how this handbook is organized. 440 pages.
    • By Modernization priority
    • By Acquisition or Business System category (ACAT or BSC). The Weapon systems in each ACAT are sorted alphabetically by Weapon system name. Each weapon system might also be in several variants (Lettered); a weapon system's variants might be severally and simultaneously in the following phases of its Life Cycle, namely — °Materiel Solution Analysis; °Technology Maturation & Risk Reduction; °Engineering & Manufacturing Development; °Production & Deployment; °Operations & Support
    • ACAT I, II, III, IV are defined on page 404
  51. ^ a b c Sydney Freedberg (7 May 2018) Permanent Evolution: SecArmy Esper On Futures Command
  52. ^ a b c d JP-1 p.xxi has the definition of operational control (OPCON). Note that "command authority may not be delegated" (COCOM being command authority). p.xxii has the definition of administrative control (ADCON): one application being coordinating authority.
  53. ^ a b c d e f g h Army R&D Chief: ‘I Don’t Think We Went Far Enough’ – But Futures Command Can
  54. ^ a b Scott Maucione (14 Sep 2018) Army leaders ask for trust in lieu of metrics for Futures Command
  55. ^ David Vergun, Army News Service (13 October 2017) Cross-functional teams to spearhead modernization, says McCarthy: allocated money in Program Objective Memorandum (POM) to protect resources.
  56. ^ a b Arpi Dilanian and Matthew Howard (31 August 2018) Modernizing at the speed of relevance: An interview with Under Secretary of the Army Ryan McCarthy
  57. ^ a b c d Sydney Freedberg, Jr. (14 August 2018) Inside Army Futures Command: CFT Chiefs Take Charge
  58. ^ a b Sydney Freedberg (29 August 2018) Army Futures Command: $100M, 500 Staff, & Access To Top Leaders
  59. ^ (22 April 2018) New Army Futures Command success hinges on relationship building
  60. ^ a b GAO report: GAO-19-132 (23 Jan 2019) ARMY MODERNIZATION: Steps Needed to Ensure Army Futures Command Fully Applies Leading Practices
  61. ^ a b c d Gary Sheftick, Army News Service (11 February 2019) Army aligning modernization programs with other services
  62. ^ David Vergun, Defense.gov (21 February 2020) Military leaders discuss hypersonics, supply chain vulnerabilities
  63. ^ In, for example Waverider hypersonic weapons delivery, China has flown a Mach 5.5 vehicle for 400 seconds, at 30 km altitude, demonstrating large-angle deviations from a ballistic trajectory, as well as recovery of the payload. See Current test targets, such as Zombie Pathfinder are not hypersonic. Rand Corporation (28 September 2017) Hypersonic Missile Nonproliferation estimates there is less than a decade to prevent Hypersonic Missile proliferation.
  64. ^ Stephen Carlson (14 Nov 2018) DARPA issues contract proposition for hypersonic missile defense
  65. ^ a b c Sydney Freedberg, Jr. (22 August 2018) Army Warhead Is Key To Joint Hypersonics
  66. ^ Paul McLeary (31 January 2020) SecNav Tells Fleet Hypersonic Competition Demands ‘Sputnik Moment;’ Glide Body Test Set Hypersonic Glide Body test for 2020
  67. ^ a b c d e f Sean Kimmons, Army News Service (31 May 2019) Joint hypersonic weapon tests to start next year
  68. ^ a b c d Colin Clark (24 May 2019) Army Moves Out On Lasers, Hypersonics: Lt. Gen. Thurgood
  69. ^ a b c Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (28 Feb 2020) Army Ramps Up Funding For Laser Shield, Hypersonic Sword In FY2021 HELs funding is up 209 percent; LRHW funding is up 86 percent. RCCTO spending is $1 billion in 2021.
  70. ^ a b c Joe Lacdan (16 October 2018) The Army joins the Air Force, Navy in attempt to develop hypersonic weaponry
  71. ^ a b Kelley M. Sayler, Analyst in Advanced Technology and Global Security. Congressional Research Service R45811 (11 July 2019) Hypersonic Weapons: Background and Issues for Congress Lists names for hypersonics programs
  72. ^ a b c d e f g Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (30 August 2019) Hypersonics: Army Awards $699M To Build First Missiles For A Combat Unit prototypes— Dynetics: Common hypersonic glide body (C-HGB); Lockheed: Long range hypersonic weapon (LRHW)
  73. ^ Mary Kate Aylward (5 February 2019) Experiments in hyperspeed more on Prompt Global Strike
  74. ^ Megan Eckstein (3 November 2017) Navy Conducts Flight Test to Support Conventional Prompt Strike From Ohio-Class SSGNs 1st hypersonic glide vehicle test (Flight experiment 1)
  75. ^ a b c (15 August 2018) Army Futures Command aims to tap into innovative culture in Austin and beyond
  76. ^ a b Long-range precision fires modernization a joint effort, Army tech leader says
  77. ^ Aaron Gregg (2 August 2019) In conversations with investors, defense firms double down on hypersonic weapons As of August 2019, Lockheed reports $3.5 billion in hypersonics work, while Raytheon reports $1.6 billion; Boeing declined to give the value of its hypersonics awards.
  78. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (1 March 2018) DoD Boosts Hypersonics 136 % In 2019: DARPA
  79. ^ Jason Cutshaw (19 September 2018) Secretary of the Navy visits AMC, SMDC memorandum of agreement in June to co-develop a hypersonic vehicle
  80. ^ a b Jon Harper (4 March 2020) JUST IN: Pentagon to Spend Billions Mass-Producing Hypersonic Weapons "Aero shells that provide thermal protection for the high-speed platforms will be a key component of the systems"
  81. ^ a b c Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (20 Mar 2020) Hypersonics: Army, Navy Test Common Glide Body "The U.S. Navy and U.S. Army jointly executed the launch of a common hypersonic glide body (C-HGB), which flew at hypersonic speed to a designated impact point"
  82. ^ Haley Britzky (14 August 2019) The Army is getting a new $130 million hypersonics playground in Texas
  83. ^ a b c d e Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (11 September 2018) Aiming The Army’s Thousand-Mile Missiles Multi-domain Ft Sill
  84. ^ a b John L. Dolan, Richard K. Gallagher & David L. Mann (23 April 2019) Hypersonic Weapons – A Threat to National Security Hypersonic and Ballistic Tracking Space Sensor (HBTSS)
  85. ^ Theresa Hitchens (24 February 2020) 2021 Budget Will Finally Fully Fund Next-Gen OPIR, Says Roper Space-Based Infrared System (SBIRS) replacement: three satellites in Geosynchronous Orbit (GEO) and two satellites in a polar orbit
  86. ^ a b c Jen Judson (20 August 2019) US Missile Defense Agency boss reveals his goals, challenges on the job Increase the discrimination of the radars and other sensors. Use Large aperture sensors. Use Space-based missile sensors. An SM-3 Block IIA missile test against ICBM is scheduled for 2020. Plan out the detection, control and engagement; the sensors, the command-and-control, the fire control, and the weapons (the kill vehicles).
  87. ^ a b c d Anthony Small, U.S. Army Futures Command (13 March 2019) Futures Command Deputy Commanding General talks the U.S. Army's Future at South by Southwest U.S. Army Lt. Gen. Eric Wesley, Deputy Commanding General (DCG), Army Futures Command
  88. ^ a b c d e Todd South (13 September 2019) Massive simulation shows the need for speed in multi-domain ops "400 participants working with 55 formations, 64 concepts and 150 capabilities"
  89. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (7 December 2018) Army Multi-Domain Update: New HQs, Grey Zones, & The Art of The Unfeasible
  90. ^ a b c d Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (7 March 2019) US ‘Gets Its Ass Handed To It’ In Wargames: Here’s A $24 Billion Fix Army prepositioned stocks (APS) vulnerability
  91. ^ a b Matthew Cox (28 April 2018) How Future Combat Systems Failed
  92. ^ Army Futures Command (28 February 2020) Joint All Domain Command and Control AFC is the functional lead representing the Army in JADC2's development
  93. ^ a b c d I Corps has I2CEWS Battalion or Intelligence, Information, Cyber, Electronic Warfare and Space Battalion —Joe Lacdan (6/19/2019) Army leaders say service must shore up its space defense
  94. ^ a b US Army (4 Sep 2018) U.S. Army Pacific Commander Gen. Robert Brown: State of the Pacific
  95. ^ a b Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (30 November 2018) Artificial Intelligence: Forget The Terminator For Future Army: LTG Wesley
  96. ^ Association of the U.S. Army (7 Sep 2018) AUSA Aviation Hot Topic 2018 - PANEL 1 - Multi Domain Maneuver
  97. ^ a b Jason Cutshaw (USASMDC) (8 August 2019) Leader gives space and missile defense update at SMD Symposium Integrated fires across domains
  98. ^ Stephen Clark (8 August 2019) Atlas 5 launch adds to U.S. military’s secure communications satellite network Air Force’s fifth AEHF — Advanced Extremely High Frequency communications satellite
  99. ^ Office of the Chief of Public Affairs (10.16.2019) 2019 AUSA Warriors Corner - TacticalSpace: Delivering Future Force Space Capabilities
  100. ^ Paul McLeary (18 December 2019) MDA Kickstarts New Way To Kill Hypersonic Missiles MDA's Hypersonic Defense Weapon System - 4 Interceptors
  101. ^ a b Kathryn Bailey, PEO C3T Public Affairs (26 November 2019) The Army gathers industry to inspire network modernization Network Cross-Functional Team (N-CFT) and PEO C3T hosted 670 industry partners at the Technical Exchange Meeting (TEM) 4, Capability Set (CS) 23.
  102. ^ a b c Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (15 May 2019) How To Wage Global Cyber War: Nakasone, Norton, & Deasy
  103. ^ a b Theresa Hitchens and Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (7 August 2019) Army Seeks Small Satellites To Support Ground Troops 3 programs: Gunsmoke, Lonestar and Polaris.
  104. ^ a b Jen Judson (4 June 2019) Coming soon to the US Army: Combat-capable hypersonic and laser weapons
  105. ^ a b Devon L. Suits, Army News Service (7 June 2019) Army accelerates delivery of directed energy, hypersonic weapon prototypes
  106. ^ a b Kerensa Crum, CCDC Aviation & Missile Center Public Affairs (14 August 2019) Leader updates Army’s modernization priorities Standoff
  107. ^ a b c d e Sean Kimmons, Army News Service (25 June 2019) Robotic combat vehicles could change way Army looks, fights
  108. ^ a b Kelly Morris (Rucker) (1 August 2019) Aviation Industry Days: Army Aviation aims for more lethal Multi-Domain Operations capability Maj. Gen. David J. Francis, USAACE and Fort Rucker commanding general: MDO to defeat standoff
  109. ^ Theresa Hitchens (2 December 2019) Hey SDA, AFRL Boosts Space-Based Internet Tests
  110. ^ Joseph Lacdan, Army News Service (21 October 2019) AFC deputy: Combined capabilities make military might more lethal
  111. ^ Office of the Chief of Public Affairs, US Army (10.16.2019) 2019 AUSA Warriors Corner - TacticalSpace: Delivering Future Force Space Capabilities
  112. ^ a b Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (22 November 2019) SecArmy’s Multi-Domain Kill Chain: Space-Cloud-AI Army Multi-Domain Operations Concept, December 2018 slide from TRADOC pam 525-3-1
  113. ^ a b Claire Heininger (9 August 2018) Army, Air Force team on sensor to shooter prototype for multi-domain battle
  114. ^ a b c Mark Pomerleau (11 April 2018) In the move to multi-domain operations, what gets lost? The space, cyber, and information domains transcend geographic AoRs
  115. ^ a b Dan Gouré (2 August 2019) Army Futures Command’s Report Card After Its First Year Need: MDO doctrine in DoD, Two theater operation at island & continent, augment BCTs with higher echelon capability
  116. ^ a b c Sean Kimmons, Army News Service (15 August 2018) Army Futures Command aims to tap into innovative culture in Austin and beyond
  117. ^ Dan Lamothe (14 July 2018) Why the Army decided to put its new high-tech Futures Command in Texas
  118. ^ a b c Maj. Brett Lea,24th Press Camp Headquarters (5 Sep 2018) "Army establishes Futures Command; U.S. Army JMC at Fort Bliss is operational arm" Fort Bliss Bugle
  119. ^ a b Army Directive 2018-18 (Army Artificial Intelligence Task Force in Support of the Department of Defense Joint Artificial Intelligence Center) 2 October 2018
  120. ^ a b Lauren C. Williams (14 Sep 2018) Army Futures Command to set up DIU-like innovation lab
  121. ^ a b Dan Lafontaine, CCDC C5ISR Center Public Affairs (7 November 2019) Army leaders get firsthand look at C5ISR Center research, development projects
  122. ^ David Vergun, Army News Service (10 October 2018) Army Futures Command to become 'global command,' says its leader
  123. ^ Joe Lacdan, Army News Service (4 April 2019) Allies to join Army Futures Command
  124. ^ a b (12 February 2019) SUMMARY OF THE 2018 DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE STRATEGY
  125. ^ Ashton Carter (2012-11-21) Autonomy in Weapon Systems Most recent DoD guideline: 2012
  126. ^ Terri Moon Cronk (13 December 2018) Artificial intelligence experts address getting capabilities to warfighters
  127. ^ (1 February 2019) Carnegie Mellon Hosts Activation of U.S. Army AI Task Force. Brigadier General Matt Easley is Director of Army Artificial Intelligence task force (A-AI TF)
  128. ^ Gary Sheftick (13 August 2019) AI Task Force taking giant leaps forward Coordinating with: NREC, Talent management task force, the CFTs, and DOD's Joint AI Center
  129. ^ Douglas Scott (6 August 2019) New wearable authentication more than a "token" gesture Tactical Identity and Access Management (TIDAM) see Army AI task force (A-AI TF)
  130. ^ U.S. Army CCDC Army Research Laboratory Public Affairs (27 February 2020) Army researchers enhance AI critical to Soldier-machine teamwork Explainability & tellability: coalition situational understanding (CSU) & human-agent knowledge fusion (HAKF)
  131. ^ RDECOM Research Laboratory Public Affairs (18 December 2018) Black Hawk helicopter pilot interns with Army researchers
  132. ^ Theresa Hitchens (25 September 2019) IC Must Embrace Public Data to Use AI Effectively: Sue Gordon IC is the Intelligence Community
  133. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (12 August 2019) Big Data For Big Wars: JEDI vs. China & Russia
  134. ^ Technology Review (19 December 2016) The Pentagon's Innovation Experiment
  135. ^ a b c d e f Gary Sheftick, Army News Service (3 April 2019) Army 'Shark Tank' enabling quick prototyping of new systems
  136. ^ Devon L. Suits (11 December 2018) Army secretary approves new Intellectual Property Management Policy
  137. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (15 March 2019) IP Rights For Robot Tanks: NGCV To Test-Drive New Policy
  138. ^ a b David Vergun (29 March 2018) Army network modernization efforts spearheaded by new Cross-Functional Teams. The Army conducts a network demonstration at Fort Bliss, Texas. The Army is pursuing network modernization through Cross-Functional Teams.
  139. ^ (27 June 2018) U.S. Army to host tactical Cloud computing industry forum
  140. ^ a b Nathan Strout (30 Nov 2019) Can hundreds of unrelated satellites create a GPS backup?
  141. ^ Sean Kimmons, Army News Service (3 August 2018) Army leveraging industry ideas to modernize network
  142. ^ a b Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (21 June 2019) Army Wrestles With Testers Over Network Upgrades
  143. ^ a b Jen Judson (4 April 2019) US Army plans to field a future long-range assault helicopter by 2030 FLRAA
    • RFI posted on the Federal Business Opportunities, 4 April
    • Contract award: fourth quarter of FY21
    • preliminary design review (PDR) second quarter of FY23
    • first flight in the third quarter of FY24
    • critical design review (CDR) in the fourth quarter of FY24
    • fielding to first unit in second quarter of FY30
  144. ^ a b c Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (21 January 2020) Army ‘Fully Committed To Replacing The Bradley’: Gen. McConville Bradley fighting vehicle replacement is still a project
  145. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (20 March 2020) xTechSearch: Army Picks Top 10 Tech Innovators
  146. ^ Ms. Karen Diane Kurtz (ASA (ALT)) and Steven Y. Lusher (JPEO CBRND PAO) (8 October 2018) ASA(ALT) Participates in U.S. Army Futures Command Panel at AUSA
  147. ^ a b c d e f Army Directive 2018-15 (U.S. Army Futures Command Relationship With the Office of the Assistant Secretary of the Army (Acquisition, Logistics and Technology) and DCS G-8, 27 August 2018
  148. ^ a b c d Richard Simonetti (23 April 2018) "US Army turns to new technologies"
  149. ^ a b Acquisition process: Materiel development decision (MDD)
  150. ^ a b c d e (24 October 2019) Army Pushes 600 Programs From Acquisition To Sustainment
  151. ^ USArmy tweet: Futures Command will have the overarching objective to achieve clear overmatch in future conflicts, making Soldiers and units more lethal to win the nation's wars, then return home safely.
  152. ^ a b c d e f Office of the Assistant Secretary of the Army (Acquisition, Logistics and Technology) ASA(ALT)Org Chart as of February 2020, and as of 11/5/19, see also Org Chart as of 11/26/18
  153. ^ Mr. Craig A. Spisak, Director, Acquisition Career Management (3 October 2018) A vigorous talent management strategy keeps the acquisition workforce prepared for threats
  154. ^ Jacqueline M. Hames, U.S. Army Acquisition Support Center (31 January 2020) TWI: worth it Training with Industry: a work-experience program for Army Acquisition officers (from captain to lieutenant colonel). "After their TWI rotation, officers are expected to identify industry best practices and implement them at their next duty station"
  155. ^ A sample career path here: Aviation Engineering director to SES
  156. ^ (1 Aug 2018) Military (Officer) Corner: Army Acquisition Centralized Selection List
  157. ^ (29 Apr 2015) Army Acquisition Corps Recognized
  158. ^ a b c d Ms. Audra Calloway (Picatinny) (19 September 2018) With new Army Futures Command, senior acquisition leader discusses role of Program Executive Offices
  159. ^ a b Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (24 January 2019) Bell V-280 Flies 322 MPH: Army Secretary Praises Program
  160. ^ a b c Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (6 June 2019) Army Fields Anti-Jam GPS In Germany This Fall
  161. ^ a b c d Secretary of the Army, Mark T. Esper, ESTABLISHMENT OF UNITED STATES ARMY FUTURES COMMAND Army General order G.O.2018-10
  162. ^ Nancy Jones-Bonbrest, Army Rapid Capabilities and Critical Technologies Office (14 June 2019) Partnering for speed: Army rapid prototyping office hosts industry open house
  163. ^ a b Jen Judson (13 March 2019) Army Rapid Capabilities Office is getting a new name and mission
  164. ^ a b Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (19 March 2019) Army Sets 2023 Hypersonic Flight Test; Strategic Cannon Advances
  165. ^ a b Team White Sands Organizations (TWSO)
  166. ^ For example,
  167. ^ (January 2011) Implementing Acquisition Reform: The Decker-Wagner Army Acquisition Review
  168. ^ a b c d DoD (16 May 2018) Army Officials Testify on FY 2019 Budget Request
  169. ^ U.S. Army Combat Capabilities Development Command (4 February 2019) CCDC Research Laboratory
  170. ^ a b c d e f Maj. Gen. Cedric T. Wins, CG RDECOM (25 September 2018) RDECOM's road map to modernizing the Army: Long-range precision fires
  171. ^ Argie Sarantinos-Perrin (17 October 2018) RDECOM at the forefront of creating a more modern, lethal Army
  172. ^ a b "... another thing we’ve not done very well — is doing the prototyping and experimentation with soldiers from the beginning, so we got soldier input into a program before it ever becomes a program of record" —Gen. 'Mike' Murray: Freedberg (31 Jan 2019) Army Completes Biggest Reorg In 45 Years: Can Futures Command End Weapons Disasters?
  173. ^ Ms. Jacqueline M. Hames, USAASC (10 October 2018) Get that moving truck ready
  174. ^ Futures Command locations
  175. ^ University Communications (23 May 2019) UT Austin Becomes Major Research Hub for Army Futures Command Robotics, AI, hypersonics, and biodefense
  176. ^ a b c YouTube clip (7 December 2018) ARCIC Transition of Authority Ceremony 7 Dec 2018 to Futures and Concepts Center, AFC
  177. ^ (2016) ARL locations
  178. ^ a b c Tisha Swart-Entwistle (6 December 2018) TRAC makes official move to Futures Command
  179. ^ a b Mission Command Battle Lab
  180. ^ a b Jen Judson (26 February 2018) US Army’s war-gaming is under-resourced, three-star says
  181. ^ Mission Command Center Of Excellence (MC-CoE CDID)
  182. ^ a b c TRADOC Analysis Center. Combined Arms training center. Fort Leavenworth
  183. ^ Dr. Charles K. Pickar, Naval Postgraduate School (October 29, 2019) An exercise to experience Experential learning
  184. ^ Army ALT Magazine (January 29, 2019) Then And Now: Training for the Future —Retired Gen. Peter W. Chiarelli, 32nd vice chief of staff of the Army: "I believe that a training environment .. should be a maneuver trainer, and it should be a gunnery trainer."
  185. ^ Spc. William Griffen (20 February 2020) HHBN masters the fundamentals of convoy escort
  186. ^ Maj. Anthony Clas, 3rd Armored Brigade Combat Team, 1st Armored Division Public Affairs (10/31/2019) Regulars’ battalion masters the fundamentals during squad live-fire exercise
  187. ^ Maj. Gen. Maria R. Gervais (31 August 2018) The Synthetic Training Environment revolutionizes sustainment training
  188. ^ a b Jacqueline M. Hames and Margaret C. Roth (14 January 2019) Virtual battlefield represents future of training Training as a service; more content at scale needed.
  189. ^ Army ALT Magazine (29 January 2019) THEN AND NOW: TRAINING FOR THE FUTURE critique
  190. ^ a b c d By Patrick D Morgan (TRADOC) (18 March 2019) STE CFT Cuts Ribbon in Orlando
  191. ^ a b Patti Bielling (3 December 2019) Army pursuing improved realism in live and virtual training Simulation and Training Technology Center (STTC) in Orlando; Institute for Creative Technology (ICT) in Playa Vista; Synthetic Training Environment Cross Functional Team (STE CFT); Program Executive Office for Simulation, Training and Instrumentation (PEO STRI);
  192. ^ a b Jen Judson (17 May 2019) US Army’s jumping to the next level in virtual training reconfigurable virtual collective trainers (RVCTs)
  193. ^ Cyber CoE - (its CDID)
  194. ^ Maneuver CoE - (its CDID and Battle Lab)
  195. ^ a b Bob Purtiman, NGCV Cross-Functional Team (17 September 2018) Preparing for future battlefields: The Next Generation Combat Vehicle
  196. ^ Aviation CoE - (its CDID)
  197. ^ Fires CoE - (its CDID and Battle Lab)
  198. ^ a b Col. Yi Se Gwon, Fort Sill Fires Bulletin (September-October 2018) The Army Multi-Domain Targeting Center
  199. ^ a b Maj. Anthony Clas, 3rd Armored Brigade Combat Team, 1st Armored Division Public Affairs: (SEPTEMBER 4, 2019) Target Mensuration course: Bulldog Brigade trains target acquisition with precision Target Mensuration Only (TMO) Including TMO in a unit training plan
  200. ^ Intelligence CoE - no information on its CDID
  201. ^ Maneuver Support CoE - (its CDID and Battle Lab)
  202. ^ Sustainment CoE CDID not found
  203. ^ a b APG Guide (12 January 2019) Aberdeen Proving Ground 2019 Your road map to the ‘Home of Innovation’ with more than 90 tenant organizations
  204. ^ (12 September 2018) ASA(ALT) MilDep talks APG’s role in Futures Command Paul Ostrowski is PMILDEP to ASA(ALT)
  205. ^ a b c Argie Sarantinos-Perrin, CCDC HQ Public Affairs (31 January 2019) RDECOM transitions to Army Futures Command
  206. ^ a b Devon L. Suits, Army News Service (22 August 2019) Army showcases new electronic warfare tech PEO IEW&S, PNT, EWPMT, VMAX, VROD
  207. ^ Caitlin O'Neill, PM PNT staff writer (17 November 2017) Army's PNT programs transition to PEO IEW&S
  208. ^ Dan Lafontaine, C5ISR Center Public Affairs (19 November 2019) C5ISR Center hosts CCDC commander for town hall, lab tours "a renewed emphasis on collaboration across CCDC's eight research centers"
  209. ^ RCCTO is located in Huntsville (26 August 2019): RCCTO- About us
  210. ^ Thomas Brading, Army News Service (23 August 2019) Soldiers 'at the heart of' modernizing warfighter gear
  211. ^ Army Research Laboratory Public Affairs (25 February 2019) Army-funded researcher wins Nobel Prize
  212. ^ Argie Sarantinos-Perrin, CCDC (21 August 2019) Army develops cold spray technology to repair Bradley gun mounts
  213. ^ U.S. Army CCDC Army Research Laboratory Public Affairs (16 December 2019) Army releases top 10 list of coolest science, technology advances
  214. ^ a b U.S. Army CCDC Army Research Laboratory Public Affairs (3 February 2020) Army develops big data approach to neuroscience Dr. Jonathan Touryan, co-author
  215. ^ (15 April 2016) US Army Research Lab Opens at USC ICT in Playa Vista
  216. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (8 August 2014) Pentagon Struggles To Get Small-Biz Tech: FCS misuse of OTA, other acquisition issues.
  217. ^ Dan Lamothe Washington Post (2018-07-12) Army to unveil details about new Futures Command in biggest reorganization in 45 years
  218. ^ Thomas E. Ricks (MARCH 2, 2015)Why hasn’t the Army’s regular acquisition process produced anything in decades? --Future of War conference.
  219. ^ Arpi Dilanian and Matthew Howard Army.mil (6 September 2018) Safer, smarter, faster: An interview with Gen. James McConville
  220. ^ "US edge has eroded to a dangerous degree"
  221. ^ US Army Futures Command to reform modernization, says secretary of the Army
  222. ^ a b c Army has picked a location for its new Futures Command, but now comes the hard part
  223. ^ Association of the United States Army (AUSA): Scott R. Gourley (Friday, 13 January 2017) CLOSING THE CAPABILITIES GAP: SEVEN THINGS THE ARMY NEEDS FOR A WINNING FUTURE
  224. ^ a b c GAO report: GAO-17-457 (Jun 2017) ARMY CONTRACTING Leadership Lacks Information Needed to Evaluate and Improve Operations
  225. ^ Bruce Jette, Building the Army of the future
  226. ^ Hannah Wiley (6 April 2018) Program cuts likely under Army secretary's new Futures Command
  227. ^ Jen Judson (17 July 2018) US Army asks Congress to shift millions in FY18 dollars. What’s behind the request?
  228. ^ a b c David Vergun (5 September 2018) Richardson confirmed as Futures Command deputy commander
  229. ^ Devon L. Suits, Army News Service (28 March 2018) CHIPS Articles: Army Secretary defines goals for coming decade — modernization, Futures Command
  230. ^ Jeff Martin (15 October 2018) How did the Army find $25 billion for new equipment? video
  231. ^ Daniel Goure (18 October 2018) Can Trump Rebuild The Military As Deficits Balloon?
  232. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (26 October 2018) Joint Experiments Will Pick Budget Winners & Losers: Dunford Task is to cut $33 Billion from 2020 budget
  233. ^ Youtube: What will $716 Billion Buy You? US Defense Budget 2019 Weapons
  234. ^ Michael J. Meese (23 Dec 2016) Chapter 4 : The American Defense Budget 2017–2020 Note Fed chart 1970-2026
  235. ^ PAUL MCLEARY (26 October 2018) Trump Orders DoD To Take Surprise $33B Budget Cut 2020 DoD budget cut from $733 billion to $700 billion
  236. ^ PAUL MCLEARY (14 November 2018) The Pentagon’s First-Ever Audit: A Big Disappointment?
  237. ^ Wesley Morgan (9 December 2018) Trump reverses course, tells Pentagon to boost budget request to $750 billion
  238. ^ PAUL MCLEARY (23 July 2019) Esper Confirmed As SecDef; Budget Deal Leaves DoD Spending Flat Next Year
  239. ^ a b Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (15 January 2020) Army To Navy: Hey, We Already Get Less $$ Than You Army: 26.6%; Navy: 28.7%; Air Force: 28.5%; Other: 16.3%
  240. ^ United States Government Accountability Office (GAO) (September 2018) DEFENSE MANAGEMENT. DOD Needs to Address Inefficiencies and Implement Reform across Its Defense Agencies and DOD Field Activities
  241. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (24 October 2019) Sec. Army Interview: ‘We Have To Get This Budget Deal’
  242. ^ Devon L. Suits, Army News Service (22 November 2019) SecArmy looks toward FY21 budget as continuing resolution impacts priorities CR avoids shutdown until 20 December 2019.
  243. ^ a b c Todd South, Military Times (8 May 2019) 4 things the general in charge of the Army's newest command says are needed to win the wars of the future
  244. ^ Amy McCullough (7 Feb. 2020) What to Look for in the 2021 Budget Request
  245. ^ a b Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (10 February 2020) Army Boosts Big Six 26%, But Trims Bradley Replacement FY2021 budget request
  246. ^ a b FY2021 budget request: Sean Kimmons, Army News Service (13 February 2020) Army budget request eyes $2B boost for modernization
    • $10.6 billion for modernization in 2021 request, up from $8.5 billion in 2020
      • LRPF: $1700 million
      • FVL: $514 million
      • OMFV: $328 million
      • MPF: $135 million
      • LTAMDS: $376 million
      • IFPC $236 million
  247. ^ Mark Cancian and Adam Saxton (14 February 2020) 2021 Budget Spells The End of US Force Expansion Reduced topline $740.5 billion; Army remains at 31 BCTs, 5 SFABs, and 11 CABs.
  248. ^ Thomas Brading, Army News Service (19 February 2020) Army leaders save $1.2 billion to fund modernization push After a set of 'Night court' cuts
  249. ^ a b c Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (5 March 2019) Army Bets Big On Service Contracts To Fix Aging IT
  250. ^ Maj. Gen. Randy S. Taylor, CECOM (8 July 2019) Sustaining data delivery on the future Army network Halt, fix pivot (WIN-T)| ITN: Integrated Tactical Network | IEN: Integrated Enterprise Network
  251. ^ Sean Kimmons, Army News Service (7 February 2020 Vice chief of staff: Speed of modernization no longer at 'glacial pace'
  252. ^ a b Joyce M. Conant, ARL Public Affairs (19 Feb 2016) ARL West hires its first employee, meet Dr. Benjamin T. Files
  253. ^ The DOT&E Mission
  254. ^ Shelby Oakley (26 June 2019) GAO Defends Annual Weapons Review: Let’s Look at All the Facts GAO reply
  255. ^ DoDI 5000.02: Defense Acquisition Life Cycle Compliance Baseline (Pre‐Tailoring)
  256. ^ DoD org chart
  257. ^ Dennis Via, CG AMC (6 April 2016) AMC announces Mission Command alignment
  258. ^ (10 April 2018) AMRDEC Industry days
  259. ^ (23 December 2009) About CECOM LCMC
  260. ^ Megan Paice (26 July 2018) From RDECOM to CECOM
  261. ^ (June 2016) U.S. ARMY TACOM LIFE CYCLE MANAGEMENT COMMAND (TACOM)
  262. ^ Ed Worley(2 November 2018) ACC celebrates 10 years of enabling readiness, modernization Contracting officers are embedded with every CFT
  263. ^ Life Cycle Management Command (LCMC) 2004
  264. ^ Ed Worley (1 October 2018) Two contracting centers achieve full operational capability
  265. ^ Jon Harper (3 April 2020) COVID-19 NEWS: Army Trying to Mitigate Disruptions for Top Modernization Programs
  266. ^ Mission Command Center of Excellence (MCCoE)
  267. ^ a b c d Connie Lee (3/26/2019) NEWS FROM AUSA GLOBAL: Army Fleshing Out Updated Modernization Strategy
  268. ^ Lauren C. Williams (21 Aug 2018) PEO structure survives Army Futures reorg, for now
  269. ^ Sydney Freeberg (6 September 2018) ‘A Little Bit Disruptive’: Murray & McCarthy On Army Futures Command
  270. ^ AcqNotes (17 Jan 2017) Other Transaction Authority (OTA) Guide – 17 Jan 2017
  271. ^ Paul McCleary (31 December 2018) Amidst Turmoil, Pentagon Persists On Acquisition Reform: Ellen Lord
  272. ^ Mr. Kinsey Kiriakos (ASA (ALT)) (20 November 2019) Army Acquisition Leaders Must "Speak Truth To Power" MTA and OTA
  273. ^ Jen Judson (10 Oct 2018) Army in final stages of hashing out Stryker lethality requirements at an AROC council in January 2019
  274. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (14 December 2018) Army Bradley Brigade Will Get Israeli Anti-Missile System: Iron Fist
  275. ^ Lt. Gen. John M. Murray, deputy chief of staff, G-8 (8 September 2016) Modernization vital to joint force success
  276. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (27 August 2018) Can Army Futures Command Overcome Decades Of Dysfunction?
  277. ^ HQ Dept of the Army (22 July 2011) Army Acquisition Policy Army Regulation 70–1
  278. ^ Devon L. Suits (19 September 2018) New G-8 embraces streamlining tech acquisition
  279. ^ Jen Judson (26 March 2018) The next Army program executive office will be the Rapid Capabilities Office
  280. ^ Jen Judson (7 Oct 2018) Army Rapid Capabilities Office realigned to focus on top modernization priorities
  281. ^ RCCTO (2019) About Us
  282. ^ RCCTO (2019) Army Rapid Capabilities and Critical Technologies Office
  283. ^ Jon Harper (7/17/2019) BREAKING: Army Futures Command to Reach Full Operational Capability by End of Month
  284. ^ Matt Beinart (21 July 2019) U.S. Army Futures Command To Announce It’s Fully Operational
  285. ^ a b c d Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (6 March 2020) New Army Cannon Doubles Range; Ramjet Ammo May Be Next BAE delivers 18 ERCA howitzers by 2023
  286. ^ Joe Lacdan (19 September 2019) G-8: Army operations in the Pacific crucial to future battlefield success Follow-up on Modernization Reviews is forthcoming, on a regular basis.
  287. ^ a b Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (20 September 2019) Congress’ Budget Gridlock Threatens Army Hypersonics G8 is posing a heuristic to get beyond delay in NDAA (national defense authorization act) for 2020 (get Army funding by calendar year-end)
  288. ^ Follow-up FY2021 Budget Request: Thomas Brading, Army News Service (5 March 2020) Hypersonic tests, modernization top Army budget request for funding of the top 6 modernization priorities; progress on the spend plan for tests of the prototypes vs actual spending
  289. ^ Sean Kimmons, Army News Service (18 July 2019) Futures Command showcases efforts ahead of upcoming FOC
  290. ^ a b Defense updates (14 Dec 2018) EXTENDED RANGE CANNON ARTILLERY OF U S ARMY- FULL ANALYSIS 5:00 clip. XM1113 shell and XM657 propellant on XM907
  291. ^ Daniel Cebul (8 October 2018) Army looks to a future of integrated fire LRPF in an Integrated Network of fires, targeting hubs, and sensors: artillery & MSHORAD, IBCS, Patriot, and THAAD radars
  292. ^ M109A7 has 30-foot barrel and double the range
  293. ^ David Vergun, Army News Service (13 September 2018) Cross-functional teams already producing results, says Futures Command general, House Armed Services Sub-committee hearing, 13 September 2018
  294. ^ a b Nancy Jones-Bonbrest, Army Rapid Capabilities Office (20 September 2018) Army doubles cannon range in prototype demo
  295. ^ a b Todd South (11 Mar 2020) The Army is ‘making artillery great again’ Landed within 1 meter from over 65 kilometers range. Press conference.
  296. ^ Devon L. Suits, Army News Service (8 May 2019) Army demonstrates extended ranges for precision munitions
  297. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (27 January 2020) Artillery Seeks Robot Ammo Haulers Field Artillery Autonomous Resupply
  298. ^ Paul McLeary (19 July 2019) Army Readies Long-Range Missile Tests — Post INF
  299. ^ a b David Sanger and Edward Wong The New York Times (2 August 2019) US ends cold war missile treaty, to counter arms buildup by China. p.A7
  300. ^ a b Paul McCleary (12 Dec 2019) US Busts INF Wall With Ballistic Missile, Puts Putin & Xi On Notice
  301. ^ NATIONAL DEFENSE AUTHORIZATION ACT FOR FISCAL YEAR 2020 Senate report 116-48
  302. ^ a b Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (10 December 2019) Direct Hit: Army Test-Fires Lockheed Precision Strike Missile EXCLUSIVE
  303. ^ Jen Judson (25 Mar 2020) Raytheon exits precision strike missile competition by mutual decision of Raytheon's DeepStrike and the LRPF CFT
  304. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (19 Mar 2020) PRSM: Lockheed Long-Range Missile Passes Short-Range Stress Test 3 layers of LRPF are scheduled to enter service in limited numbers in 2023; also explains its relationship to Future vertical lift (FVL) and Mobile & expeditionary network
  305. ^ a b c Ryan Pickrell (5 June 2019) The US Army says it will have hypersonic missiles and laser weapons ready for combat in less than 4 years LRHW announcement
  306. ^ Corey Dickstein (3 March 2020) Army to fire two hypersonic test shots this year, McCarthy says
  307. ^ Nancy Jones-Bonbrest, Army Rapid Capabilities and Critical Technologies Office (RCCTO) (12 February 2020) Virtual Reality helps Soldiers shape Army hypersonic weapon prototype LRHW
  308. ^ GVSC Public Affairs (7 October 2019) Virtual experiments helping shape Next-Generation Combat Vehicle
  309. ^ a b c d Bob Purtiman, NGCV Cross-Functional Team (17 September 2018) Preparing for future battlefields: The Next Generation Combat Vehicle
  310. ^ Defense & Aerospace Report (12 Oct 2016) US Army Ground Combat Systems Chief on Armored Vehicle Programs
  311. ^ (11 Oct 2017) US Army's Bassett on Trophy Active Protection Decision, AMPV, Future Vehicle Tech
  312. ^ Marty Beckerman (17 October 2018) A serious participation Trophy
  313. ^ a b Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (12 Dec 2019) Army Revs Up High-Tech Tank Engine
  314. ^ Jen Judson (9 October 2018) US Army triggers start of possible ground mobility vehicle competition after long delay
  315. ^ Program Executive Office for Combat Support & Combat Service Support (21 June 2019) Army approves JLTV Full-Rate Production
  316. ^ Jonathan Koester, Joint Modernization Command (10 September 2019) Newest Army vehicle arrives on Fort Bliss
  317. ^ Jen Judson (10 Oct 2018) Decision coming soon on who will build prototypes for a new Army light tank
  318. ^ Youtube: MPF
  319. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (17 December 2018) Army Picks BAE, GD For MPF Light Tank Prototypes: Upstart SAIC Is Out
  320. ^ Sean Kimmons, Army News Service (27 June 2019) 82nd Airborne infantry Soldiers to test light tank next year
  321. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (7 February 2020) Army Reboots OMFV, 2026 Deadline Dropped OMFV project starts over again; drops requirement that 2 fit on a C-17 as premature, does not insist on 2026 deadline; approach is less top-down
  322. ^ Andrew Feickert, CRS Report for Congress, R45519 (10/10/2019) Army's Optionally Manned Fighting Vehicle (OMFV) Program: Background and Issues for Congress --Updated 10 October 2019 abstract. Details in pdf
  323. ^ a b Army ALT Magazine, Commentary (20 March 2019) Driving the Future
  324. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (20 November 2019) The Army’s Got A Universal Robot Driver
  325. ^ David Vergun, Army News Service (9 October 2018) Next Generation Combat Vehicles to replace Bradley starting fiscal year 2026
  326. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (April 2019) Army Aviation Modernization $57 billion to modernization 2019-2024. $4.7 billion to Aviation 2019-2024
  327. ^ a b Myers (27 March 2018) Abrams: Army units will be tasked to work on each of Futures Command’s priorities
  328. ^ US Army (2020) AMERICA’S ARMY: READY NOW,INVESTING IN THE FUTURE FY19-21 accomplishments and investment plan
  329. ^ a b Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (25 February 2020) Future Vertical Lift: Army’s Aerial Vanguard LRPF will be the prime customer for the AI targetting data provided via FVL. The Joint force is also a consumer of this data, provided by FVL's manned or unmanned missions.
  330. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (13 March 2020) MOSA: The Invisible, Digital Backbone Of FVL Modular Open System Architecture
  331. ^ DoD Modular Open Systems Architecture (MOSA)
  332. ^ a b Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (3 October 2018) Army Wants Revolutionary Scout Aircraft For $30 Million, Same As Apache E FARA Solicitation
  333. ^ Eric Adams (5 July 2019) The Pirouetting S-97 Raider Makes Your Helicopter Look Lazy
  334. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. and Richard Whittle (23 October 2019) Tilting Wings, Tilting Tailprop, But Not A Tiltrotor: Karem’s FARA Design
  335. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. and Richard Whittle (23 October 2019) Bell 360: Will Slower & Steadier Win The Race For FARA?
  336. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (28 March 2019) FVL: Next Steps For UH-60 & Shadow Replacements In ‘Weeks’
  337. ^ Sean Kimmons (24 October 2018) Future Vertical Lift projects to build on recent progress FVL Deliverables— 1: Joint Multi-Role Technology Demonstration (JMR). 2: Analysis of alternatives (AoA). Phase II award— 2020-2023
  338. ^ FLRAA, JMR-TD: Flight test
  339. ^ a b Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (15 October 2019) 4 Flights, 3 Hours, 20 Knots: Defiant Inches Ahead
  340. ^ a b c Jen Judson (16 Mar 2020) Army selects companies to continue in long-range assault aircraft competition
  341. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (20 February 2020) We’ve Got Enough Data On Defiant: Sikorsky & Boeing
  342. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (26 February 2020) FVL: Can Army Break The Comanche Curse?
  343. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (17 March 2020) FVL: Bell, Sikorsky-Boeing Split $181M To Finalize FLRAA Designs Leverage the MOSA approach to scale the technical data from the demonstrators for the digital engineering. Use two phases for risk reduction. Present the acquisition strategy to ASA(ALT)— timing and program schedule for fielding in 2030.
  344. ^ PEO Aviation Public Affairs (18 March 2020) PEO Aviation announces Future Long Range Assault Aircraft Awards under OTA (Other transaction authority) for risk reduction in the design competition for FLRAA program of record scheduled for 2022
  345. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (25 June 2019) Sikorsky Be Nimble: S-97 Raider Shows Off For Army FARA S-97 demo
  346. ^ Yasmin Tadjdeh (10/11/2018) Army Sees Progress with Future Vertical Lift Projects
  347. ^ Jen Judson (10 October 2018) Can the Army pull off buying two new helicopters back to back?
  348. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (28 March 2019) Don’t Panic About Apaches: Army Not Junking Gunships
  349. ^ U.S. Army Futures Command (23 April 2019) Army announces attack reconnaissance aircraft prototype award
  350. ^ a b c d Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (23 April 2019) FARA: Army Awards 5 Design Contracts; Winner Enters Production in 2028—Awards for Future Attack Reconnaissance Aircraft designs went to Bell, Boeing, Karem, Sikorsky, and a partnership of AVX and L-3.
  351. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (2 October 2019) Bell Unveils Army Scout Helicopter — With Wings
  352. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (3 March 2020) FVL: Boeing Unveils FARA Scout Design All 5 FARA system designs are now revealed
  353. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (27 March 2020) FVL: Army Picks Bell & Sikorsky For FARA Scout "rival prototypes in flight by 2023"
  354. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (26 March 2020) FVL: The Army’s 10-Year Plan For FARA Scout "The Army is urgently developing new air-launched drones, long-range missiles, and electronic architecture to go on the Future Attack Reconnaissance Aircraft that Bell and Sikorsky are vying to build."
  355. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (29 March 2019) Textron, Martin Win $99.5M For Army Scout Drone: FTUAS
  356. ^ Jen Judson (29 March 2019) US Army picks 2 drones to test as Shadow replacement
  357. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (12 Dec 2019) Rival Shadow Drone Replacements Head To Combat Units For Tests
  358. ^ PEO C3T 30 May 2018
  359. ^ a b Justin Eimers, PEO C3T (3 October 2018) Network Cross-Functional Team, acquisition partners experimenting to modernize tactical network In 2018 MG Bassett became (Program Executive Office Command Control Communications-Tactical) PEO C3T)
  360. ^ a b c d PEO C3T (2018) Integrated Tactical Network "is not a new or separate network but rather a concept"
  361. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (18 November 2019) New Army Network ‘A Revolution’ For Airborne: Commander ITN full brigade Network equipment: PEO slide showing connectivity from BCT command post, down to Fire Team leaders cell phones
  362. ^ a b c Kathryn Bailey, PEO C3T Public Affairs (19 November 2019) The Army's tactical network empowers advanced goggle platform IVAS is under STP 2-- "In July 2020, STP 3 will fully integrate the ITN with IVAS"
  363. ^ Jared Serbu (24 August 2018) Army experimenting with SOF-tested equipment while building long-term tactical network plan
  364. ^ U.S. Army (30 April 2019) Profile: Program Executive Office for Command, Control and Communications-Tactical (PEO C3T)
  365. ^ a b Mark Pomerleau (1 April 2019) How the Army will sustain its tactical network of the future ITN to take advantage of Tobyhanna depot. 5-3-1 model
  366. ^ Mark Pomerleau (21 Jan 2020) What a deployment to the Middle East means for testing a new Army network An operational deployment begun 1 Jan 2020, which won't be instrumented, will provide some Soldier feedback, but instrumented testing is deferred until after redeployment.
  367. ^ Joe Lacdan, Army News Service (25 October 2018) Interoperability a key focus in building the Army's future network
  368. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (3 April 2019) Multi-Domain Networks: The Army, The Allies & AI: Incremental ITN Capability sets '21, '23, '25
  369. ^ Devon L. Suits, Army News Service (21 June 2019) New tech, accessibility to improve Army tactical networks
  370. ^ Amy Walker, PEO C3T (18 June 2019) Modernizing the Network
  371. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (27 August 2019) Uncle Sam Wants YOU To Compete For Army Network Upgrade: CS 21 Multiple Expeditionary Signal Battalion – Enhanced (ESB-E) network hardware sets are being fielded simultaneously to individual companies in the 50th Expeditionary Signal Battalion of 35th Signal Brigade/82nd Airborne Division in 2020, to allow maximum testing.
  372. ^ Amy Walker, PM Tactical Network, PEO C3T (4 December 2019) Global network design unifies Army modernization efforts GAIT: worldwide network mesh —CS21
  373. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (29 August 2019) The Fraying Edge: Limits Of The Army’s Global Network
  374. ^ Kathryn Bailey, PEO C3T Public Affairs (17 October 2018) New players bring novel approaches to the Army's network modernization goals
  375. ^ Nancy Jones-Bonbrest, Army Rapid Capabilities Office (8 November 2018) Cutting through the noise: Army, industry work together to speed up signal detection
  376. ^ SYDNEY J. FREEDBERG JR. (19 November 2018) Can Army Afford The Electronic Warfare Force It Wants?
  377. ^ Ellen Summey, PEO EIS (1 July 2019) Army Leader Dashboard, creating insight-driven decisions
  378. ^ Lizette Chapman (13 December 2019) Palantir Wins New Pentagon Deal With $111 Million From the Army HR, supply chain, et. al.
  379. ^ Billy Mitchell (DEC 26, 2019) Inside Palantir’s support of the Army’s massive data problem
  380. ^ AARON MAK (MAY 12, 2019) Report: Missile System and Surveillance Plane Funding Will Go Towards the Border Wall
  381. ^ Jason Cutshaw (SMDC/ARSTRAT) (22 March 2019) Army's senior air defender talks future of air, missile defense
  382. ^ a b c d e f Gary Sheftick, Army News Service (13 March 2019) FY20 budget to boost air & missile defense
  383. ^ Sydney J Freedberg (1 May 2019) IBCS: Northrop Delivers New Army Missile Defense Command Post 11 EOCs as well as 18 IBCS integrated fire control network (IFCN) relays by year-end 2019
  384. ^ a b U.S. Army (12 December 2019) Army Integrated Air and Missile Defense System successfully intercepts test targets
  385. ^ USAASC (2020) Army Integrated Air and Missile Defense (IAMD)
  386. ^ Jen Judson (8 Oct 2018) What’s the rush? US Army races to get missile defense radar early LTAMDS
  387. ^ a b Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (17 October 2019) LTAMDS: Raytheon To Build Linchpin Of Army Air & Missile Defense
  388. ^ a b Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (19 March 2020) Raytheon: Robotized Factory Speeds Up Army LTAMDS Radar Avoids DoD5000 by using "Other Transaction Authority (OTA) and Section 804 Mid-Tier Acquisition processes"
  389. ^ a b c Jen Judson (27 March 2019) Army debuts missile defense framework in move to counter drones, hypersonic threats
  390. ^ Jen Judson (11 Oct 2018) Army nearing strategy on way ahead for Indirect Fire Protection Capability
  391. ^ a b c Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (5 March 2020) Iron Dome Doesn’t Work For Army: Gen. Murray: Interoperability with IBCS is critical
  392. ^ a b Anna Ahronheim (9 MARCH 2020) US Army: Iron Dome cannot be integrated into our air defense systems: Iron Dome offers 12 launchers, two sensors, two battle management centers and 240 interceptors, but US Army's IAMD needs access to Iron Dome Source Code for interoperability w/ IFPC, IBCS
  393. ^ a b Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (9 March 2020) New Missiles Must Work With IBCS Network: Bruce Jette (Exclusive) Each shooter must accept targeting data and firing commands from IBCS, at brassboard level at least
  394. ^ Army rebuilding short-range air defense Gary Sheftick, Army News Service (2 July 2019) Army rebuilding short-range air defense Manpad training for 19K MOS using synthetic training environment (STE)
  395. ^ a b Claire Heininger, U.S. Army (1 August 2019) Army awards laser weapon system contract RCCTO has awarded Other Transaction Authority (OTA) contract 26 July 2019 for $203 million to two subcontractors, for prototype high energy lasers (HELs) for MSHORAD
  396. ^ Joe Lacdan (22 October 2018) Army to fuse laser technology onto air defense system
  397. ^ Jen Judson (6 August 2019) F-35 talks to US Army’s missile command system, says Lockheed
  398. ^ a b c d Paul McCleary (30 August 2019) Army Tests Dispersed THAAD; Beginning Of Modular Missile Defense? A step toward IBCS
  399. ^ a b MDA NEWS Release (30 August 2019) THAAD System Successfully Intercepts Target in Missile Defense Flight Test Flight Test THAAD (FTT)-23 image: https://www.mda.mil/global/images/system/thaad/FTT-23_THAAD_01.jpg at Kwajalein
  400. ^ Paul McCleary (21 August 2019) Pentagon Cancels Multi-Billion $ Boeing Missile Defense Program
  401. ^ Theresa Hitchens (17 December 2019) Lawmakers Question R&E Oversight; Pump MDA Funding RKV cancellation is prompting an NDAA mandate for a federally funded R&D center (FFRDC) study, whether to move the oversight of MDA
  402. ^ Paul McCleary (6 September 2019) Pentagon Issues Classified RFP For New Missile Interceptor No Refund of Monies expected. Rework is To Be Determined
  403. ^ Jason Cutshaw U.S. Army Space and Missile Defense Command/Army Forces Strategic Command (7.24.2019) SMDC colonel accepts TCM SMD Assumption of Charter from AMD to SMD
  404. ^ a b Jen Judson (15 May 2019) Dynetics-Lockheed team beats out Raytheon to build 100-kilowatt laser weapon
  405. ^ Sydney J Freedberg (5 August 2019) New Army Laser Could Kill Cruise Missiles Demonstrator lasers in test 2023, with fielding in 2024
  406. ^ Daniel Wasserbly (14 October 2019) AUSA 2019: Lockheed Martin weighs options for achieving a 250-300 kW air-defence laser Addresses IFPC requirements
  407. ^ AFC (21 Nov 2019) Soldier feedback driving Army modernization used 10 soldier touchpoints
  408. ^ Argie Sarantinos-Perrin, CCDC Public Affairs (29 March 2019) CCDC technology to increase Soldier readiness in multi-domain operations: capabilities by 2023
  409. ^ David Vergun (8 October 2018) Next-generation squad weapon to be very capable, lethal, says Army chief of staff
  410. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (17 June 2019) Army Buys 9,000 Mini-Drones, Rethinks Ground Robots
  411. ^ Joe Lacdan, Army News Service (4 April 2019) Army to field new night vision goggles
  412. ^ Robert Purtiman (21 September 2018) Lethality Cross-Functional Team bringing next generation technologies to Soldiers ENVG-B, Next Generation Squad Weapons, and the Adaptive Soldier Architecture
  413. ^ Joe Lacdan (3 June 2019) Army testing synthetic training environment platforms Reconfigurable Virtual Collective Trainer-Air (RVCT-A), -Ground (RVCT-G), and 3-D terrain database (One World)
  414. ^ Devon L. Suits, Army News Service (22 March 2018) Synthetic training environment to enhance Soldier lethality
  415. ^ Joe Lacdan (16 July 2019) One World Terrain (OWT) to allow Soldiers to train anywhere
  416. ^ The Army Strategy 2018
  417. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (15 May 2019) Let The (War) Games Begin: Army Buying High-Tech Training Sims
  418. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (13 October 2019) Special Ops Using Army’s Prototype 3D Maps On Missions: Gervais
  419. ^ a b c Paul McCleary (16 April 2019) Esper: Chinook & JLTV ‘Designed For a Different Conflict’
  420. ^ Joe Lacdan (25 September 2019) More joint efforts likely as the Army prepares for multi-domain operations A speedup in tempo, as driven by the CFTs is needed, according to Lt. Gen. Wesley
  421. ^ "Clearly define roles, responsibilities and processes in order to identify the right efforts and get ahead of need." —William B King (AMC) (18 February 2020) Conference focuses on Army modernization, equipping Soldiers Equipping Enterprise (AMC) + Modernization Enterprise (AFC)
  422. ^ a b Phil Fountain, U.S. Army Futures Command (7 August 2019) Army Futures Command charts a campaign plan No uniforms
  423. ^ Gen. David Goldfein and Gen. Jay Raymond (28 Feb 2020) America’s future battle network is key to multidomain defense JADC2: " We cannot yet share data in a seamless and simultaneous way between the Army, Air Force, Navy, Marine Corps or the Space Force"
  424. ^ AUSA, ILW selected papers, David Perkins, moderator (24 October 2018) ILW Launches Landpower Education Forum 4 views
  425. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (8 October 2018) Army Moves $25B To Big Six, From New Tanks To 6.8mm Rifle
  426. ^ A series on: Army Strategic Fires
  427. ^ a b Sydney J. Freeberg, Jr. (28 May 2019) Beyond INF: An Affordable Arsenal Of Long-Range Missiles? INF Treaty likely to expire in August 2019
  428. ^ Matthew Cox (14 September 2018) The Army is developing a new strategic cannon to devastate targets over 1,000 miles away
  429. ^ a b Sean Gallagher (10/15/2019) Bringing in the big gun: Army paves way for "strategic cannon"
  430. ^ Monica K. Guthrie, LRPF communications director (9 October 2019) Army Futures Command gains new general
  431. ^ Daniel Cebul (8 Oct 2018) Army looks to a future of integrated fire
  432. ^ Mark Gardiner The New York Times (Friday 21 Sep 2018) p.B4
  433. ^ a b c Sean Kimmons, Army News Service (11 July 2019) Soldiers to operate armed robotic vehicles from upgraded Bradleys (Mission Enabler Technologies-Demonstrators, or MET-Ds)
  434. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (14 October 2019) Army Robots Go Rolling Along – Ahead Of Schedule Robotic combat vehicles in "Four Years, Three Phases, Three Weight Classes"
  435. ^ Daniel Lafontaine, CCDC (21 May 2019) Army Futures leveraging mission command for effective Soldier, robot teams
  436. ^ Devon L. Suits (26 July 2018) CERDEC unveils more than a dozen new technologies for mission command CPCE COE MCE
  437. ^ Maj. Rich Marsh, Joint Modernization Command (14 February 2019) JMC sets the stage for largest annual modernization exercise
  438. ^ Jen Judson (9 October 2018) The Army’s future tank may not be a tank Buy back size, weight, and power
  439. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (11 September 2019) Titan Robot Test-Fires Javelin Anti-Tank Missile Remote-controlled test-fires of FGM-148 Javelin antitank missiles from unmanned ground vehicle
  440. ^ Jen Judson (17 Mar 2020) US Army ventures down path to electrify the brigade
  441. ^ Major Matthew Wood (Nov 2019) The Future of Hybrid and Electric Technology for Army Australian Defense Force
  442. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (26 Mar 2020) FVL Q&A: 7 Leaders On The Future Of Army Aviation Nicknamed "6-pack+1";
    1. Commander, Aviation Center of Excellence (CoE)
    2. Commander, Aviation Life Cycle Management Command (LCMC)
    3. Director, Aviation directorate, Deputy Chief of Staff G3/5/7
    4. Commander, Aviation Special Operations Command (USASOAC)
    5. Deputy PEO, Aviation
    6. SES, Aviation and Missile Command
    7. Director, FVL CFT
  443. ^ a b Gary Sheftick, Army News Service (9 September 2019) Smart sensor network helps redirect missile The GBU-69 was redirected; FARA is slated to replace AH-64 in subsequent A3I experiments
  444. ^ Dan Gouré (29 Feb 2020) Finally, There Is a Solution to the Problem of Flying in Degraded Visual Environments: Terrain awareness and warning systems (TAWS)
  445. ^ David Craig (6 April 2020) Future Vertical Lift Conducts a Demonstration of the Spike NLOS Missile System
  446. ^ Kerensa Crum, CCDC Aviation & Missile Center Public Affairs (30 March 2020) CCDC Aviation, Missile Center highlights forward-launched UAS technology
  447. ^ Anthony Small, U.S. Army Futures Command (13 March 2019) Futures Command highlights changes, new structure at SXSW
  448. ^ "Finding and engaging high-value relocatable ground systems within rapid timelines" is the Air Force's operational objective in this JADC2 exercise —Eliahu Norwood, Greg Grant, and Tyler Lewis (December 2019) A new battle command architecture for multi-domain operations: countering peer adversary power projection Tie-in to MDC2, MDO
  449. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (11 March 2020)Army Won’t Build Recon Satellites: Lt. Gen. Berrier
    1. MDO-driven modernization priorities for ISR (intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance)
      • Terrestrial Layer System (TLS)
      • Aerial ISR
        • Gray, Blue, and Red (targeted) force tracking
      • TITAN-level communications
  450. ^ NPR on the GAO report: GAO-19-128 Bill Chappell NPR (9 October 2018) Cyber Tests Showed 'Nearly All' New Pentagon Weapons Vulnerable To Attack, GAO Says
  451. ^ GAO-19-128 (October 2018) report on weapon system vulnerabilities
  452. ^ David Vergun (24 September 2018) Cybersecurity: 'Remain vigilant, be accountable, stand ready' Army major general says
    1. DoD Office of Inspector General (10 Dec 2018) Security Controls at DoD Facilities for Protecting Ballistic Missile Defense System Technical Information DODIG-2019-034 pdf
  453. ^ ARL Public Affairs (6 September 2018) Army research takes proactive approach to defending computer systems Moving target defense (MTD)
  454. ^ Shane Harris (27 March 2019) Palantir Wins Competition to Build Army Intelligence System
  455. ^ Joe Lacdan (05.24.2018) Warfare in megacities: a new frontier in military operations "No amount of planning, study or preparation can prepare a military unit for the unique rhythm of a major city or what Townsend labeled the 'flow'."
  456. ^ Timothy L. Rider (22 November 2019) Multinational partners find New York ideal to test urban warfare technologies Fort Hamilton hosted Contested Urban Environment Strategic Challenge 2019 (CUE 19) on 24 July 2019
  457. ^ John Spencer (14 November 2016) The Most Effective Weapon on the Modern Battlefield is Concrete
  458. ^ David Vergun, Army News Service (10 September 2018) Multi-domain operations to exploit enemy vulnerabilities, say Army leaders
  459. ^ Dan Lafontaine, CCDC C5ISR Center Public Affairs (4 September 2019) Army looks to enhance mission command with robotic swarms
  460. ^ Headquarters, Dept of the Army (July 2019) ADP 6-0 Mission Command: Command and Control of Army Forces 4 chapters. See also ADP 3-0; ADP 6-22; FM 6-22; ADP 1-1; and ADP 5-0
  461. ^ Office of the Chief of Public Affairs (10.16.2019) 2019 AUSA Warriors Corner - TacticalSpace: Delivering Future Force Space Capabilities
      1. Assured Positioning, Navigation and Timing
      2. Tactical Space: SDA is structuring a multi-layer satellite system:
        1. Backbone layer for data transport downward to the long-range precision fires
        2. Custody layer for missiles' trajectories, whether friendly or threat
        3. Tracking layer for hypersonic glide vehicles which represent threats to the multi-layer satellite system
        4. Space situational awareness for cis-lunar trajectories,
      3. NavWar
  462. ^ ARL Public Affairs (16 October 2018) Researchers develop technique to locate robots, Soldiers in GPS-challenged environments
  463. ^ Joe Lacdan, Army News Service (10 June 2019) Army leaders: Space tech crucial to future combat
  464. ^ Mark Schauer (ATEC) (12 February 2019) Unmanned aircraft stays aloft for nearly 26 days above U.S. Army Yuma Proving Ground
  465. ^ Assured Positioning, Navigation and Timing Cross Functional Team Assessment Exercise 1-16 Aug 2019, WSMR
  466. ^ a b Jonathan Koester, Joint Modernization Command Public Affairs (4 September 2019) Army, JMC assess new navigation, positioning systems Wearable A-PNT
  467. ^ Mark Pomerleau (28 March 2019) If GPS goes out, the Army now has a requirement for that
  468. ^ Caitlin O'Neill, APNT CFT Public Affairs (23 August 2019) APNT CFT Hosts First Annual Assessment Exercise
  469. ^ Thomas Brading, Army News Service (7 October 2019) Army fields anti-jam GPS, plans for thousands more by 2028
  470. ^ Dan Lafontaine, CCDC C5ISR Center Public Affairs (17 June 2019) Futures Command looks to enable plug-and-play PNT across Army platforms
  471. ^ Gary Sheftick, Army News Service (10 March 2020) Army looks to leverage 'low Earth orbit' satellites: LEO satellites orbit 100-1200 miles above Earth
  472. ^ CCDC Army Research Laboratory (29 August 2019) Army scientists discover a new way for robots to exchange directed messages
  473. ^ Paul McLeary (17 January 2019) Missile Defense Review a Multi-Billion IOU to White House
  474. ^ Miles Brown (5 July 2019) Aviation, missile commander addresses workforce CG Todd Royar's statement of his expectations
  475. ^ PROGRAM EXECUTIVE OFFICE MISSILES AND SPACE (2018) Army Integrated Air and Missile Defense (IAMD) Program Overview
  476. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (1 October 2018) Army Awards Northrop $289M For IBCS Missile Defense Network
  477. ^ Dan Gouré (20 Mar 2020) SOCOM Has Solved the Military’s 'Tower of Babel' Problem
  478. ^ ARL (24 September 2018) New Army technology guides Soldiers in complete darkness
  479. ^ Joe Lacdan (13 May 2019) Augmented reality training on the horizon to give Soldiers edge in combat allows repetition, for training
  480. ^ Tom McKay (6 April 2019) The Army Just Gave a Press Demo of Microsoft's HoloLens 2 Military Prototype
  481. ^ Bridgett Siter (19 November 2019) Soldiers test new IVAS technology, capabilities with hand-on exercises IVAS: 1 Soldier Touchpoint (STP) STP is becoming rapid acquisitions methodology for AFC
  482. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (13 December 2019) Soldiers, Coders Surprise Army Brass By Changing IVAS Goggles FOV is turning out to be more important to the infantrymen than the range of the goggles
  483. ^ Devon L. Suits, Army News Service (9 December 2019) Third IVAS evaluation slated for July Soldier Touchpoint successfully increased IVAS FOV to 80 degrees while range of the goggles was still at 900 meters, from thermal nightsight capability
  484. ^ Thomas Brading, Army News Service (10 February 2020) New technology recognizes faces in the dark, far away Combines night vision with facial recognition
  485. ^ Thomas Brading, Army News Service (6 February 2020) Army scientists on verge of nearly unbreakable battery First announced in 2015
  486. ^ U.S. Army CCDC Research Laboratory Public Affairs (5 February 2020) Army scientists look inside batteries with a molecular eye CCDC ARL "teamed with researchers from the U.S. Department of Energy's Pacific Northwest National Laboratory" (PNNL)
  487. ^ U.S. Army CCDC Army Research Laboratory Public Affairs (25 February 2020) Additive manufacturing to provide Soldiers with cutting-edge munitions They "printed the world's first 3-D hybrid microcontroller circuit on a hemisphere that survived high G environments".
  488. ^ NSRDEC Public Affairs (15 October 2018) Natick's exoskeleton work is a powerful step toward the future of Soldier lethality
  489. ^ RDECOM Soldier Center, Public Affairs Office (23 January 2019) Soldier Center partners with industry experts to advance exoskeleton technologies
  490. ^ Harvard (17 Sep 2018) Multi-joint Personalized Exosuit Breaks New Ground video clip
  491. ^ Thomas Brading, Army News Service (29 August 2019) Army closer to delivering new infantry squad vehicle (ISV)
    • 9 Soldiers of an infantry squad will maneuver in an ISV
    • Plans to purchase 649 prototypes were approved in February 2019
    • 3 industry leaders have been named (23 Aug. 2019), to deliver ISV prototypes
      1. Oshkosh Defense/Flyer,
      2. GM Defense, and
      3. SAIC/Polaris
    • Prototypes are due for initial assessment at Aberdeen Test Center 13 November 2019 through December 2019
    • At Fort Bragg a second round of operational testing by Soldiers will be performed on the candidate ISV prototypes
    • Downselect to one vendor is expected 2nd Quarter of FY2020
  492. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (8 October 2019) Who Will Build 651 Parachuting Trucks For The Army? 2 air-drop-able prototypes from each vendor due 13 November 2019,
  493. ^ Kyle Mizokami (13 Oct 2019) Meet the Army's New Airborne Trucks
  494. ^ a b Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (19 December 2019) AI & Robots Crush Foes In Army Wargame
  495. ^ a b MIT Technology Review (13 November 2018) The British Army is carrying out a massive test of military robots and drones
  496. ^ DEFENDER-EUROPE 20 videos, images and stories
  497. ^ Lt. Col. Travis Dettmer (9 February 2020) U.S. Army Futures and Concepts Center teaches Multi-Domain Operations to NATO Allied Land Command
  498. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (January 13, 2020) Infinite Games & War By Other Means: Ryan McCarthy: "We must be engaged in constant competition, versus an episodic engagement strategy" —Secretary Ryan McCarthy
  499. ^ a b c d e Greg Norman (22 Feb 2020) The 5 most powerful armies in the world
  500. ^ (4 November 2018) Russia Jammed GPS During Major NATO Military Exercise With US Troops
  501. ^ Russia has figured out how to jam U.S. drones in Syria, officials say
  502. ^ a b Sydney Freedberg, Jr. (3 September 2014) US Has Lost ‘Dominance In Electromagnetic Spectrum’: Shaffer
  503. ^ Stephen Clark (25 November 2019) Russia launches space surveillance satellite Kosmos 2542, in a polar orbit —"[To] monitor the condition of other Russian satellites in orbit."
  504. ^ Joseph Trevithick (30 JANUARY 2020) A Russian "Inspector" Spacecraft Now Appears To Be Shadowing An American Spy Satellite USA 245 is a KH-11 series satellite; Cosmos 2542 is now tailing the USA 245's movements with a precision of 150 to 300 kilometers. See Hall thruster
  505. ^ Andrew E. Kramer (2 March 2019) Russian General Pitches ‘Information’ Operations as a Form of War
  506. ^ Paul McCleary (30 May 2019) Dunford: Leaders Mull First NATO Strategy In Decades
  507. ^ Neil Hauer (26 February 2020) Russia may have met its match in Libya Is unable to tip the balance, as it has in Syria. So Russia is escalating its involvement.
  508. ^ Defense News (July 2019) Top 100 for 2019
  509. ^ Theresa Hitchens (31 July 2019) Competition (With China) IS The New Deterrence, US Military Leaders Say Vice Adm. David Kriete of US Strategic Command
  510. ^ aj.com (1 Oct 2019) China Confirms New Hypersonic Nuclear Missile On 70th Anniversary DF-17
  511. ^ Bill Gertz (24 December 2019) China's test of sub-launched missile a threat to peace, retired captain warns JL-3 is an SLBM
  512. ^ Reuters World News (27 June 2017) China passes tough new intelligence law National Intelligence Law
  513. ^ "Army Futures Command: U.S. Army Secretary Mark Esper announces that Austin has been chosen as the location for the new Army Futures Command". C-SPAN. 13 July 2018. Retrieved 14 July 2018.
  514. ^ (13 July 2018) University of Texas System to serve as home base for U.S. Army Futures Command
  515. ^ Stripes.com: Army’s new Futures Command to set up headquarters at University of Texas
  516. ^ a b Ralph K.M. Haurwitz - American-Statesman Staff (10 August 2018) UT regents give Army’s Futures Command free use of space temporarily
  517. ^ "Army announces Austin as the home of new Army Futures Command". C-SPAN. 13 July 2018. Retrieved 17 July 2018.
  518. ^ "PN2622 — Lt. Gen. John M. Murray — Army". U.S. Congress. 16 July 2018. Retrieved 17 July 2018.
  519. ^ McBride, Courtney (24 May 2018). "General selected to lead Army Futures Command". Inside Defense. Retrieved 17 July 2018.
  520. ^ Austin gets its general; Army Futures Command leader confirmed
  521. ^ FCC Leadership (20 February 2020). "Futures and Concepts Center". Futures and Concepts Center. Retrieved 20 February 2020.
  522. ^ As an example, any number of effects can be weaponized (see p.1 The New York Times 2 September 2018 "Invisible strikes may be cause of envoy's ills", describing the Microwave auditory effect), or else countered. Hypersonic vehicles are a countermeasure to ballistic missiles.
  523. ^ a b Sydney Freedberg (10 Dec 2018) US Army’s Brain Transplant: Futurists Move To Futures Command
  524. ^ AFC:"Who we are":"Meet our leadership":Lt. Gen. James M. Richardson :wiki: James M. Richardson (general)
  525. ^ CCDC Army Research Laboratory Public Affairs (29 April 2019) Army selects senior research scientist for terminal ballistics Fewer than 50 STs across the Army: An ST is a general-0fficer equivalent
  526. ^ Jen Judson (6 September 2018) Military deputy to US Army acquisition now has two bosses
  527. ^ Lt. Gen. Paul Ostrowski Bio
  528. ^ ASA(ALT) (20 September 2019) Army Acquisition Reform
  529. ^ Arpi Dilanian and Matthew Howard (18 July 2019) The Cheese Has Moved: An Interview With Lt. Gen. Paul Ostrowski
  530. ^ Ft Meade Soundoff! (19 July 2018) New site for Army Futures Command
  531. ^ Arpi Dilanian and Matthew Howard (1 October 2019) Bridging the gap to Army 2028: An interview with Gen. John "Mike" Murray

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