Southern Poverty Law Center

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Southern Poverty Law Center
SPLC Logo.svg
FoundedAugust 1971; 48 years ago (August 1971)
  • Public-interest law firm
  • Civil rights advocacy organization
63-0598743 (EIN)
Coordinates32°22′36″N 86°18′12″W / 32.37667°N 86.30333°W / 32.37667; -86.30333Coordinates: 32°22′36″N 86°18′12″W / 32.37667°N 86.30333°W / 32.37667; -86.30333
Area served
United States
  • Legal representation
  • Educational materials
Key people
Bryan Fair (Board Chairman)
$136.3 million (2018 FY)[1]
Endowment$471.0 million (2018 FY)[1]

The Southern Poverty Law Center (SPLC) is an American nonprofit legal advocacy organization specializing in civil rights and public interest litigation. Based in Montgomery, Alabama, it is known for its legal cases against white supremacist groups, its classification of hate groups and other extremist organizations, and for promoting tolerance education programs.[3][4]

The SPLC was founded by Morris Dees, Joseph J. Levin Jr., and Julian Bond in 1971 as a civil rights law firm in Montgomery, Alabama.[5] Bond served as president of the board between 1971 and 1979.[6]

In 1979, the SPLC began a litigation strategy of filing civil suits for monetary damages on behalf of the victims of violence from the Ku Klux Klan and other white supremacist groups, with all damages recovered given to the victims or donated to other organizations. The SPLC also became involved in other civil rights causes, including cases to challenge what it sees as institutional racial segregation and discrimination, inhumane and unconstitutional conditions in prisons and detention centers, discrimination based on sexual orientation, mistreatment of illegal immigrants, and the unconstitutional mixing of church and state. The SPLC has provided information about hate groups to the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) and other law enforcement agencies.[7][8]

Since the 2000s, the SPLC's classification and listings of hate groups (organizations it has assessed either "attack or malign an entire class of people, typically for their immutable characteristics")[9] and extremists[10] have often been described as authoritative and are widely accepted and cited in academic and media coverage of such groups and related issues.[11][12][13] The SPLC's listings have also been the subject of criticism from others, who argue that some of the SPLC's listings are overbroad, politically motivated, or unwarranted.[14][15][16][17] There have also been accusations of misuse or unnecessarily extravagant use of funds by the organization, leading some employees to call the headquarters "Poverty Palace".[18]

In 2019, founder Morris Dees was fired, which was followed by the resignation of president Richard Cohen. An outside consultant, Tina Tchen, was brought in to review workplace practices, particularly relating to accusations of racial and sexual harassment.[19]


The SPLC headquarters in Montgomery, Alabama.

The Southern Poverty Law Center was founded by civil rights lawyers Morris Dees and Joseph J. Levin Jr. in August 1971[20] as a law firm originally focused on issues such as fighting poverty, racial discrimination and the death penalty in the United States. Dees asked civil rights leader Julian Bond to serve as president, a largely honorary position; he resigned in 1979 but remained on the board of directors until his death in 2015. In 1979, Dees and the SPLC began filing civil lawsuits against Ku Klux Klan chapters and similar organizations for monetary damages on behalf of their victims. The favorable verdicts from these suits served to bankrupt the KKK and other targeted organizations.[21] In 1981, the Center began its Klanwatch project to monitor the activities of the KKK. That project, now called Hatewatch, was later expanded to include seven other types of hate organizations.[22]

In 1986, the entire legal staff of the SPLC, excluding Dees, resigned as the organization shifted from traditional civil rights work toward fighting right-wing extremism.[21] In 1989, the Center unveiled its Civil Rights Memorial, which was designed by Maya Lin.[23] In 1995, the Montgomery Advertiser won a Pulitzer Prize recognition for work that probed management self-interest, questionable practices, and employee racial discrimination allegations in the SPLC.[24][25] The Center's "Teaching Tolerance" project was initiated in 1991[26] and in 2013 was cited as "of the most widely read periodicals dedicated to diversity and social justice in education".[27] In 2008, the SPLC and Dees were featured on National Geographic's Inside American Terror explaining their litigation strategy against the Ku Klux Klan.[28]

Criminal attacks and plots against the SPLC

In July 1983, the SPLC headquarters was firebombed, destroying the building and records.[29] As a result of the arson, Klansmen Joe M. Garner and Roy T. Downs Jr., along with Klan sympathizer Charles Bailey, pleaded guilty in February 1985 to conspiring to intimidate, oppress and threaten members of black organizations represented by SPLC.[30] The SPLC built a new headquarters building from 1999 to 2001.[31]

In 1984, Dees became an assassination target of The Order, a revolutionary white supremacist group.[32] By 2007, according to Dees, more than 30 people had been jailed in connection with plots to kill him or to blow up SPLC offices.[33]

In 1995, four men were indicted for planning to blow up the SPLC.[34] In May 1998, three white supremacists were arrested for allegedly planning a nationwide campaign of assassinations and bombings targeting "Morris Dees, an undisclosed federal judge in Illinois, a black radio show host in Missouri, Dees's Southern Poverty Law Center in Alabama, the Simon Wiesenthal Center in Los Angeles, and the Anti-Defamation League in New York."[35]

Leadership upheaval amid harassment allegations

In March 2019, the SPLC fired founder Morris Dees for undisclosed reasons and removed his bio from its website. In a statement regarding the firing, the SPLC announced it would be bringing in an "outside organization to conduct a comprehensive assessment of our internal climate and workplace practices."[36][37][38]

Following the dismissal, a letter signed by two dozen SPLC employees was sent to management, expressing concern that "allegations of mistreatment, sexual harassment, gender discrimination, and racism threaten the moral authority of this organization and our integrity along with it."[39] One former employee wrote that the "unchecked power of lavishly compensated white men at the top" of the SPLC contributed to a culture which made black and female employees the targets of harassment.[18] The SPLC appointed Tina Tchen, a former chief of staff for former first-lady Michelle Obama, to review and investigate any issues with the organization's workplace environment.[18]

A week later, President Richard Cohen and legal director Rhonda Brownstein announced their resignations amid the internal upheaval. The associate legal director quit, alleging concerns regarding workplace culture.[40] Cohen said, "Whatever problems exist at the SPLC happened on my watch, so I take responsibility for them."[41][42]

Notable cases

The Southern Poverty Law Center has initiated a number of civil cases seeking injunctive relief and monetary awards on behalf of its clients. The SPLC has said it does not accept any portion of monetary judgments.[43][verification needed][44][failed verification] Dees and the SPLC "have been credited with devising innovative legal ways to cripple hate groups, including seizing their assets."[45] However, this has led to criticism from some civil libertarians, who contend that the SPLC's tactics chill free speech and set legal precedents that could be applied against activist groups which are not hate groups.[21] The SPLC has also filed suits related to the conditions of incarceration for adults and juveniles.

Alabama legislature

An early SPLC case was Sims v. Amos (consolidated with Nixon v. Brewer) in which the U.S. District Court for the Middle of Alabama ordered the state legislature to reapportion its election system. The result of the decision, which was affirmed by the U.S. Supreme Court, was that fifteen black legislators were elected in 1974.[46]

Vietnamese fishermen

In 1981, the SPLC took Ku Klux Klan leader Louis Beam's Klan-associated militia, the Texas Emergency Reserve (TER),[47] to court to stop racial harassment and intimidation of Vietnamese shrimpers in and around Galveston Bay.[48] The Klan's actions against approximately 100 Vietnamese shrimpers in the area included a cross burning,[49] sniper fire aimed at them, and arsonists burning their boats.[50]

In May 1981, U.S. District Court judge Gabrielle McDonald[51] issued a preliminary injunction against the Klan, requiring them to cease intimidating, threatening, or harassing the Vietnamese.[52] McDonald eventually found the TER and Beam liable for tortious interference, violations of the Sherman Antitrust Act, and of various civil rights statutes and thus permanently enjoined them against violence, threatening behavior, and other harassment of the Vietnamese shrimpers.[51] The SPLC also uncovered an obscure Texas law "that forbade private armies in that state."[53] McDonald found that Beam's organization violated it and hence ordered the TER to close its military training camp.[53]

White Patriot Party

In 1982, armed members of the Carolina Knights of the Ku Klux Klan terrorized Bobby Person, a black prison guard, and members of his family. They harassed and threatened others, including a white woman who had befriended blacks. In 1984, Person became the lead plaintiff in Person v. Carolina Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, a lawsuit brought by the SPLC in the United States District Court for the Eastern District of North Carolina. The harassment and threats continued during litigation and the court issued an order prohibiting any person from interfering with others inside the courthouse.[54] In January 1985, the court issued a consent order that prohibited the group's "Grand Dragon", Frazier Glenn Miller Jr., and his followers from operating a paramilitary organization, holding parades in black neighborhoods, and from harassing, threatening or harming any black person or white persons who associated with black persons. Subsequently, the court dismissed the plaintiffs' claim for damages.[54]

Within a year, the court found Miller and his followers, now calling themselves the White Patriot Party, in criminal contempt for violating the consent order. Miller was sentenced to six months in prison followed by a three-year probationary period, during which he was banned from associating with members of any racist group such as the White Patriot Party. Miller refused to obey the terms of his probation. He made underground "declarations of war" against Jews and the federal government before being arrested again. Found guilty of weapons violations, he went to federal prison for three years.[55][56]

United Klans of America

In 1987, SPLC won a case against the United Klans of America for the lynching of Michael Donald, a black teenager in Mobile, Alabama.[57] The SPLC used an unprecedented legal strategy of holding an organization responsible for the crimes of individual members to help produce a $7 million judgment for the victim's mother.[57] The verdict forced United Klans of America into bankruptcy. Its national headquarters was sold for approximately $52,000 to help satisfy the judgment.[58] In 1987, five members of a Klan offshoot, the White Patriot Party, were indicted for stealing military weaponry and plotting to kill Dees.[59] The SPLC has since successfully used this precedent to force numerous Ku Klux Klan and other hate groups into bankruptcy.[60]

The Civil Rights Memorial in Montgomery

White Aryan Resistance

On November 13, 1988, in Portland, Oregon, three white supremacist members of East Side White Pride and White Aryan Resistance (WAR) fatally assaulted Mulugeta Seraw, an Ethiopian man who came to the United States to attend college.[61] In October 1990, the SPLC won a civil case on behalf of Seraw's family against WAR's operator Tom Metzger and his son, John, for a total of $12.5 million.[62][63] The Metzgers declared bankruptcy, and WAR went out of business. The cost of work for the trial was absorbed by the Anti-Defamation League (ADL) as well as the SPLC.[64] As of August 2007, Metzger still makes payments to Seraw's family.[65][needs update]

Church of the Creator

In May 1991, Harold Mansfield, a black U.S. Navy war veteran, was murdered by George Loeb, a member of the neo-Nazi "Church of the Creator" (now called the Creativity Movement).[66] SPLC represented the victim's family in a civil case and won a judgment of $1 million from the church in March 1994.[67] The church transferred ownership to William Pierce, head of the National Alliance, to avoid paying money to Mansfield's heirs.[68] The SPLC filed suit against Pierce for his role in the fraudulent scheme and won an $85,000 judgment against him in 1995.[69][70] The amount was upheld on appeal and the money was collected prior to Pierce's death in 2002.[70]

Christian Knights of the KKK

The SPLC won a $37.8 million verdict on behalf of Macedonia Baptist Church, a 100-year-old black church in Manning, South Carolina, against two Ku Klux Klan chapters and five Klansmen (Christian Knights of the Ku Klux Klan and Invisible Empire, Inc.) in July 1998.[71] The money was awarded stemming from arson convictions; these Klan units burned down the historic black church in 1995.[72] Morris Dees told the press, "If we put the Christian Knights out of business, what's that worth? We don't look at what we can collect. It's what the jury thinks this egregious conduct is worth that matters, along with the message it sends." According to The Washington Post the amount is the "largest-ever civil award for damages in a hate crime case."[73]

Aryan Nations

In September 2000, the SPLC won a $6.3 million judgment against the Aryan Nations (AN) via an Idaho jury who awarded punitive and compensatory damages to a woman and her son who were attacked by Aryan Nations guards.[5] The lawsuit stemmed from the July 1998 attack when security guards at the Aryan Nations compound near Hayden Lake in northern Idaho, shot at Victoria Keenan and her son.[74] Bullets struck their car several times, causing the car to crash. An Aryan Nations member held the Keenans at gunpoint.[74] As a result of the judgment, Richard Butler turned over the 20-acre (81,000 m2) compound to the Keenans, who sold the property to a philanthropist. He donated the land to North Idaho College, which designated the area as a "peace park".[75]

Ten Commandments monument

In 2002, the SPLC and the American Civil Liberties Union filed suit (Glassroth v. Moore) against Alabama Supreme Court Chief Justice Roy Moore for placing a display of the Ten Commandments in the rotunda of the Alabama Judicial Building. Moore, who had final authority over what decorations were to be placed in the Alabama State Judicial Building's Rotunda, had installed a 5,280 pound (2,400 kg) granite block, three feet wide by three feet deep by four feet tall, of the Ten Commandments late at night without the knowledge of any other court justice. After defying several court rulings, Moore was eventually removed from the court and the Supreme Court justices had the monument removed from the building.[76]

Ranch Rescue

On March 18, 2003, two illegal immigrants from El Salvador, Edwin Alfredo Mancía Gonzáles and Fátima del Socorro Leiva Medina, were trespassing through a Texas ranch owned by Joseph Sutton. They were accosted by vigilantes known as Ranch Rescue, who were recruited by Sutton to patrol the U.S.-Mexico border region nearby.[55] Mancía, Leiva, and the SPLC alleged that members of Ranch Rescue held the two migrants at gunpoint, threatened them with death, and otherwise terrorized them; they also alleged that Mancía was struck on the back of the head with a handgun and that a Rottweiler dog was allowed to attack him.[55][77] Mancía and Leiva also stated that the vigilantes gave them water, cookies and a blanket before letting them go after about an hour.[77]

Later that year, the SPLC, the Mexican American Legal Defense and Educational Fund, and local attorneys filed a civil suit, Leiva v. Ranch Rescue, in Jim Hogg County, Texas, against Ranch Rescue and several of its associates, seeking damages for assault and illegal detention. In April 2005, SPLC obtained judgments totaling $1 million against Ranch Rescue member Casey James Nethercott and Ranch Rescue's leader, Torre John Foote. Those awards came six months after a $350,000 judgment in the same case and coincided with a $100,000 out-of-court settlement with Sutton. Nethercott's 70-acre (280,000 m2) Arizona property, which was Ranch Rescue's headquarters, was seized to pay the judgment. Nethercott was also charged by Texas prosecutors of pistol-whipping Mancía (which Nethercott denied). A jury deadlocked on the pistol-whipping charge but convicted Nethercott of being a felon in possession of a firearm (as he had a prior assault conviction in California).[77] SPLC staff worked with Texas prosecutors to obtain Nethercott's conviction.[55][78]

Billy Ray Johnson

The SPLC brought a civil suit on behalf of Billy Ray Johnson, a black, mentally disabled man, who was severely beaten by four white males in Texas and left bleeding in a ditch, suffering permanent injuries. In 2007, Johnson was awarded $9 million in damages by a Linden, Texas jury.[79][80] At a criminal trial, the four men were convicted of assault and received sentences of 30 to 60 days in county jail.[81][82]

Imperial Klans of America

In November 2008, the SPLC's case against the Imperial Klans of America (IKA), the nation's second-largest Klan organization, went to trial in Meade County, Kentucky.[83] The SPLC had filed suit for damages in July 2007 on behalf of Jordan Gruver and his mother against the IKA in Kentucky. In July 2006, five Klan members went to the Meade County Fairgrounds in Brandenburg, Kentucky, "to hand out business cards and flyers advertising a 'white-only' IKA function". Two members of the Klan started calling Gruver, a 16-year-old boy of Panamanian descent, a "spic".[84] Subsequently, the boy, (5 feet 3 inches (1.60 m) and weighing 150 pounds (68 kg)) was beaten and kicked by the Klansmen (one of whom was 6 feet 5 inches (1.96 m) and 300 pounds (140 kg)). As a result, the victim received "two cracked ribs, a broken left forearm, multiple cuts and bruises and jaw injuries requiring extensive dental repair."[84]

In a related criminal case in February 2007, Jarred Hensley and Andrew Watkins were sentenced to three years in prison for beating Gruver.[83] On November 14, 2008, an all-white jury of seven men and seven women awarded $1.5 million in compensatory damages and $1 million in punitive damages to the plaintiff against Ron Edwards, Imperial Wizard of the group, and Jarred Hensley, who participated in the attack.[85]

Mississippi correctional institutions

Together with the ACLU National Prison Project, the SPLC filed a class-action suit in November 2010 against the owner/operators of the private Walnut Grove Youth Correctional Facility in Leake County, Mississippi, and the Mississippi Department of Corrections (MDC). They charged that conditions, including under-staffing and neglect of medical care, produced numerous and repeated abuses of youthful prisoners, high rates of violence and injury, and that one prisoner suffered brain damage because of inmate-on-inmate attacks.[86] A federal civil rights investigation was undertaken by the United States Department of Justice. In settling the suit, Mississippi ended its contract with GEO Group in 2012. Additionally, under the court decree, the MDC moved the youthful offenders to state-run units. In 2012, Mississippi opened a new youthful offender unit at the Central Mississippi Correctional Facility in Rankin County.[87] The state also agreed to not subject youthful offenders to solitary confinement and a court monitor conducted regular reviews of conditions at the facility.[88]

Also with the ACLU Prison Project, the SPLC filed a class-action suit in May 2013 against Management and Training Corporation (MTC), the for-profit operator of the private East Mississippi Correctional Facility, and the MDC.[89] Management and Training Corporation had been awarded a contract for this and two other facilities in Mississippi in 2012 following the removal of GEO Group. The suit charged failure of MTC to make needed improvements, and to maintain proper conditions and treatment for this special needs population of prisoners.[90] In 2015 the court granted the plaintiffs' motion for class certification.[91][needs update]

Polk County Florida Sheriff

In 2012, the SPLC initiated a class action federal lawsuit against the Polk County, Florida sheriff, Grady Judd, alleging that seven juveniles confined by the sheriff were suffering in improper conditions.[92] U.S. District Court Judge Steven D. Merryday found in favor of Judd, who said the SPLC's allegations "were not supported by the facts or court precedence [sic]."[93] The judge wrote that "the conditions of juvenile detention at (Central County Jail) are not consistent with (Southern Poverty's) dark, grim, and condemning portrayal."[94] While the county sheriff's department did not recover an estimated $1 million in attorney's fees defending the case, Judge Merryday did award $103,000 in court costs to Polk County.[95]

Andrew Anglin and The Daily Stormer

In April 2017, the SPLC filed a federal lawsuit on behalf of Tanya Gersh, accusing Andrew Anglin, publisher of the white supremacist website The Daily Stormer, of instigating an anti-Semitic harassment campaign against Gersh, a Whitefish, Montana, real estate agent.[96][97] In July 2019, a judge issued a $14 million dollar default judgment against Anglin, who is in hiding and has refused to appear in court.[98][99][100]


Closeup of the Civil Rights Memorial

SPLC's projects include the website, which provides news on tolerance issues, education for children, guidebooks for activists, and resources for parents and teachers.[101] The website received Webby Awards in 2002 and 2004 for Best Activism.[102] Another product of is the "10 Ways To Fight Hate on Campus: A Response Guide for College Activists" booklet.[103]


The SPLC also produces documentary films. Two have won Academy Awards for Documentary Short Subject: A Time for Justice (1994) and Mighty Times: The Children's March (2004).[104] In 2017 the SPLC began developing a 6-part series with Black Box Management to document "the normalization of far-right extremism in the age of Donald Trump."[105]

Cooperation with law enforcement

The SPLC cooperates with, and offers training to, law enforcement agencies, focusing "on the history, background, leaders, and activities of far-right extremists in the United States".[106] The FBI has partnered with the SPLC and many other organizations "to establish rapport, share information, address concerns, and cooperate in solving problems" related to hate crimes.[107] In a November 2018 briefing of law enforcement officials in Clark County, Washington concerning the Proud Boys FBI agents suggested the use of various websites for more information, including that of the SPLC.[108]

Tracking of hate groups and extremists

Hate group and extremist designations

The SPLC is the organization most widely associated with tracking hate groups in the United States. It maintains lists of hate groups, which it defines as groups that "have beliefs or practices that attack or malign an entire class of people, typically for their immutable characteristics". It says that hate group activities may include speeches, marches, rallies, meetings, publishing, leafleting, and criminal acts such as violence. (Not all groups so listed by the SPLC engage in criminal activity.) The process for determining which groups are included involves "talking through" cases that are not clear-cut.[9][109]

In 2018, the SPLC added a number of self-described men's rights groups to their list of hate groups, including A Voice for Men and Return of Kings, describing them as "male supremacist"; the organizations rejected the SPLC's label.[110]

Intelligence Report

Since 1981, the SPLC's Intelligence Project has published a quarterly Intelligence Report that monitors what the SPLC considers radical right hate groups and extremists in the United States.[111] The Intelligence Report provides information regarding organizational efforts and tactics of these groups and persons, and has been cited by scholars, including Rory M. McVeigh and David Mark Chalmers, as a reliable and comprehensive source on U.S. right-wing extremism and hate groups.[112] In 2013 the SPLC donated the Intelligence Project's documentation to the library of Duke University.[113] The SPLC also publishes HateWatch Weekly, a newsletter that follows racism and extremism, and the Hatewatch blog, whose subtitle is "Keeping an Eye on the Radical Right".[114]

Two articles published in Intelligence Report have won "Green Eyeshade Excellence in Journalism" awards from the Society of Professional Journalists. "Communing with the Council", written by Heidi Beirich and Bob Moser, took third place for Investigative Journalism in the Magazine Division in 2004, and "Southern Gothic", by David Holthouse and Casey Sanchez, took second place for Feature Reporting in the Magazine Division in 2007.[115]

Since 2001, the SPLC has released an annual issue of the Intelligence Project called Year in Hate, later renamed Year in Hate and Extremism, in which it presents statistics on the numbers of hate groups in America. The current format of the report covers racial hate groups, nativist hate groups, and other right-wing extremist groups such as groups within the Patriot Movement.[116] Jesse Walker, writing in, criticized the 2016 report, questioning whether the count was reliable, as it focused on the number of groups rather than the number of people in those groups or the size of the groups. Walker gives the example that the 2016 report itself concedes an increase in the number of KKK groups could be due to two large groups falling apart, leading to members creating smaller local groups.[117]


In their study of the white separatist movement in the United States, sociologists Betty A. Dobratz and Stephanie L. Shanks-Meile referred to the SPLC's Klanwatch Intelligence Reports in saying "we relied on the SPLC and ADL for general information, but we have noted differences between the way events have been reported and what we saw at rallies. For instance, events were sometimes portrayed in Klanwatch Intelligence Reports as more militant and dangerous with higher turnouts than we observed."[118]

In 2013, J.M. Berger wrote in Foreign Policy that media organizations should be more cautious when citing the SPLC and ADL, arguing that they are "not objective purveyors of data".[119]

Controversies regarding hate group and extremist designations

The SPLC's identification and listings of hate groups and extremists has been the subject of controversy. Critics of the SPLC say that it chooses its causes with funding and donations in mind,[118] and argue[120][121][122] that people and groups designated as "hate groups" are targeted by protests or violence that prevent them from speaking. The SPLC sometimes responds by reviewing its actions and removing people (for example, Ben Carson and Maajid Nawaz) from its hate listings; however, it has stood behind the vast majority of its listings.[15][123][124] In 2018, David A. Graham wrote in The Atlantic that while criticism of the SPLC had long existed, the sources of such criticism have expanded recently to include "sympathetic observers and fellow researchers on hate groups" concerned about the organization "mixing its research and activist strains."[17]

Laird Wilcox, an analyst of political fringe movements, has said the SPLC had taken an incautious approach to assigning the labels "hate group" and "extremist".[125] Mark Potok of Southern Poverty Law Center said Wilcox "had an ax to grind for a great many years" and engaged in name calling against others doing anti-racist work.[126]

In 2009, the Federation for American Immigration Reform (FAIR) argued that allies of America's Voice and Media Matters had used the SPLC designation of FAIR as a hate group to "engage in unsubstantiated, invidious name-calling, smearing millions of people in this movement."[127] FAIR and its leadership have been criticized by the SPLC as being sympathetic to, or overtly supportive of, white supremacist and identitarian ideologies, as the group's founder has stated his goal as ensuring that the United States remains a majority-white country.[128]

In 2010, a group of Republican politicians and conservative organizations criticized the SPLC in full-page advertisements in two Washington, D.C. newspapers for what they described as "character assassination" because the SPLC had listed the Family Research Council (FRC) as a hate group for alleged "defaming of gays and lesbians".[16][129]

In August 2012, a gunman entered the Washington, D.C. headquarters of the Family Research Council with the intent to kill employees and smear Chick-fil-A sandwiches on the victims' faces.[130] The gunman, Floyd Lee Corkins, stated that he chose FRC as a target because it was listed as an anti-gay group on the SPLC's website.[131] A security guard was wounded but stopped Corkins from shooting anyone else. In the wake of the shooting, the SPLC was again criticized for listing FRC as an anti-gay hate group, including by liberal columnist Dana Milbank,[132] while others defended the categorization. The SPLC defended its listing of anti-gay hate groups, stating that the groups were selected not because of their religious views, but on their "propagation of known falsehoods about LGBT people... that have been thoroughly discredited by scientific authorities."[133]

In October 2014, the SPLC added Ben Carson to its extremist watch list, citing his association with groups it considers extreme, and his "linking of gays with pedophiles".[134] Following criticism, the SPLC concluded its profile of Carson did not meet its standards, removed his listing, and apologized to him in February 2015.[135]

In October 2016, the SPLC published its "Field Guide to Anti-Muslim Extremists",[136] which listed the British activist Maajid Nawaz and a nonprofit group he founded, the Quilliam Foundation.[17][137] Nawaz, who identifies as a "liberal, reform Muslim", denounced the listing as a "smear",[138] saying that the SPLC listing had made him a target of jihadists.[139][140] In June 2018, the SPLC issued an apology, stating:

Given our understanding of the views of Mr. Nawaz and Quilliam, it was our opinion at the time that the Field Guide was published that their inclusion was warranted. But after getting a deeper understanding of their views and after hearing from others for whom we have great respect, we realize that we were simply wrong to have included Mr. Nawaz and Quilliam in the Field Guide in the first place.[141]

Along with the apology, the SPLC paid US$3.375 million to Nawaz and the Quilliam Foundation in a settlement.[142][141][143] Nawaz said about the settlement that Quilliam "will continue to combat extremists by defying Muslim stereotypes, calling out fundamentalism in our own communities, and speaking out against anti-Muslim hate."[144][145] The SPLC ultimately removed the Field Guide from its website.[17]

In August 2017, a defamation lawsuit was filed against the SPLC by the D. James Kennedy Ministries for describing it as an "active hate group" because of their views on LGBT rights.[146][147][148] The SPLC lists D. James Kennedy Ministries and its predecessor, Truth in Action, as anti-LGBT hate groups because of what the SPLC describes as the group's history of spreading homophobic propaganda, including D. James Kennedy's false statement that "homosexuals prey on adolescent boys", and false claims about the transmission of AIDS.[149][150] On February 21, 2018, a federal magistrate judge recommended that the suit be dismissed with prejudice, concluding that D. James Kennedy Ministries could not show that it had been libeled.[151] On September 19, 2019, the lawsuit was dismissed by Judge Myron H. Thompson, who ruled that the "SPLC's labeling of the group as [a hate group] is protected by the First Amendment."[152]

In March 2018, several left-wing journalists, including Max Blumenthal, were mentioned in an article the SPLC retracted after receiving complaints from those journalists that the article falsely portrayed them as "white supremacists, fascists, anti-Semites, and engaging in a conspiracy with the Putin regime to promote such views"; the Center's letter explaining its retraction of the article specifically apologized to Blumenthal and the other journalists who felt they had been falsely portrayed.[153][154] The SPLC was criticized for taking down their article and was accused of caving in to pressure. The article attempted to analyze how the dissemination of conspiracy theories (about the White Helmets and child refugees) around such issues as the Syrian Civil War had pushed traditional leftists into following what the writer saw as being a fascist agenda.[155][156][157]

In 2019, the Center for Immigration Studies (CIS) sued the SPLC for designating the CIS as a hate group, claiming it constituted fraud under the Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act.[158][159] The SPLC defended its decision and said the group "richly deserved" the designation.[citation needed] Cornell law professor William A. Jacobson, a longtime critic of the SPLC, criticized the listing of the CIS as "pos[ing] a danger of being exploited as an excuse to silence speech and to skew political debate."[160] The lawsuit was dismissed in September 2019 for failure to state a claim; Judge Amy Berman Jackson ruled that the CIS could not show any violations of the RICO statute.[161]


The SPLC's activities, including litigation, are supported by fundraising efforts, and it does not accept any fees or share in legal judgments awarded to clients it represents in court. Starting in 1974, the SPLC set aside money for its endowment stating that it was "convinced that the day [would] come when non-profit groups [would] no longer be able to rely on support through mail because of posting and printing costs".[162] For 2018, its endowment was approximately $471 million per its annual report and SPLC spent 49% of its revenue on programs.[1]

In 1994 the Montgomery Advertiser published an eight-part critical report on the SPLC, saying that it exaggerated the threat posed by the Klan and similar groups in order to raise money, discriminated against black employees, and used misleading fundraising tactics.[163] From 1984 to 1994, the SPLC raised about $62 million in contributions and spent about $21 million on programs, according to the newspaper.[4]

The SPLC dismissed the series as a "hatchet job". SPLC's co-founder Joe Levin stated: "The Advertiser's lack of interest in the center's programs and its obsessive interest in the center's financial affairs and Mr. Dees' personal life makes it obvious to me that the Advertiser simply wants to smear the center and Mr. Dees."[164] The series was nominated for a 1995 Pulitzer Prize in Explanatory Journalism. Despite an SPLC campaign against the nomination, the series was one of three finalists.[165] Some on the left, such as journalist Ken Silverstein, have criticized what they have described as the SPLC's deceptive fundraising appeals and finances.[166]

Based on 2016 figures, Charity Navigator rated the SPLC three out of four stars – 79.7 on financial health matters, 97.0 on accountability and transparency, and 85.5 (out of 100) overall; and GuideStar gives the SPLC a Gold-level rating as of 2017.[167]

See also



  1. ^ a b c "Financial Statements" (PDF). Southern Poverty Law Center, Inc. October 31, 2018. Retrieved March 26, 2019.
  2. ^ "2012 Form 990 U.S. Federal Tax Return" (PDF). Foundation Center. Retrieved April 22, 2014.
  3. ^ "With Justice For All". The Times-Picayune. November 5, 2006. Archived from the original on April 17, 2008.
  4. ^ a b Finkelman, Paul, ed. (2006). "Southern Poverty Law Center". Encyclopedia of American Civil Liberties. New York: Routledge. p. 1500. ISBN 978-0415943420.
  5. ^ a b Chebium, Raju (September 8, 2000). "Attorney Morris Dees pioneer in using 'damage litigation' to fight hate groups". CNN. Archived from the original on June 18, 2006. Retrieved May 15, 2017.
  6. ^ Dees & Fiffer (1991), pp. 132–33.
  7. ^ Michael (2012), p. 32.
  8. ^ "What We Investigate: Hate Crimes: The FBI's Role: Public Outreach". Retrieved May 20, 2017. The FBI has forged partnerships nationally and locally with many civil rights organizations to establish rapport, share information, address concerns, and cooperate in solving problems....[failed verification]
  9. ^ a b "Hate Map". SPLC. Archived from the original on March 17, 2015. Retrieved July 15, 2018.
  10. ^ "What We Do". SPLC.
  11. ^ Does the Southern Poverty Law Center target conservatives?. The Christian Science Monitor, February 18, 2016
  12. ^ Chen, Hsinchun (2006). Intelligence and Security Informatics for International Security: Information Sharing and Data Mining. New York: Springer. p. 95. ISBN 978-0-387-24379-5. ... the web sites of the "Southern Poverty Law Center" [...] and the Anti-Defamation League [...] are authoritative sources for identifying domestic extremists and hate groups.
  13. ^ Swain, Carol (2002). The New White Nationalism in America: Its Challenge to Integration. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. p. 75. ISBN 978-0-521-80886-6.
  14. ^ Chokshi, Niraj (February 17, 2016). "The Year of 'Enormous Rage': Number of Hate Groups Rose by 14 Percent in 2015". The Washington Post.
  15. ^ a b Schreckinger, Ben (July–August 2017). "Has a Civil Rights Stalwart Lost Its Way?". Politico Magazine. Retrieved June 29, 2017.
  16. ^ a b Jonsson, Patrik (February 23, 2011). "Annual report cites rise in hate groups, but some ask: What is hate?". The Christian Science Monitor
  17. ^ a b c d Graham, David A. (June 18, 2018). "The Unlabelling of an 'Anti-Muslim Extremist'". The Atlantic. Retrieved July 5, 2018. While the fabled nonprofit has long had its critics, many of them hatemongers like Gaffney, the new chorus included sympathetic observers and fellow researchers on hate groups, who worried that SPLC was mixing its research and activist strains.
  18. ^ a b c Moser, Bob (March 21, 2019). "The Reckoning of Morris Dees and the Southern Poverty Law Center". The New Yorker.
  19. ^ Burch, Audra D. S.; Blinder, Alan; Eligon, John (March 25, 2019). "Roiled by Staff Uproar, Civil Rights Group Looks at Intolerance Within". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved March 28, 2019.
  20. ^ "IRS Data for Southern Poverty Law Center". Charity Navigator. Retrieved February 9, 2018.
  21. ^ a b c Michael, George (2003). Confronting Right-Wing Extremism and Terrorism in the USA. Routledge. pp. 19–21, 163. ISBN 978-1134377626. Retrieved May 2, 2017.
  22. ^ "Active U.S. Hate Groups in 2006". Southern Poverty Law Center. 2007. Archived from the original on January 6, 2010. Retrieved September 18, 2007.
  23. ^ Tauber, Peter (February 24, 1991). "Monument Maker". The New York Times. Retrieved September 18, 2007.
  24. ^ "Finalist: Staff of Montgomery (AL) Advertiser". The Pulitzer Prizes. Columbia University. Retrieved March 30, 2019. For its probe of questionable management practices and self-interest at the Southern Poverty Law Center, the nation's best-endowed civil rights charity.
  25. ^ Bob Moser (March 21, 2019). "The Reckoning of Morris Dees and the Southern Poverty Law Center". The New Yorker. Retrieved March 30, 2019. In 1995, the Montgomery Advertiser had been a Pulitzer finalist for a series that documented, among other things, staffers’ allegations of racial discrimination within the organization.
  26. ^ Dees, Morris (August 25, 1993). "Young, Gullible and Taught to Hate." The New York Times, via Gale PowerSearch Business Collection. Accessed May 6, 2018.
  27. ^ Botzakis, Stergios; Flynn, Joseph (2013). "Reviewed Work(s): Teaching Tolerance". Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy. 57 (4): 331. JSTOR 24034690.
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  30. ^ "2 Klan Members Plead Guilty To Arson in Black Law Office". The New York Times. AP. February 21, 1985. Retrieved May 15, 2017.
  31. ^ See:
  32. ^ "Death List Names Given to U.S. Jury". The New York Times. UPI. September 17, 1985. Retrieved May 15, 2017.
  33. ^ Klass, Kym (August 17, 2007). "Southern Poverty Law Center beefs up security". Montgomery Advertiser. Archived from the original on September 27, 2007. Retrieved March 25, 2017.
  34. ^ "4 Are Accused in Oklahoma of Bomb Plot". The New York Times. AP. November 14, 1995. Retrieved May 15, 2017.
  35. ^ "Group is accused of plotting assassinations, bombings. Two others will plead guilty Thursday." St Louis Post-Dispatch (MO) (May 13, 1998): p. B1.
  36. ^ Bowden, John (March 14, 2019). "Southern Poverty Law Center fires co-founder". TheHill. Retrieved March 14, 2019.
  37. ^ Hassan, Adeel; Zraick, Karen; and Blinder, Alan (March 14, 2019) "Morris Dees, a Co-Founder of the Southern Poverty Law Center, Is Ousted" The New York Times
  38. ^ "Southern Poverty Law Center fires co-founder Morris Dees". The Montgomery Advertiser. Retrieved March 14, 2019.
  39. ^ Pearce, Matt (March 15, 2019). "Southern Poverty Law Center fires co-founder Morris Dees amid employee uproar". Retrieved March 19, 2019.
  40. ^ Nick Valencia; Pamela Kirkland (March 29, 2019). "Famous civil rights group suffers from 'systemic culture of racism and sexism,' staffers say". CNN. Retrieved March 30, 2019. Horton was a high-ranking African-American woman in the organization. In her resignation letter, obtained by CNN, Horton cited concerns about workplace culture.
  41. ^ Pearce, Matt (March 23, 2019). "Southern Poverty Law Center chief Richard Cohen announces resignation amid internal upheaval". Retrieved March 23, 2019.
  42. ^ Blinder, Alan (March 22, 2019). "Southern Poverty Law Center President Plans Exit Amid Turmoil". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved March 23, 2019.
  43. ^ "Bringing the Klan to Court". Newsweek. 103 (21). May 28, 1984. p. 69. ISSN 0028-9604. Retrieved September 13, 2012.
  44. ^ Applebome, Peter (November 21, 1989). "Two Sides of the Contemporary South: Racial Incidents and Black Progress". The New York Times. Retrieved September 18, 2007.
  45. ^ Sack, Kevin (May 12, 1996). "Conversations/Morris Dees; A Son of Alabama takes on Americans Who Live to Hate". The New York Times. Retrieved September 18, 2007.
  46. ^ See:
  47. ^ Kushner, Harvey W. (1998). The Future of Terrorism: Violence in the New Millennium. SAGE Publications. p. 108. ISBN 978-0761908692.
  48. ^ Stevens, William K. (May 2, 1981). "Klan Official is Accused of Intimidation". The New York Times. Retrieved September 18, 2007.
  49. ^ Stevens, William K. (April 25, 1981). "Klan Inflames Gulf Fishing Fight Between Whites and Vietnamese". The New York Times. Retrieved September 18, 2007.
  50. ^ Gay, Kathlyn (2012). American Dissidents: An Encyclopedia of Activists, Subversives, and Prisoners of Conscience. ABC-CLIO. p. 183. ISBN 978-1598847642.
  51. ^ a b Greenhaw, Wayne (January 1, 2011). Fighting the Devil in Dixie: How Civil Rights Activists Took on the Ku Klux Klan in Alabama. Chicago Review Press. p. 234. ISBN 978-1569768259.
  52. ^ Stevens, William K. (May 15, 1981). "Judge Issues Ban on Klan Threat to Vietnamese". The New York Times. Retrieved September 18, 2007.
  53. ^ a b Gitlin, Marty (2009). The Ku Klux Klan: A Guide to an American Subculture. ABC-CLIO. pp. 41–42. ISBN 978-0313365768.
  54. ^ a b "Person v. Carolina Knights of the Ku Klux Klan" Archived February 14, 2006, at the Wayback Machine, Southern Poverty Law Center website. Retrieved November 21, 2011.
  55. ^ a b c d "Fighting hate in the courtroom." SPLC Report. Special Issue, vol. 38, no. 4. Winter 2008. p. 4.
  56. ^ "Supremacist Glenn Miller gets five years in prison". Wilmington Morning Star. January 5, 1988. Retrieved May 15, 2017.
  57. ^ a b "The Nation Klan Must Pay $7 Million". Los Angeles Times. February 13, 1987. Retrieved September 18, 2007.
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  59. ^ "Five Tied to Klan Indicted on Arms Charges". The New York Times. January 9, 1987. Retrieved September 18, 2007.
  60. ^ Wade, Wyn Craig (1998). The Fiery Cross: The Ku Klux Klan in America. New York: Oxford University Press. p. vii. ISBN 978-0195123579. OCLC 38014230.
  61. ^ "Lawyer makes racists pay". USA Today. October 24, 1990.
  62. ^ The jury divided the judgment as follows: Kyle Brewster, $500,000; Ken Mieske, $500,000; John Metzger, $1 million; WAR, $3 million; Tom Metzger, $5 million; in addition, $2.5 million was awarded for Mulugeta's unrealized future earnings and pain and suffering.
  63. ^ London, Robb (October 26, 1990). "Sending a $12.5 Million Message to a Hate Group". The New York Times. Retrieved September 18, 2007.
  64. ^ Dees & Fiffer (1993), p. 277.
  65. ^ Nealon, Sean (August 24, 2007). "Hate-crime case award will be hard to collect, experts say". The Press-Enterprise. Archived from the original on September 26, 2007. Retrieved May 15, 2017.
  66. ^ "Archive – Creativity Movement". Anti-Defamation League. April 6, 2005. Archived from the original on November 21, 2016. Retrieved November 20, 2016.
  67. ^ "Mansfield v. Church of the Creator". Southern Poverty Law Center. Archived from the original on July 13, 2007. Retrieved August 17, 2007.
  68. ^ Schwartz, Alan M., ed. (June 1, 1996). Danger Extremism: The Major Vehicles and Voices on America's Far-Right Fringe (First ed.). New York, N.Y: Anti Defamation League of Bnai. ISBN 9780884641698.
  69. ^ Michael, George (2006). "RAHOWA! A History of the World Church of the Creator". Terrorism and Political Violence. 18 (4): 561–583. doi:10.1080/09546550600880633.
  70. ^ a b "Mansfield v. Pierce". Southern Poverty Law Center. Archived from the original on July 13, 2007. Retrieved August 17, 2007.
  71. ^ "Klan Must Pay $37 Million for Inciting Church Fire". The New York Times. AP. July 25, 1998. Retrieved May 15, 2017.
  72. ^ "Macedonia v. Christian Knights of the Ku Klux Klan". Southern Poverty Law Center. June 7, 1996. Archived from the original on September 30, 2007. Retrieved September 18, 2007.
  73. ^ Clairborne, William (July 25, 1998). "Klan Chapters Held Liable in Church Fire". Washington Post. Retrieved May 11, 2017.
  74. ^ a b "Keenan v. Aryan Nations". Southern Poverty Law Center. 2000. Archived from the original on July 13, 2007. Retrieved August 17, 2007.
  75. ^ Wakin, Daniel J. (September 9, 2004). "Richard G. Butler, 86, Dies; Founder of the Aryan Nations". The New York Times. Retrieved August 22, 2007.
  76. ^ Regarding the 10 Commandments controversy see:
  77. ^ a b c Pollack, Andrew (August 19, 2005). "2 Illegal Immigrants WinArizona Ranch in Court". The New York Times. Retrieved March 28, 2017.
  78. ^ "Leiva v. Ranch Rescue" Archived February 14, 2006, at the Wayback Machine. Southern Poverty Law Center. Retrieved November 21, 2011.
  79. ^ "The Beating of Billy Ray Johnson". Texas Monthly. February 2007. Archived from the original on August 18, 2007. Retrieved August 17, 2007.
  80. ^ Witt, Howard (April 21, 2007). $9 million award in beating case Chicago Tribune, Retrieved May 15, 2017
  81. ^ Parker, Laura (April 26, 2007). "A jury's stand against racism reflects hope". USA Today. Retrieved August 17, 2007.
  82. ^ Larowe, Lynn (April 19, 2007). "Ex-jailer denies part in assault cover-up". Texarkana Gazette. Archived from the original on September 28, 2007. Retrieved May 15, 2017.
  83. ^ a b "No. 2 Klan group on trial in Ky. teen's beating: Southern Poverty Law Center hopes case will bankrupt hate group". NBC News. Associated Press. November 11, 2008. Retrieved May 15, 2017.
  84. ^ a b "Jordan Gruver and Cynthia Gruver vs. Imperial Klans of America". Southern Poverty Law Center. July 25, 2007. Archived from the original on September 30, 2007. Retrieved September 18, 2007.
  85. ^ See:
    • O'Neill, Ann (November 17, 2008). "Jury awards $2.5 million to teen beaten by Klan members". CNN. Retrieved May 15, 2017.
    • Note: two other defendants in the civil case, Watkins and Cowles, previously agreed to confidential settlements and were dropped from the suit. Kenning, Chris (November 15, 2008). "$2.5 million awarded in Klan beating", The Courier-Journal (Louisville, Kentucky), p. 1.
  86. ^ Burnett, John (March 25, 2011). "Town Relies On Troubled Youth Prison For Profits". NPR.
  87. ^ "MDOC Opens Youthful Offender Unit" Archived January 30, 2016, at the Wayback Machine, Press Release, December 12, 2012, Mississippi Dept. of Corrections, Retrieved January 30, 2016
  88. ^ C.B., et al. v. Walnut Grove Correctional Authority, et al., Southern Poverty Law Center
  89. ^ Goode, Erica (June 7, 2014). "Seeing Squalor and Unconcern in a Mississippi Jail". The New York Times. Retrieved January 8, 2015.
  90. ^ Gabriel Eber (May 30, 2013). "New Lawsuit: Massive Human Rights Violations at Mississippi Prison", ACLU. Retrieved December 3, 2014.
  91. ^ Dockery v. Epps, updated September 2015, Cases: Prisoners' Rights, ACLU official website; accessed March 7, 2017
  92. ^ "Hughes, et al. v. Sheriff Grady Judd, et al". Southern Poverty Law Center. Retrieved May 31, 2019.
  93. ^ "Judge rules in favot of Polk in juvenile detainee case". Orlando Sentinel. Bartow, Florida. Associated Press. April 16, 2015. Retrieved March 5, 2017.
  94. ^ Schottelkotte, Suzie (April 16, 2015). "Southern Poverty Law Center Rebuked: Court Rejects SPLC's Allegations About Jail". The Ledger. Tampa, Florida. Retrieved March 5, 2017.
  95. ^ Schottelkotte, Suzie (September 30, 2015). "Polk County Sheriff's Office won't recover $1 million in legal fees from Southern Poverty Law Center lawsuit". The Ledger. Bartow, Florida. Retrieved March 5, 2017.
  96. ^ Kirkland, Allegra (April 18, 2017). "Lawsuit: Neo-Nazi Led Anti-Semitic Harassment Campaign Against Montana Woman". Talking Points Memo". Retrieved May 16, 2017
  97. ^ Robertson, Adi (April 17, 2018). "White supremacist website hit with lawsuit over harassment campaign". The Verge, Retrieved May 15, 2017
  98. ^ Storey, Kate (August 29, 2019). "Tanya Gersh Was the Target of a Neo-Nazi 'Troll Storm.' Then She Fought Back—and Was Awarded $14 Million". Esquire. Retrieved September 17, 2019.
  99. ^ "Neo-Nazi website founder owes $14 million to woman he urged readers to harass". NBC News. Associated Press. August 9, 2019. Retrieved September 17, 2019.
  100. ^ O'Brien, Luke (April 25, 2019). "Neo-Nazi Andrew Anglin's Lawyers Want To Ditch Him In High-Profile Harassment Case". HuffPost. Retrieved September 17, 2019.
  101. ^ See:
  102. ^ "Best Activism Sites".
  103. ^ Willoughby, Brian (2003). 10 Ways To Fight Hate on Campus: A Response Guide for College Activists (PDF). Southern Poverty Law Center. OCLC 53621205. Retrieved May 2, 2017.
  104. ^ "The 67th Academy Awards (1995) Nominees and Winners". Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. AMPAS. Retrieved May 2, 2017. and 2005 Academy Awards[permanent dead link]
  105. ^ Sun, Rebecca (May 9, 2017). "Southern Poverty Law Center Developing Docuseries With Black Box Management (Exclusive)". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved May 25, 2017.
  106. ^ For information on training see:
  107. ^ For information about hate groups provided to the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). See:
  108. ^ "Head of Oregon's FBI: Bureau doesn't designate Proud Boys as extremist group". December 4, 2018. Retrieved December 8, 2018.
  109. ^ Blazak, Randy (2009). "Chapter 8: Towards a Working Definition of Hate Groups". In Perry, Barbara; Levin, Brian (eds.). Hate Crimes: Volume 1, Understanding and Defining Hate Crimes. Westport, Connecticut: Praeger. pp. 133, 143. ISBN 978-0275995737.
  110. ^ Heim, Joe (February 21, 2018). "Hate groups in the U.S. remain on the rise, according to new study". Washington Post.
  111. ^ OCLC 70790007
  112. ^ See:
  113. ^ Traska, Maria R. (2014). "EXTREMISM @ the LIBRARY". American Libraries. 45 (6): 32–35. JSTOR 24603509.
  114. ^ OCLC 753911264
  115. ^ For the articles and awards see:
  116. ^ "Intelligence Report, browse all issues web page". SPLC. Archived from the original on May 8, 2015. Retrieved May 6, 2015.
  117. ^ Walker, Jesse (February 16, 2017). "The Southern Poverty Law Center Is Counting Extremists Again: Do its numbers tell a story?". Reason Magazine. Reason Foundation. ISSN 0048-6906. Retrieved April 19, 2017.
  118. ^ a b Dobratz, Betty A.; Shanks-Meile, Stephanie L. (2009). The White Separatist Movement in the United States: "White Power, White Pride!", The Johns Hopkins University Press, pp. 1–3.
  119. ^ Berger, J.M. (March 12, 2013). "The Hate List: Is America really being overrun by right-wing militants?". Foreign Policy. ISSN 1745-1302. Retrieved April 20, 2017.
  120. ^ Thiessen, Marc (June 22, 2018). "The Southern Poverty Law Center has lost all credibility". The Washington Post. Retrieved August 20, 2019.
  121. ^ Beinart, Peter (March 6, 2017). "A Violent Attack on Free Speech at Middlebury". The Atlantic. Retrieved August 20, 2019.
  122. ^ Jaschik, Scott (March 6, 2017). "The Aftermath at Middlebury". Inside Higher Ed. Retrieved August 20, 2019.
  123. ^ Tom Watkins (August 17, 2012). "After D.C. shooting, fingers point over blame". CNN.
  124. ^ Carl M. Cannon (March 19, 2017). "The Hate Group That In:cited the Middlebury Melee". Real Clear Politics.
  125. ^ Wilcox (2002), pp. 309–10
  126. ^ McCain, Robert Stacy. "Researcher Says 'Watchdogs' Exaggerate Hate Group Threat", The Washington Times, May 9, 2000.
  127. ^ Hsu, Spencer S. (September 15, 2009). "Immigration, Health Debates Cross Paths". The Washington Post. Retrieved April 18, 2017.
  128. ^ Federation for American Immigration Reform. Southern Poverty Law Center
  129. ^ Extremist Files: Family Research Council. Southern Poverty Law Center, 2016
  130. ^ Cratty, Carol (September 19, 2013), 25-year sentence in Family Research Council shooting, CNN, retrieved August 26, 2018
  131. ^ Cratty, Carol; Pearson, Michael (February 7, 2013). "DC shooter wanted to kill as many as possible, prosecutors say". CNN. Retrieved August 26, 2018. Corkins -- who had chosen the research council as his target after finding it listed as an anti-gay group on the website of the Southern Poverty Law Center -- had planned to stride into the building and open fire on the people inside in an effort to kill as many as possible, he told investigators, according to the court documents.
  132. ^ Signorile, Michelangelo (August 22, 2012). "Dana Milbank, Washington Post Writer, Slams LGBT Activists, SPLC For FRC's 'Hate Group' Label". HuffPost Gay Voices. Retrieved March 28, 2014.
  133. ^ For commentary on the LGBT and FRC issues see:
  134. ^ Wong, Curtis M. (February 9, 2015). "GOP Presidential Hopeful Ben Carson Named To Southern Poverty Law Center's Anti-Gay Extremist List". The Huffington Post. Retrieved April 20, 2017.
  135. ^ See:
  136. ^ "A Journalist's Manual: Field Guide to Anti-Muslim Extremists". Montgomery, Ala.: Southern Poverty Law Center. October 25, 2016. Archived from the original on November 9, 2016.
  137. ^ Walsh, Michael (October 31, 2016). "SPLC receives backlash after placing activist Maajid Nawaz on 'anti-Muslim extremist' list". Yahoo! News. Retrieved May 15, 2017.
  138. ^ Maajid Nawaz (October 29, 2016). "I'm A Muslim Reformer. Why Am I Being Smeared as an 'Anti-Muslim Extremist'?". The Daily Beast.
  139. ^ Nawaz: Southern Poverty Law Center put a target on my head, Fox News, June 26, 2017
  140. ^ Maajid Nawaz Interview Real Time with Bill Maher (HBO)
  141. ^ a b Cohen, Richard (June 18, 2018). "SPLC Statement Regarding Maajid Nawaz and the Quilliam Foundation". Southern Poverty Law Center.
  142. ^ Price, Greg (June 18, 2018). "Southern Poverty Law Center Settles Lawsuit After Falsely Labeling 'Extremist' Organization". Newsweek. Retrieved June 19, 2018.
  143. ^ Graham, David (June 18, 2018). "The Unlabelling of an 'Anti-Muslim Extremist'". The Atlantic. Retrieved August 20, 2019.
  144. ^ Staff (June 18, 2018) "Southern Poverty Law Center, Inc. Admits It Was Wrong, Apologizes to Quilliam and Maajid Nawaz for Field Guide to Anti-Muslim Extremists, and Agrees to Pay $3.375 Million Settlement", Quilliam website
  145. ^ SPLC to pay $3.4 million to British group it called anti-Muslim extremists. Associated Press, June 18, 2018
  146. ^ Anthony Man (August 24, 2017). "Fort Lauderdale's D. James Kennedy Ministries sues over being labeled 'hate group'". Sun Sentinel.
  147. ^ Darby, Adam (August 27, 2017). "Christian ministry labeled as a hate group is suing SPLC to 'right a terrible wrong'". Kansan City Star.
  148. ^ Southern Poverty Law Center ‘hate group’ label hit in evangelicals’ lawsuit by Elizabeth Llorente, Fox News, August 24, 2017
  149. ^ The Trump administration is paying Focus on the Family to stop the AIDS epidemic in South Africa. ThinkProgress, April 18, 2018
  150. ^ A Dozen Major Groups Help Drive the Religious Right's Anti-Gay Crusade. Southern Poverty Law Center, 2005.
  151. ^ Report and Recommendation Archived February 21, 2018, at the Wayback Machine. United States Magistrate Judge David A. Baker, United States District Court for the Middle District of Alabama. February 21, 2018
  152. ^ CORAL RIDGE MINISTRIES MEDIA INC. V. AMAZON.COM, INC., et al. United States District Court for the Middle District of Alabama, September 19, 2019
  153. ^ Flood, Brian (March 16, 2018). "Southern Poverty Law Center apologizes after painting journalists as fascists in retracted article". Foxnews. Retrieved March 16, 2018.
  154. ^ "Explanation and apology: The multipolar spin: how fascists operationalize left-wing resentment". Southern Poverty Law Center. March 14, 2018.
  155. ^ Ansari, Talal (March 12, 2018). "The Southern Poverty Law Center Took Down An Article Trying To Connect 'Left-Wing' People And 'Fascists' After Getting Complaints". Buzzfeed News. Retrieved January 19, 2020.
  156. ^ Davis, Charles (April 3, 2018). "An Inside Look at How Pro-Russia Trolls Got the SPLC to Censor a Commie". New Politics. Retrieved January 19, 2020.
  157. ^ Marquardt-Bigman, Petra (April 11, 2018). "Max Blumenthal Unwittingly Exposes the Southern Poverty Law Center's Blind Spot on Antisemitism". The Algemeiner. Retrieved January 19, 2020.
  158. ^ Bixby, Scott (January 16, 2019). "Anti-Immigration Group Files RICO Suit Against Southern Poverty Law Center Over 'Hate Group' Label". Daily Beast. Retrieved May 9, 2019.
  159. ^ Dinan, Stephen (January 16, 2019). "Immigration group files RICO lawsuit over Southern Poverty Law Center 'hate' label". Associated Press.
  160. ^ "Is the Center for Immigration Studies a 'hate group' ?". PolitiFact Florida.
  161. ^ [1]
  162. ^ "Endowment Supports Center's Future Work". Southern Poverty Law Center. June 2003. Archived from the original on September 30, 2007. Retrieved September 18, 2007.
  163. ^ Morse, Dan (February 14, 1994). "A Complex Man". Montgomery Advertiser. 167 (45). The Advertiser Co. p. 1A. Retrieved March 15, 2019. Some who've worked with Mr. Dees call him phony, the 'television evangelist' of civil rights who misleads donors into thinking the center desperately needs their money.
  164. ^ For the Montgomery Advertiser articles, SPLC response, and commentary, see:
  165. ^ For the Pulitzer Prize, see: For SPLC's challenge, see
  166. ^ Roger Chapman, James Ciment, Culture Wars: An Encyclopedia of Issues, Viewpoints and Voices (Routledge, 2015), p.620
  167. ^ For charity evaluations see:


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