Reorganization plan of United States Army

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Graphic legend of Army Transformation

The reorganization plan of the United States Army is a current modernization and reorganization plan of the United States Army that was implemented under the direction of Brigade Modernization Command. This effort formally began in 2006 when General Peter Schoomaker (the Army Chief of Staff at the time), was given the support to move the Army from its Cold War divisional orientation to a full-spectrum capability with fully manned, equipped and trained brigades; this effort was completed by the end of 2016.[1] It has been the most comprehensive reorganization since World War II and included modular combat brigades, support brigades, and command headquarters, as well as rebalancing the active and reserve components. The plan was first proposed by the Army's 34th Chief of Staff, Eric Shinseki, in 1999, but was bitterly opposed internally by the Army.[2] By 2020, the Army's 40th Chief of Staff was calling for transformational change, rather than incremental change by the Army.[3]:minute 4:55

In the summer of 2018, the U.S. Army Futures Command (AFC),[4][5] a new Army command for modernization was activated.[6][7] The modernization effort, coordinated with FORSCOM, Army Materiel Command, and TRADOC, addresses the long lead times[8] for introducing new materiel and capabilities into the brigades of the Army.[6][9][10]

In the fall of 2018, Army Strategy for the next ten years was articulated.[11] The strategy listed four Lines of Effort to be implemented:[11]

  1. Build readiness by 2022
  2. Modernization in the midterm around 2022
  3. Reform by 2020
  4. Strengthen alliances and partnerships;[12][13][14] [15] in 2019 the efforts were augmented, in the Army Posture statement:
  5. People & values[16][17][18][19] [20] [21]

By 2028, in Multi-Domain Operations (MDO)— as part of the Joint force, Army Strategy is to counter a near-peer adversary which is capable of competition in all domains.[22][23][24][25][26][27] In 2019, the planning was for large-scale ground combat operations (LSCO) at echelons above the brigade combat team.[28][29][16]

Origin and initial design

Before General Schoomaker's tenure, the Army was organized around large, mostly mechanized divisions, of around 15,000 soldiers each, with the aim of being able to fight two major theatres simultaneously. Under the new plan, the Army would be organized around modular brigades of 3,000–4,000 soldiers each, with the aim of being able to deploy continuously in different parts of the world, and effectively organizing the Army closer to the way it fights. An additional 30,000 soldiers were recruited as a short-term measure to assist in the structural changes, although a permanent end-strength change was not expected because of fears of future funding cuts, forcing the Army to pay for the additional personnel from procurement and readiness accounts. Up to 60% of the defense budget is spent on personnel and an extra 10,000 soldiers would cost US$1.4 billion annually.

On November 22 and 23, 2002, the Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs held the "Belfer Center Conference on Military Transformation". It brought together present and former defense officials and military commanders for the stated purpose of assessing the Department of Defense's progress in achieving a "transformation" of U.S. military capabilities. The conference was held at the Belfer Center at Harvard University's John F. Kennedy School of Government. The United States Army War College and the Dwight D. Eisenhower National Security Series were co-sponsors.[30] In some respects this could be said to have been the birthplace of Transformation as a formal paradigm.

In 2004, the United States Army Forces Command (FORSCOM), which commands most active Army and Army Reserve forces based in the Continental United States, was tasked with supervising the modular transformation of its subordinate structure.

In March 2004, a contract was awarded to Anteon Corporation (now part of General Dynamics) to provide Modularity Coordination Cells (MCC) to each transforming corps, division and brigade within FORSCOM. Each MCC contained a team of functional area specialists who provided direct, ground-level support to the unit. The MCCs were coordinated by the Anteon office in Atlanta, Georgia.

In 2007 a new deployment scheme known as Grow the Army was adopted that enabled the Army to carry out continuous operations.[31] The plan was modified several times including an expansion of troop numbers in 2007 and changes to the number of modular brigades. On 25 June 2013, plans were announced to disband 13 modular brigade combat teams (BCTs) and expand the remaining brigades with an extra maneuver battalion, extra fires batteries, and an engineer battalion.

History of ARFORGEN

The Secretary of the Army approved implementing ARFORGEN, a transformational force generation model, in 2006. ARFORGEN process diagram 2010 Army Posture Statement, Addendum F, Army Force Generation (ARFORGEN)[32]

ARFORGEN model concept development began in the summer of 2004 and received its final approval from the Army's senior leadership in early 2006.[33]

FORSCOM, Department of the Army AR 525-29 Military Operations, Army Force Generation, 14 Mar 2011[dead link]

In 2016 the Army force generation process ARFORGEN was sidelined because it relied mostly on the Active Army, in favor of the total force policy, which includes the Reserve and National Guard; in the new model, the total force could have fallen to 980,000 by 2018,[34] subject to DoD's Defense Strategic Guidance to the Joint Staff.[35]:note especially pp.1–3 By 15 June 2017, the Department of the Army approved an increase in the Active Army's end-strength from 475,000 to 476,000. The total Army end-strength increases to 1.018 million.[36]

Planning process, evolution, and transformation

The commander-in-chief directs the planning process, through guidance to the Army by the Secretary of Defense.[35] Every year, Army Posture Statements by the Secretary of the Army and the Chief of Staff of the Army summarize their assessment[ReadyArmy 1]:minute 1:15:00/1:22:58 of the Army's ability to respond to world events,[37][38] and also to transform for the future.[39] In support of transformation for the future, TRADOC, upon the advice of the Army's stakeholders, has assembled 20 warfighting challenges.[40] These challenges are under evaluation during annual Army warfighting assessments, such as AWA 17.1, held in October 2016. AWA 17.1 is an assessment by 5,000 US Soldiers, Special Operations Forces, Airmen, and Marines,[41] as well as by British, Australian, Canadian, Danish, and Italian troops.[42][43][44][45] For example, "reach-back" is among the capabilities being assessed; when under attack in an unexpected location, a Soldier on the move might use WIN-T. At the halt, a light Transportable Tactical Command Communications (T2C2 Lite) system[46]:p.356 [47] [48] [49] [50] could reach back to a mobile command post, to communicate the unexpected situation to higher echelons,[51][52] a building block in multi-domain operations.[53] [54][11][55]

Implementation and current status

Grow the Army was a transformation and re-stationing initiative of the United States Army which began in 2007 and was scheduled to be completed by fiscal year 2013. The initiative was designed to grow the army by almost 75,000 soldiers, while realigning a large portion of the force in Europe to the continental United States in compliance with the 2005 Base Realignment and Closure suggestions. This grew the force from 42 Brigade Combat Teams (BCTs) and 75 modular support brigades in 2007 to 45 Brigade Combat Teams and 83 modular support brigades by 2013.

On 25 June 2013, US Army Chief of Staff General Raymond T. Odierno announced plans to disband 13 brigade combat teams and reduce troop strengths by 80,000 soldiers. While the number of BCTs will be reduced, the size of remaining BCTs will increase, on average, to about 4,500 soldiers. That will be accomplished, in many cases, by moving existing battalions and other assets from existing BCTs into other brigades. Two brigade combat teams in Germany had already been deactivated and a further 10 brigade combat teams slated for deactivation were announced by General Odierno on 25 June. (An additional brigade combat team was announced for deactivation 6 November 2014.) At the same time the maneuver battalions from the disbanded brigades will be used to augment armored and infantry brigade combat teams with a third maneuver battalion and expanded brigades fires capabilities by adding a third battery to the existing fires battalions. Furthermore, all brigade combat teams—armored, infantry and Stryker—will gain a Brigade Engineer Battalion, with "gap-crossing" and route-clearance capability.[56]

On 6 November 2014, it was reported that the 1st Armored Brigade Combat Team, 2nd Infantry Division, currently stationed in South Korea, was to be deactivated in June 2015 and be replaced by a succession of U.S.-based brigade combat teams, which are to be rotated in and out, at the same nine-month tempo as practiced by the Army from 2001–2014.[57]

Eleven brigades were inactivated by 2015. The remaining brigades as of 2015 are listed below. On 16 March 2016, the Deputy Commanding General (DCG) of FORSCOM announced that the brigades would now also train to move their equipment to their new surge location as well as to train for the requirements of their next deployment.[58][59][60][61]

By 2018, Secretary of the Army Mark Esper noted that even though the large deployments to Iraq and Afghanistan had ceased, at any given time, three of the Armored Brigade Combat Teams are deployed to EUCOM, CENTCOM, and INDOPACOM, respectively, while two Infantry Brigade Combat Teams are deployed to Iraq, and Afghanistan, respectively.[62]

[At any given time,] there are more than 100,000 Soldiers deployed around the world —Secretary of the Army Mark Esper[62]

In 2019 the Secretary of the Army asserted that the planning efforts, including Futures Command, the SFABs, and the Decisive Action readiness training of the BCTs are preparing the Army for competition with both near-peer and regional powers.[63] [64] The Army and Marine Corps have issued "clear explanations and guidance for the 429 articles of the Geneva Conventions".[65][66]

The Budget Control Act could potentially restrict funds by 2020.[67][68][69][70][71][72][73][74][75][76] [77] By the 2024-2025 time frame, the fiscal year development plan (FYDP) will have reallocated $10 billion more into development of the top 6 modernization priorities, taking those funds from legacy spending budgets.[78]

Reorganization plans by unit type

The Army has now been organized around modular brigades of 3,000–4,000 soldiers each, with the aim of being able to deploy continuously in different parts of the world, and effectively organizing the Army closer to the way it fights. The fact that this modernization is now in place has been acknowledged by the renaming of the 'Brigade Modernization Command' to the "U.S. Army Joint Modernization Command," on 16 February 2017.[1]

Modular combat brigades

Modular combat brigades are self-contained combined arms formations.[79] They are standardized formations across the active and reserve components, meaning an Armored BCT at Fort Hood is the same as one at Fort Stewart.[Note 1]

Reconnaissance plays a large role in the new organizational designs. The Army felt the acquisition of the target was the weak link in the chain of finding, fixing, closing with, and destroying the enemy. The Army felt that it had already sufficient lethal platforms to take out the enemy and thus the number of reconnaissance units in each brigade was increased.[Note 2][80] The brigades sometimes depend on joint fires from the Air Force and Navy to accomplish their mission. As a result, the amount of field artillery has been reduced in the brigade design.

The three types of BCTs are Armored Brigade Combat Teams (ABCTs), Infantry Brigade Combat Teams (IBCTs) (includes Light, Air Assault and Airborne units), and Stryker Brigade Combat Teams (SBCTs).

Armored Brigade structure

Armored Brigade Combat Teams, or ABCTs consist of 4,743 troops. This includes the third maneuver battalion as laid out in 2013. The changes announced by the U.S. army on 25 June 2013,[56] include adding a third maneuver battalion to the brigade, a second engineer company to a new Brigade Engineer Battalion, a third battery to the FA battalion, and reducing the size of each battery from 8 to 6 guns. These changes will also increase the number of troops in the affected battalions and also increase the total troops in the brigade. Since the brigade has more organic units, the command structure includes a deputy commander (in addition to the traditional executive officer) and a larger staff capable of working with civil affairs, special operations, psychological operations, air defense, and aviation units. An Armored BCT consists of:

  • the brigade headquarters and headquarters company (HHC): 43 officers, 17 warrant officers, 125 enlisted personnel – total: 185 soldiers.
  • the Brigade Engineer Battalion (BEB) (formerly Brigade Special Troops Battalion (BSTB)), consisted of a headquarters company, signal company, military intelligence company with a TUAV platoon and two combat engineer companies (A and B company). The former BSTB fielded 28 officers, 6 warrant officers, 470 enlisted personnel – total: 504 soldiers. Each of the combat engineer company fields 13× M2A2 ODS-E, 1× M113A3, 3× M1150 ABV, 1× M9 ACE, and 2× M104 AVLB.
  • a Cavalry (formerly Armed Reconnaissance) Squadron, consisting of a headquarters troop (HHT) and three reconnaissance troops and one armored troop. The HHT fields 2× M3A3 cavalry fighting vehicles and 3× M7A3 fire support vehicles, while each reconnaissance troop fields 7× M3A3 cavalry fighting vehicles. The squadron fields 35 officers and 385 enlisted personnel – total: 424 soldiers.
  • three identical combined arms battalions, flagged as a battalion of an infantry, armored or cavalry regiment. Each battalion consists of a headquarters and headquarters company, two tank companies and two mechanized infantry companies. The battalions field 48 officers and 580 enlisted personnel each – total: 628 soldiers. The HHC fields 1× M1A2 main battle tank, 1× M2A3 infantry fighting vehicle, 3× M3A3 cavalry fighting vehicles, 4× M7A3 fire support vehicles and 4× M1064 mortar carriers with M120 120 mm mortars. Each of the two tank companies fields 14× M1A2 main battle tanks, while each mechanized infantry company fields 14× M2A3 infantry fighting vehicles. In 2016, the ABCT's combined arms battalions adopted a triangle structure, of two armored battalions (of two armored companies plus a single mechanized infantry company) plus a mechanized infantry battalion (of two mechanized companies and one armored company).[81] This resulted in the reduction of two mechanized infantry companies; the deleted armored company was reflagged as a troop to the Cavalry Squadron.
  • a Field Artillery battalion, consisting of a headquarters battery, two cannon batteries with 8× M109A6 self-propelled 155 mm howitzers each (the changes announced by the U.S. Army on 25 June 2013,[56] include adding a third battery to the FA battalion, and reducing the size of each battery from 8 to 6 guns; these changes also increase the number of troops in the affected battalions and also increase the total troops in the Brigade), and a target acquisition platoon. 24 officers, 2 warrant officers, 296 enlisted personnel – total: 322 soldiers.
  • a brigade support battalion (BSB),[82] consisting of a headquarters, medical, distribution and maintenance company, plus six forward support companies, each of which support one of the three combined arms battalions, the cavalry squadron, the engineer battalion and the field artillery battalion. 61 officers, 14 warrant officers, 1,019 enlisted personnel – total: 1,094 soldiers.
Infantry Brigade structure

Infantry Brigade Combat Team, or IBCTs, comprised around 3,300 soldiers, in the pre-2013 design, which did not include the 3rd maneuver battalion. The 2013 end-strength is now 4,413 Soldiers:

  • Special Troops Battalion (now Brigade Engineer Battalion)
  • Cavalry Squadron
  • (2), later (3) Infantry Battalions
  • Field Artillery Battalion
  • Brigade Support Battalion[82]
Stryker Brigade structure

Stryker Brigade Combat Team or SBCTs comprised about 3,900 soldiers, making it the largest of the three combat brigade constructs in the 2006 design, and over 4,500 Soldiers in the 2013 reform. Its design includes:

  • Headquarters Company
  • Cavalry Squadron (with three 14-vehicle, two-120 mm mortar reconnaissance troops plus a surveillance troop with UAVs and NBC detection capability)
  • (3) Stryker infantry battalions (each with three rifle companies with 12 infantry-carrying vehicles, 3 mobile gun platforms, 2 120 mm mortars, and around 100 infantry dismounts each, plus an HHC with scout, mortar and medical platoons and a sniper section.)
  • Engineer Company (folded into the Brigade Engineer Battalion) [An additional engineer company was added to the battalion[56] in the 2013 reform]
  • Signal Company (folded into the Brigade Engineer Battalion)
  • Military Intelligence Company (with UAV platoon) (folded into the Brigade Engineer Battalion)
  • Anti-tank company (9 TOW-equipped Stryker vehicles) (folded into the Brigade Engineer Battalion)
  • Field Artillery Battalion (three 6-gun 155 mm Howitzer batteries, target acquisition platoon, and a joint fires cell)
  • Brigade Support Battalion (headquarters, medical, maintenance, and distribution companies)[82]

Modular support brigades

Combat support brigades

Heavy Combat Aviation Brigade Structure
Full Spectrum Combat Aviation Brigade Structure

Similar modularity will exist for support units which fall into five types: Aviation, Fires (artillery), Battlefield Surveillance (intelligence), Maneuver Enhancement (engineers, signal, military police, chemical, and rear-area support), and Sustainment (logistics, medical, transportation, maintenance, etc.). In the past, artillery, combat support, and logistics support only resided at the division level and brigades were assigned those units only on a temporary basis when brigades transformed into "brigade combat teams" for particular deployments.

Combat Aviation Brigades are multi-functional, offering a combination of attack helicopters (i.e., Apache), reconnaissance helicopters (i.e., Kiowa), medium-lift helicopters (i.e., Blackhawks), heavy-lift helicopters (i.e., Chinooks), and medical evacuation (MEDEVAC) capability. Aviation will not be organic to combat brigades. It will continue to reside at the division-level due to resource constraints.

Heavy divisions (of which there are six) will have 48 Apaches, 38 Blackhawks, 12 Chinooks, and 12 Medevac helicopters in their aviation brigade. These are divided into two aviation attack battalions, an assault lift battalion, a general aviation support battalion. An aviation support battalion will have headquarters, refuelling/resupply, repair/maintenance, and communications companies.[83] Light divisions will have aviation brigades with 60 armed reconnaissance helicopters and no Apaches, with the remaining structure the same. The remaining divisions will have aviation brigades with 30 armed reconnaissance helicopters and 24 Apaches, with the remaining structure the same. Ten Army Apache helicopter units will convert to heavy attack reconnaissance squadrons, with 12 RQ-7B Shadow drones apiece.[80][84] The helicopters to fill out these large, combined-arms division-level aviation brigades comes from aviation units that used to reside at the corps-level.

Fires Brigade Structure

Field Artillery Brigades (formerly known as "Fire Brigades" prior to 2014) provide traditional artillery fire (Paladin Howitzer, M270 MLRS, HIMARS) as well as information operations and non-lethal effects capabilities. After the 2013 reform, the expertise formerly embodied in the pre-2007 Division Artillery (DIVARTY) was formally re-instituted in the Division Artillery Brigades of 2015.[85] The operational Fires battalions will now report to this new formulation of DIVARTY, for training and operational Fires standards, as well as to the BCT.[86][87]

Air Defense: The Army will no longer provide an organic air defense artillery (ADA) battalion to its divisions. Nine of the ten active component (AC) divisional ADA battalions and two of the eight reserve (ARNG) divisional ADA battalions will deactivate. The remaining AC divisional ADA battalion along with six ARNG divisional ADA battalions will be pooled at the Unit of Employment to provide on-call air and missile defense (AMD) protection. The pool of Army AMD resources will address operational requirements in a tailorable and timely manner without stripping assigned AMD capability from other missions. Maneuver short-range air defense (MSHORAD)[88] with laser cannon prototypes are fielding by 2020.[89]

Maneuver Enhancement Brigades are designed to be self-contained, and will command units such as chemical, military police, civil affairs units, and tactical units such as a maneuver infantry battalion. These formations are designed to be joint so that they can operate with coalition, or joint forces such as the Marine Corps, or can span the gap between modular combat brigades and other modular support brigades.[Note 3]

Combat Sustainment Brigade Structure

Sustainment Brigades provide echelon-above-brigade-level logistics.[90] On its rotation to South Korea, 3rd ABCT, 1st Armored Division deployed its supply support activity (SSA) common authorized stockage list (CASL)[91] as well.[92] The CASL allows the ABCT to draw additional stocks beyond its pipeline of materiel from GCSS-A.[92] The DoD-level Global Combat Support System includes an Army-level tool (GCSS-A), which runs on tablet computers with bar code readers which 92-A specialists use to enter and track materiel requests, as the materiel makes its way through the supply chain to the brigades.[93] This additional information can then be used by GCSS-A to trigger resupply for Army pre-positioned stocks,[93] typically by sea.

Battlefield Surveillance Brigade Structure

The former Battlefield Surveillance Brigades,[94] now denoted Military Intelligence Brigades (Expeditionary), will offer additional UAVs and long-term surveillance detachments.[95] Each of the three active duty brigades is attached to an Army Corps.[94]

Maneuver Enhancement Brigade Structure

Security Force Assistance Brigades

Security Force Assistance Brigades (SFABs) are brigades whose mission is to train, advise, and assist (TAA) the armed forces of other coalition partners. The SFAB are neither bound by conventional decisive operations nor counter-insurgency operations. Operationally, a 500-soldier SFAB would free-up a 4500-soldier BCT from a TAA mission. On 23 June 2016 General Mark Milley revealed plans for train/advise/assist Brigades, consisting of seasoned officers and NCOs with a full chain of command,[96]:Minute 18:40/1:00:45 but no junior Soldiers. In the event of a national emergency the end-strengths of the SFABs could be augmented with new soldiers from basic training and advanced individual training.[96]

An SFAB was projected to consist of 500 senior officers and NCOs, which, the Army says, could act as a cadre to reform a full BCT in a matter of months.[97] In May 2017, the initial SFAB staffing of 529 soldiers was underway, including 360 officers. The officers will have had previous command experience.[96]:21:20 Commanders and leaders will have previously led BCTs at the same echelon.[98] The remaining personnel, all senior NCOs, are to be recruited from across the Army.[99][100][101] Promotable E-4s who volunteer for the SFAB are automatically promoted to Sergeant upon completion of the Military Advisor Training Academy.[102] A team of twelve soldiers would include a medic, personnel for intelligence support, and air support,[103] as cited by Keller.[104] [105]

These SFABs would be trained in languages, how to work with interpreters,[106] and equipped with the latest equipment[107] such as Integrated Tactical Network (ITN)[108] using T2C2 systems[109][110] including secure, but unclassified, communications[111] and weapons to support coalition partners,[112] as well as unmanned aircraft systems (UASs).[113] The first five SFABs would align with the Combatant Commands (CENTCOM, USINDOPACOM, AFRICOM, ...) as required; an SFAB could provide up to 58 teams (possibly with additional Soldiers for force protection).[112]

Funding for the first two SFABs was secured in June 2017.[36] By October 2017, the first of six planned SFABs (the 1st Security Force Assistance Brigade)[114] was established at Fort Benning.[115][96]:minute 50:00 On 16 October 2017, BG Brian Mennes of Force Management in the Army's G3/5/7 announced accelerated deployment of the first two SFABs, possibly by Spring 2018 to Afghanistan and Iraq, if required.[112] This was approved in early July 2017, by the Secretary of Defense and the Chief of Staff of the Army. On 8 February 2018, 1st SFAB held an activation ceremony at Fort Benning, revealing its colors and heraldry for the first time, and then cased its colors for the deployment to Afghanistan.[116] 1st Security Force Assistance Brigade deployed to Afghanistan in Spring 2018.[117]

On 8 December 2017, the Army announced the activation of the second Security Force Assistance Brigade,[118] for January 2018, the second of six planned SFABs. The SFAB are to consist of about 800 senior and noncommissioned officers who have served at the same echelon, with proven expertise in advise-and-assist operations with foreign security forces. Fort Bragg was chosen as the station for the second SFAB[119] in anticipation of the time projected to train a Security Force Assistance Brigade.[118] On 17 January 2018 Chief of Staff Mark Milley announced the activation of the third SFAB.[104] 2nd SFAB undergoes three months of training beginning October 2018, to be followed by a Joint Readiness Training Center Rotation beginning January 2019, and deployment in spring 2019.[120] The 3rd, 4th, and 5th SFABs are to be stationed at Fort Hood, Fort Carson, and Joint Base Lewis-McChord, respectively;[121] the headquarters station for the National Guard SFAB (54th SFAB) will be in Indiana, one of six states to contribute an element of 54th SFAB.[122] It is likely that these brigades will be seeing service in the CENTCOM Area of Responsibility (AOR).[123][124]

The Security Force Assistance Command (SFAC), a one-star division-level command[125] and all six SFABs will be activated by 2020.[11] The Security Force Assistance Directorate, a one-star Directorate for the SFABs, will be part of FORSCOM in Fort Bragg. SFAD will be responsible for the Military Advisor Training Academy as well.[126][127] The 1st SFAB commander was promoted to Brigadier General in Gardez, Afghanistan on 18 August 2018.[128] The 2nd SFAB commander was promoted to Brigadier General 7 September 2018.[129] SFAC and 2nd SFAB were activated in a joint ceremony at Fort Bragg on 3 December 2018.[125] 2nd SFAB deployed to Afghanistan in February 2019.[130][131] 3rd SFAB activated at Fort Hood on 16 July 2019;[132] 3rd SFAB will relieve 2nd SFAB in Afghanistan for the Winter 2019 rotation.[133]

Security Assistance is part of The Army Strategy 2018's Line of Effort 4: "Strengthen Alliances and Partnerships".[11] The Security Assistance Command is based at Redstone Arsenal[134] (but the SFAC is based at Fort Bragg).[125]

Army Field Support Brigades

Army Field Support Brigades (AFSBs) have been utilized to field materiel in multiple Combatant Command's Areas of Responsibility (AORs).[135] Initially 405th AFSB prepositioned stocks for a partial brigade; eventually, the 405th was to field materiel for an ABCT, a Division headquarters, a Fires Brigade, and a Sustainment Brigade in their AOR, which required multinational agreements.[136] Similarly, 401st AFSB configured materiel for an ABCT in their AOR as well. The objective has been combat configuration: maintain their vehicles to support a 96-hour readiness window for a deployed ABCT on demand.[137] In addition, 403rd Army Field Support Brigade maintains prepositioned stocks for their AOR.

Command headquarters

Below the Combatant Commands echelon, Division commands will command and control their combat and support brigades.[138] Divisions will operate as plug-and-play headquarters commands (similar to corps) instead of fixed formations with permanently assigned units. Any combination of brigades may be allocated to a division command for a particular mission, up to a maximum of four combat brigades. For instance, the 3rd Infantry Division headquarters could be assigned two armor brigades and two infantry brigades based on the expected requirements of a given mission. On its next deployment, the same division may have one Stryker brigade and two armor brigades assigned to it. The same modus operandi holds true for support units. The goal of reorganization with regard to logistics is to streamline the logistics command structure[139] so that combat service support can fulfill its support mission more efficiently.[140][141]

The division headquarters itself has also been redesigned as a modular unit that can be assigned an array of units and serve in many different operational environments.[142] The new term for this headquarters is the UEx (or Unit of Employment, X). The headquarters is designed to be able to operate as part of a joint force, command joint forces with augmentation, and command at the operational level of warfare (not just the tactical level). It will include organic security personnel and signal capability plus liaison elements. As of March 2015, nine of the ten regular Army division headquarters, and two national guard division headquarters are committed in support of Combatant Commands.[37]:Executive Summary [143][144]

When not deployed, the division will have responsibility for the training and readiness of a certain number of modular brigades units. For instance, the 3rd Infantry Division headquarters module based at Fort Stewart, GA is responsible for the readiness of its combat brigades and other units of the division, assuming they have not been deployed separately under a different division.

The re-designed headquarters module comprises around 1,000 soldiers including over 200 officers. It includes:

  • A Main Command Post where mission planning and analysis are conducted
  • A mobile command group for commanding while on the move
  • (2) Tactical Command Posts to exercise control of brigades[145]
  • Liaison elements
  • A special troops battalion with a security company and signal company

Divisions will continue to be commanded by major generals, unless coalition requirements require otherwise. Regional army commands (e.g. 3rd Army, 7th Army, 8th Army) will remain in use in the future but with changes to the organization of their headquarters designed to make the commands more integrated and relevant in the structure of the reorganized Army, as the chain of command for a deployed division headquarters now runs directly to an Army service component command (ASCC), or to FORSCOM.[142]

In January 2017, examples of pared-down tactical operations centers, suitable for brigades and divisions, were demonstrated at a command post huddle at Fort Bliss. The huddle of the commanders of FORSCOM, United States Army Reserve Command, First Army, I and III Corps, 9 of the Active Army divisions, and other formations discussed standardized solutions for streamlining command posts.[145] The Army is paring-down the tactical operations centers, and making them more agile,[138][146][147][148] to increase their survivability.[87] By July 2019 battalion command posts have demonstrated jump times of just over 3 hours, at the combat training centers, repeated 90 to 120 times in a rotation.[149]

Four major commands

United States Army Futures Command (AFC), "a small agile command"[150] (growing from 12 people at headquarters as of 2018[151] to 24,000 in 25 states and 15 countries in 2019)[152] is slated to be the Army's fourth Army command (ACOM).[153] AFC joined the other Army commands FORSCOM, Army Materiel Command (AMC), and TRADOC as four-star commands. Austin, Texas is the station for the headquarters of Futures Command.[154] Initial operating capability is slated for 2018.[150][155] Although the Army has enjoyed overmatch for the past seventy years,[8] more rapid modernization for conflict with near-peers is the reason for AFC, which will be focused on achieving clear overmatch[156] in six areas — long-range precision fires,[157][158] next-generation combat vehicle, future vertical lift platforms, a mobile & expeditionary Army network,[159][160] air & missile defense capabilities,[161] and soldier lethality[162] (i.e. artillery, armor, aviation, signal, air defense artillery, and infantry respectively see: Futures).

In a reform-oriented break with Army custom, leaders of AFC headquarters will locate in a downtown property of the University of Texas System, while project-driven soldiers and Army civilians will co-locate with entrepreneurs/innovators in tech hubs, in the vision of Under Secretary of the Army Ryan D. McCarthy.[163][164][5] The official activation ceremony of AFC was on 24 August 2018, in Austin, Texas;[165] in a press conference on that day featuring Army Chief of Staff Milley, Secretary Esper, Mayor Adler, and AFC commander Murray,[166] Chief Milley noted that AFC would actively reach out into the community in order to learn, and that Senator John McCain's frank criticism of the acquisition process was instrumental for modernization reform at Futures command.[166]:minute 7:30 In fact, AFC soldiers would blend into Austin by not wearing their uniforms [to work side by side with civilians in the tech hubs], Milley noted in the 24 August 2018 press conference.[166]:minute 6:20 Secretary Esper said he expected failures during the process of learning how to reform the acquisition and modernization process.[166]:minute 18:20

The organizational design of AFC was informed by the cancellation of the Army's Future Combat Systems project. Under Secretary of the Army Ryan D. McCarthy reviewed the reasons for that cancellation.[5]: Minute 19:40 Thus "unity of command and purpose"[5]: Minutes 12:22, 23:01 was a criterion for the design by unifying previous modernization efforts in a single command; the sub-goals would be met in do-able chunks.[167][168] The ratio of uniformed personnel to Army civilian employees is expected to be a talent-based, task-based issue for the AFC commander.[5]: Minute 32:40The expectation is that these reforms will enable cultural change across the entire Army, as a part of attaining full operational capability.[5]: Minute 27:14[169] The Program Executive Offices (PEOs) of ASA (ALT) will have a dotted-line relationship with Futures Command.[170]

In order to separate Army modernization from today's requirement for readiness,[170] eight cross-functional teams (CFTs)[Note 4][7][167][161] were transferred from the other three major commands to Futures Command.[170] United States Army Research, Development and Engineering Command and the United States Army Capabilities Integration Center[171] will report to the new command.[172] ATEC retains its direct reporting relationship to the Chief of Staff of the Army.

The first tranche of transfers into AFC included: Capabilities Integration Center (ARCIC), Capability Development and Integration Directorates (CDIDs), and TRADOC Analysis Center (TRAC) from TRADOC, and RDECOM (including the six research, development and engineering centers (RDECs), and the U.S. Army Research Laboratory (ARL)[173]), and Army Materiel Systems Analysis Activity (AMSAA), from AMC, as announced by Secretary Esper on 4 June 2018.[174] TRADOC's new role is amended accordingly.[174] The Principal Military Deputy to the ASA(ALT) is also deputy commanding general for Combat Systems, Army Futures Command, and leads the PEOs; he has directed each PEO who does not have a CFT to coordinate with, to immediately form one, at least informally.[175] General Murray has announced that AFC intends to be a global command, in its search for disruptive technologies.[176] Army Chief of Staff Milley is looking for AFC to attain full operational capability (FOC) by August 2019.[166]

As this modernized materiel is fielded to the brigades, the scheme is to equip the units with the highest levels of readiness for deployment with upgraded equipment earliest, while continuing to train the remaining units to attain their full mission capability.[177] Note that expertise, in say psychological operations, is not necessarily confined to the Active Army brigades; if some operation were to require the expertise of a National Guard unit for example, an echelon above brigade might require that a unit with the most modern materiel be formed, to utilize that expertise.[55] The 10 Active Army divisions each have a deployable 3D printer for immediate operational requirements (to replace damaged materiel, subject to Army directives).[178][179]

By 2020, in the Fiscal Year 2021 budget request to Congress, the Army Acquisition Executive (AAE) was able to report progress in the partnership between Army Futures Command (viz. its CFTs) and his PEOs in ASA(ALT) —the office of Assistant Secretary of the Army (Acquisition, Logistics & Technology).[180][Note 4]

Multi-domain operations (MDO)

Conflict continuum: competition short of conflict, conflict itself, and the return to competition.[181]:p.10 —Gen. David G. Perkins

In 2017, the concept of multi-domain battle (MDB)[181] had emerged from TRADOC,[182] for which the Army sought joint approval from the other services; instead, the Air Force recommended multi-domain operations (MDO) as the operating concept.[22]

Multi-domain operations cover integrated operation of cyberspace, space (meaning satellite operations, from the Army's perspective), land, maritime, and air.[183] A multi-domain task force was stood up in 2018 in I Corps for the Pacific.[181] MDO in the Pacific has to involve maritime operation; MDO is planned for EUCOM in 2020.[22][184] Multi-domain battalions, first stood up in 2019, comprise a single unit for air, land, space, and cyber domains.[185]

To me, ARCIC’s [MDO] analysis means the Army’s got to be able to sink ships, neutralize satellites, shoot down missiles, and deny the enemy the ability to command and control its forces.

New cyber authorities have been granted under National Security Presidential Memorandum (NSPM) 13;[187] persistent cyber engagements at Cyber command are the new norm for cyber operations.[188] The CG of Futures Command (AFC) has noted that MDO will tie together the initiatives of AFC; but failures are to be expected in the AFC initiatives, and the institutional response of the Army, which is traditionally risk-averse, will test how committed the nation is to Army reforms.[24]

Mesh networking is in play for the Mobile, Expeditionary Network: In Fiscal Year 2019, the network CFT, PEO 3CT, and PEO Soldier leveraged Network Integration Evaluation 18.2[189] for experiments with brigade level scalability.[190] [191][192][193] Among the takeaways was to avoid overspecifying the requirements (in ITN[107][194] Information Systems Initial Capabilities Document) to meet operational needs,[190] such as interoperability with other networks.[195][196]:minute 26:40[197] ITN —Integrated Tactical Network is being fielded to four brigades in 2021.[198] Up through 2028, every two years the Army will insert new capability sets for ITN (Capability sets '21, '23, '25, etc.).[199][200][193]


By 2020 the Army's programs for modernization were now framed as a decades-long process of cooperation with allies and partners,[201][202][203] for competition with potential adversaries who historically have blurred the distinction between peace and war,[204][205] in a continuum of conflict.


JWA 19, Yakima Training Center, Wash., May 6, 2019. Soldiers of 1st Battalion, 17th Infantry Regiment, 2nd Stryker Brigade Combat Team, 2nd Infantry Division heading toward their mission objective.

TRADOC designed exercises for Joint warfighter assessments —JWA 19,[206][207][208] at Fort Lewis, to clarify the jumps for Command Posts, to ensure their survivability during future operations. In 2019, there was a new focus on planning for large-scale ground combat operations (LSCO),[209][210][211][212][213] "that will require echelons above brigade, all of which will solve unique and distinct problems that a given BCT can't solve by itself."—LTG Eric Wesley.[25] [55] Computer simulations (DOTMLPF), of the survivability rates for the units, were then compared with the interaction strategies, tactics and operations of JWA 19, a highly contested environment.[206] JWA 19 occurred at multiple operational speeds, in multiple domains served by multiple services (cyber: operating in milliseconds; air: operations at 500 miles per hour; maritime: 30 knots; and ground: 2 miles per hour). JWA 19 involved the militaries of the US, the United Kingdom, New Zealand, Canada, France, Australia and Singapore.[208] In 2019 Secretary of Defense Mark Esper identified the Indo-Pacific Theater as the priority theater for the United States. [214] A multi-domain task force for the Indo-Pacific Theater is planned for a Defender exercise.[215][216][217][205] However in light of the DoD 60-day travel ban due to the 2019–20 coronavirus pandemic, the number of CONUS-based troops participating in Defender Europe 2020 will be reduced.[218][219][220][221]

JWA 20 will exercise Multi-domain operations, and multinational forces, in EUCOM for 2020.[222][26][223] See: Vostok 2018. EUCOM's Multi-domain task force will be smaller than the Pacific's task force.[224] It is expected that the task forces will be employed in the Defender 2020 exercises in both EUCOM[225] and the Pacific. [224][226] Defender-Europe 2020 will test the ability to deploy 20,000 Soldiers across Europe, for a 37,000-member exercise.[223][227][228] [229][230][231][232] [233] [234]

National standards need to be considered: for example, there is a difference in railroad gauge between Poland and Lithuania, who are both signatories to the Schengen agreement.[233] Residents of those countries which are signatories to the Schengen agreement are restricted from airline travel to the continental United States for thirty days, beginning at midnight on Friday 13 February 2020.[235] (The Pentagon has issued a 60-day travel ban for service members, civilians, and associated family members to/from the countries most affected by the 2019-20 coronavirus pandemic.[219])
  • Elements of the 1st Cavalry, 82nd Airborne, 1st Armored, 1st Infantry, and 3rd Infantry Divisions, 11 National Guard states and seven Army Reserve units are rapidly deploying.[55][236][237][238][239]
    1. Reception, staging, onward movement and integration (RSOI) of a division-sized formation in EUCOM. A National Guard Brigade will draw from pre-positioned stocks in EUCOM.[225][240][193]
    2. An immediate response force from 82nd Airborne Division will conduct joint forcible entries.[ReadyArmy 2][238]
    3. A division command post spread across Europe will conduct JWA 20 to test multi-domain operations (MDO) and other Futures Command capabilities, such as an initial prototype of Tactical Intelligence Targeting Access Node (TITAN),[241] a ground station for integrating the data feed between "sensors and shooters". [242] [243]
      • While in Europe, the units will spread out across the region for separate exercises with allies and partners to participate in their annual exercises. [201]
    4. A river crossing (see M1074 Joint Assault Bridge),[244][245][246] forward passages of lines (one unit passes through a position held by another unit),[247] and a maritime off-load mission will be conducted.
    5. Army forces will clear the training areas, return pre-positioned stocks,[248] consolidate, and redeploy (in this case, to home station).[218]

In September and November 2019 the Department of Defense (DoD) has “scheduled a series of globally integrated exercises with participation from across the US government interagency to refine our plans”[249] — Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Joseph Dunford. This exercise is designed to help Secretary of Defense Mark Esper develop new plans, in the face of a change in chairmanship of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.[249] Specifically what is missing is a joint concept[250] shared at the appropriate operational speed between the several domains, among the respective services, when fighting a peer adversary.—LTG Eric Wesley[251][252][253][254] Note the referenced LRHW graphic depicting a 2019 scenario[255][256] [226] This is a return to the use of echelons above brigade (Divisions, Corps, and Field Armies), with specific tasks to force current adversaries to return to competition, rather than conflict.[257][249][258]

Multi-domain operations (MDO) span multiple domains: cis-lunar space, land, air, maritime, cyber, and populations.[259]:minute 17:45 Echelons above brigade (division, corps, and theater army) engage in a continuum of conflict.


In 2019 the 27th Secretary of Defense ordered the four services and the Joint staff to create a new joint warfighting concept for All-domain operations, operating simultaneously in the air, land, sea, space, cyber, and the electromagnetic spectrum (EMS).[260] In late December 2019, the Air Force, Army, and Navy ran a Joint All-Domain Command and Control (JADC2)[261][191] connection exercise of Advanced Battle Management System (ABMS)[262] for the first time. This exercise is denoted ABMS Onramp, and will occur at four month intervals.[262] JADC2 is a joint multi-domain operation (MDO);[263] the exercise will involve the Army's Long range fires, ground-based troops, and Sentinel radar. The Air Force contributes F-22s and F-35s, while the Navy is bringing F-35Cs and a destroyer to ABMS Onramp.[264][265] The December 2019 exercise used a NORTHCOM scenario.[266] The Joint services each have a command and control (C2) concept to be scaled —for the Army, C2 requires thousands of connections with the sensors and shooters, as compared with hundreds of connections with the sensors and shooters for the Air Force ABMS;[267] —Navy: its newest equipment (the newer Littoral Combat Ships, the MQ-8C, and the Naval Strike Missile) provides standoff for the Navy against its near-peers.[268] In February 2020, voices at the tactical level were supporting cross-domain, cross-role, cross-service interoperation: "Any sensor should be able to link to any shooter and any command and control node".[269] The combination of F-35-based targeting coordinates, Long range precision fires, and Low-earth-orbit satellite capability overmatches the competition, according to Lt. Gen. Eric Wesley.[270] A Space sensor layer of satellites (at 1200 miles above earth)[271] would position hundreds of Low-earth-orbit sensors for tracking hypersonic vehicles. This tracking layer would provide guidance information to the interceptors in the missile defense system.[271] [259] An April 2020 test of ABMS will span bases from Eglin AFB to Nellis AFB; from Yuma Proving Ground to White Sands Missile Range— in this test, a simulated attack will take place on 3 geographic commands: on Space Command, on Northern Command, and on Strategic Command's nuclear command, control, and communications. JADC2 will ensure continuity of commander's intent.[272]

Two Multi-domain task forces are being requested for Indo-Pacom for 2021.[273]


If you want to rapidly integrate all domains in order to take advantage of opportunities on a very lethal battlefield, you need a different type of C2 [command and control] structure. —Lt. Gen. Eric Wesley[249] [22][250]

Return to competition

By 2020 the Joint all-domain concept[260] was converging on the need to return to competition, just short of conflict between near-peers.[181][257] [272][274]

Alliances and partnerships

An ongoing series of programs to strengthen relationships between the Army and its allies and partners is in implementation.[275][276][277][278] These programs include demonstrations of cooperation, interoperability, and preparedness of its partners.[279][280][281][227][282] For example, in 2019 the Army uses DoD's State Partnership Program, to link 22 National Guard Bilateral Affairs Officers (BAOs) with 22 allies or partners in the 54 countries in EUCOM's area of responsibility (AoR) to facilitate their common defense interests[283][284] with the US.[275] In all, 76 partnerships are extant.[285] See: Foreign Area Officer (FAO)

Interoperability exercise for Bulgarian Air Force, Navy, and Land Forces, and United States 10th Army Air and Missile Defense Command U.S. Army Europe, multinational live-fire training exercise Shabla 19, 12 June 2019

In April 2019 Germany's 1st Armored Division (1AD) took the lead of a High command exercise (HICON) at Hohenfels Training Area, primarily for German 21st Armored Brigade, the Lithuanian Iron Wolf Brigade, and their subordinate units; 5,630 participants from 15 nations took part in this Joint multinational exercise, which rotates the lead among the coalition partners. Germany's 1AD already has Dutch, British and Polish officers within its ranks.[286] A US Army Armored battalion, 34th Armored Regiment, took part in the exercise.[287][288] Six engineering advisor teams from 1st Security Force Assistance Brigade (SFAB) provided hands-on experience and testing of secure communications between NATO allies and partners.[289][45][290]

A reciprocal exchange of general officers between France and the US is taking place in 2019, under the U.S. Army Military Personnel Exchange Program (MPEP).[291] Such programs with the UK, Australia, and Canada have already existed with the US.[291]

In 2020 the Secretary of the Army announced 5-month extended rotations to Indo-Pacific countries such as Thailand, the Philippines, and Papua New Guinea.[292] Multi-Domain Operations (MDO) task forces in the region have already been engaging in MDO-like exercises in concert with the armed forces of Japan, Thailand, and Singapore.[292]

Training and readiness

Under Schoomaker, combat training centers (CTCs) emphasized the contemporary operating environment (such as an urban, ethnically-sensitive city in Iraq) and stress units according to the unit mission and the commanders' assessments, collaborating often to support holistic collective training programs, rather than by exception as was formerly the case.

Schoomaker's plan was to resource units based on the mission they are expected to accomplish (major combat versus SASO, or stability and support operations), regardless of component (active or reserve). Instead of using snapshot readiness reports, the Army now rates units based on the mission they are expected to perform given their position across the three force pools ('reset', 'train/ready', and 'available').[293] The Army now deploys units upon each commanders' signature on the certificate of their unit's assessment (viz., Ready). As of June 2016, only one-third of the Army's brigades were ready to deploy.[294] By 2019, two-thirds of the Active Army's brigades[177] and half of the BCTs of the Total Army (both Active and Reserve components) are now at the highest level of readiness.[295] The FY2021 budget request allows two-thirds of the Total Army (1,012,200 Soldiers by 2022) to reach the highest level of readiness by FY2022 —Maj. Gen. Paul Chamberlain.[296][297]

"Soldiers need to be ready[298][ReadyArmy 3] 100 percent of the time."[34]—Robert B. Abrams, FORSCOM commander, June 2, 2016

Chief of Staff Mark Milley's readiness objective is that all operational units be at 90 percent of the authorized strength in 2018, at 100 percent by 2021, and at 105 percent by 2023.[299][300] The observer coach/trainers[301] at the combat training centers, recruiters,[302][303] and drill sergeants are be filled at 100 percent strength by the end of 2018.[299][304] In November 2018, written deployability standards (Army Directive 2018-22) were set by the Secretary and the Chief of Staff of the Army; failure to meet the standard means a soldier has six months to remedy this, or face separation from the Army.[305] The directive does not apply to about 60,000 of the 1,016,000 Soldiers of the Army; 70-80 percent of the 60,000 are non-deployable for medical reasons. Non-deployables have declined from 121,000 in 2017.[305] The Army combat fitness test (ACFT) will test all soldiers; at the minimum, the 3-Repetition Maximum Deadlift, the Sprint-Drag-Carry and an aerobic event will be required of all soldiers, including those with profiles (meaning there is an annotation in their record); the assessment of the alternative aerobic test will be completed by 19 October 2019.[306]

Soldier and Family Readiness Groups

Soldiers and Army spouses belong to Soldier and Family Readiness Groups (SFRGs),[307][308][ReadyArmy 3] renamed from (FRGs)[309] which mirror the command structure of an Army unit — the spouse of the 40th Chief of Staff of the United States Army has served on the FRG at every echelon of the Army. [310]:Ryan McCarthy, minute 39:33 The name change to SFRG is to be more inclusive of single soldiers, single parents, and also those with nontraditional families.[308] An S/FRG seeks to meet the needs of soldiers and their families, for example during a deployment,[311] or to address privatized housing deficiencies,[312] or to aid spouses find jobs.[313] As a soldier transfers in and out of an installation, the soldier's entire family will typically undergo a permanent change of station (PCS) to the next post. PCS to Europe and Japan is now uniformly for 36 months, regardless of family status[314] (formerly 36 months for families). Transfers typically follow the cycle of the school year to minimize disruption in an Army family.[315]

When a family emergency occurs, the informal support of that unit's S/FRG is available to the soldier.[311][316] (But the Army Emergency Relief fund is available to any soldier with a phone call to their local garrison.[317][318] Seventy-five Fisher Houses maintain home-away-from-home suites for families undergoing medical treatment of a loved one. The Army, Navy, and Air Force Medical Treatment Facilities (MTFs) are scheduled to complete their transfer to the Defense Health Agency (DHA) no later than 21 October 2021. This has been a ten-year process. The directors of each home installation's Medical treatment facility (MTF) continue to report to the commanders of their respective installations. This change transfers all civilian employees of each Medical treatment facility (MTF) to the Defense Health Agency (DHA).[319][320]) The name change links Soldier Readiness with Family Readiness.[309] Commanders will retain full responsibility for Soldier sponsorship after a move, especially for first term Soldiers in that move.[321]

In response to Army tenant problems with privatized base housing, IMCOM was subordinated to Army Materiel Command (AMC) on 8 March 2019.[322] [323][324] By 2020, AMC's commander and the Residential community initiative (RCI) groups had formulated a 50-year plan. The Army's RCI groups, "seven private housing companies, which have 50-year lease agreements" on 98% of Army housing at 44 installations, will work with the Army for long-term housing improvements,[325][326][327] and remediation.[324]

In 2019 the Army issued several directives to make it easier for families to make money even while living in on-base housing.[328][329]

In March 2020, the 2019–20 coronavirus pandemic has shut down schools, child and youth centers, and child development centers across the Army;[330] the Army's experts on the campaigns against viruses such as Ebola, HIV, MERS, Zika, and now COVID-19.[331] are working on a vaccine, and a testing kit against COVID-19.[332][333] In times of national emergency the VA can be pressed into service in its role as the nation’s health-care system of last resort.[334] The Army has an action plan and a proposed price tag of $1 billion to float to Congress. Secretary McCarthy has commended the Army's virus experts, the National Guard's actions, as well as the US Forces Korea's handling of COVID-19.[335] COVID-19 appears to have an 8 to 10 week period.[336] In March 2020 the Army change of mission now supports the nation's fight against COVID-19.[337] [338] [339] As of 6 April 2020 "Of the roughly 100,000 troops in TRADOC — 54,000 trainees, 46,000 instructors and staff — only 102 have tested positive for COVID-19 so far, [TRADOC commander] Gen. Paul Funk said, and 12 of them have already recovered".[340]

Applications for Synthetic Training Environment (STE)

The Squad Advanced Marksmanship Training (SAMT) system, developed by the STE Cross-functional team from Futures Command, has an application for 1st SFAB.[341] Bluetooth enabled replicas of M4 rifles and M9 and Glock 19 pistols, with compressed air recoil approximate the form, fit and function of the weapons that the Soldiers are using in close combat. For 1st SFAB, scenarios included virtual reality attacks which felt like engagements in a room. The scenarios can involve the entire SFAB Advisor team, and engagements can be repeated over and over again. Advanced marksmanship skills such as firing with the non-dominant hand, and firing on the move can be practiced.[341]

Nine Army sites are now equipped with the SAMT. Over twenty systems are planned for locations in the United States.[341] The Close combat tactical trainers are in use, for example, to train 3rd Infantry Division headquarters for a gunnery training event (convoy protection role),[342] and 2nd BCT/ 82nd Airborne close combat training.[343]

  • "A simulation places leadership teams in a situation akin to a Combat Training Center rotation, an intellectually and emotionally challenging environment that forgives the mistakes of the participants"—Dr. Charles K. Pickar [344][345]
  • "It is important for Soldiers to have an open and clear mind during the simulation so that they learn something from the experience."—Tim Glaspie [342]
  • "Repetition increases a team’s situational understanding of the tactics they’ll use ..."—Maj. Anthony Clas[346]

Other training environments include MANPADS for SHORAD in the 14P MOS at Fort Sill.[347]

I believe that a training environment .. should be a maneuver trainer, and it should be a gunnery trainer. —Retired Gen. Peter W. Chiarelli, 32nd vice chief of staff of the Army [348]

USAR mobilization

Plans are being formulated for mobilization of the Army Reserve (42,000 to 45,000 soldiers) very quickly.[349] For example, 'Ready Force X' (RFX) teams have fielded Deployment Assistance Team Command and Control Cells to expedite the associated equipment to the various ports and vessels which is required for the specific Reserve personnel who have been notified that they are deploying.[350] FORSCOM's mobilization and force generation installations (MFGIs) have fluctuated from two primary[351][352] installations (2018) to an envisioned eleven primary and fourteen contingency MFGIs, in preparation for future actions against near-peers.[353][354] [55] See: Soldier Readiness Processing

"Associated units" training program

The Army announced a pilot program, 'associated units', in which a National Guard or Reserve unit would now train with a specific active Army formation. These units would wear the patch of the specific Army division before their deployment to a theater;[355] 36th Infantry Division (United States) headquarters deployed to Afghanistan in May 2016 for a train, advise, assist mission.[356]

The Army Reserve, whose headquarters are colocated with FORSCOM, and the National Guard, are testing the associated units program in a three-year pilot program with the active Army. The program will use the First Army training roles at the Army Combat Training Centers at Fort Irwin, Fort Polk, and regional and overseas training facilities.[357]

The pilot program complements FORSCOM's total force partnerships with the National Guard, begun in 2014.[358] Summer 2016 will see the first of these units.

  • Associated units [359][360]
    • 3rd Infantry BCT, 10th Mountain Division, stationed at Fort Polk, Louisiana, associated with the 36th Infantry Division, Texas Army National Guard
    • 48th Infantry BCT, Georgia ARNG, associated with the 3rd Infantry Division, Stationed at Fort Stewart, Georgia
    • 86th Infantry BCT, Vermont ARNG, associated with the 10th Mountain Division, stationed at Fort Drum, New York
    • 81st Armored BCT, Washington ARNG, associated with the 7th Infantry Division, stationed at Joint Base Lewis-McChord, Washington
    • Task Force 1-28th Infantry Battalion., 3rd Infantry Division, stationed at Fort Benning, Georgia, associated with the 48th Infantry BCT, Georgia Army National Guard
    • 100th Battalion., 442nd Infantry Regiment, USAR, associated with the 3rd Infantry BCT, 25th Infantry Division, stationed at Schofield Barracks, Hawaii
    • 1st Battalion., 143rd Infantry Regiment Texas ARNG, associated with the 173rd Airborne BCT, stationed in Vicenza, Italy
    • 1st Battalion., 151st Infantry Regiment, Indiana ARNG, associated with the 2nd Infantry BCT, 25th Infantry Division, stationed at Schofield Barracks
    • 5th Engineer Battalion., stationed at Fort Leonard Wood, Missouri, associated with the 35th Engineer Brigade, Missouri ARNG
    • 840th Engineer Company, Texas ARNG, associated with the 36th Engineer Brigade, stationed at Fort Hood, Texas
    • 824th Quartermaster Company, USAR, associated with the 82nd Airborne Division's Sustainment Brigade, stationed at Fort Bragg, North Carolina
    • 249th Transportation Company, Texas ARNG, associated with the 1st Cavalry Division's Sustainment Brigade., stationed in Fort Hood
    • 1245th Transportation Company, Oklahoma ARNG, associated with the 1st Cavalry Division's Sustainment Brigade., stationed in Fort Hood
    • 1176th Transportation Company, Tennessee ARNG, associated with the 101st Airborne Division's Sustainment Brigade, stationed at Fort Campbell, Kentucky
    • 2123rd Transportation Company, Kentucky ARNG, associated with the 101st Airborne Division's Sustainment Brigade, stationed at Fort Campbell

Rifleman training

Soldiers train for weapons handling, and marksmanship first individually, on static firing ranges, and then on simulators such as an Engagement Skills Trainer (EST). More advanced training on squad level simulators (Squad Advanced Marksmanship-Trainer (SAMT)) place a squad in virtual engagements against avatars of various types,[361] using M4 carbine, M249 light machine gun and M9 Beretta pistol simulated weapon systems.[361] Home stations are to receive Synthetic training environments (STEs) for mission training, as an alternative to rotations to the National Combat Training Centers, which operate Brigade-level training against an Opposing force (OPFOR) with near-peer equipment.

Some installations have urban training facilities for infantrymen, in preparation for Brigade-level training.[362]

A 2019 marksmanship manual[363] "TC 3-20.40, Training and Qualification-Individual Weapons" (the Dot-40) now mandates the use of the simulators,[363] as if the Soldier were in combat. The Dot-40 is to be used by the entire Army, from the Cadets at West Point, to the Active Army, the Army Reserve, and Army National Guard;[363] the Dot-40 tests how rapidly Soldiers can load and reload while standing, kneeling, lying prone, and firing from behind a barrier.[363] The marksmanship tests of a Soldier's critical thinking, selecting targets to shoot at, in which order, and the accuracy of each shot are recorded by the simulators.[363]

Stryker training

Up to a platoon-sized unit of a Stryker brigade combat team, and dismounted infantry, can train on Stryker simulators (Stryker Virtual Collective Trainer - SVCT), which are in the process of being installed at 8 home stations. The 4th is being completed.[364] Forty-five infantrymen (4 Stryker shells) or thirty-six scouts (6 Stryker shells) can rehearse their battle rhythm on a virtual battlefield, record their lessons learned, give their after-action reports, and repeat, as a team. The Stryker gunner's seat comes directly from a Stryker vehicle and has a Common Remotely Operated Weapon Station (CROWS) and joystick to control a virtual .50 caliber machine gun or a virtual 30 mm autocannon.[364]

Digital air ground integration ranges (DAGIRs)

Live-fire digital air ground integration ranges (DAGIRs) were first conceptualized in the 1990s, and established in 2012,[365] with follow-on in 2019.[366] The ranges initially included 23 miles of tank trails,[367] targets, battlefield effects simulators, and digital wiring for aerial scorekeeping.[366] These ranges are designed for coordinating air and ground exercises before full-on sessions at the National Training Centers.[366]

Training against OPFORs

Opposing-Forces Surrogate Vehicles (OSVs) undergoing maintenance at Anniston Army Depot

To serve a role as an Opposing force (OPFOR) could be a mission for an Army unit, as temporary duty (TDY), during which they might wear old battle dress uniforms, perhaps inside-out.[368] TRADOC's Mission Command Training Program, as well as Cyber Command designs tactics for these OPFORs. When a brigade trains at Fort Irwin, Fort Polk, or Joint Multinational Training Center (in Hohenfels, Germany) the Army tasks 11th Armored Cavalry Regiment, 1st Battalion, 509th Infantry Regiment (Abn), and 1st Battalion, 4th Infantry Regiment, respectively, with the OPFOR role,[369] and provides the OPFOR with modern equipment (such as the FGM-148 Javelin) to test that brigade's readiness for deployment. Multiple integrated laser engagement systems serve as proxies for actual fired weapons, and Soldiers are lost to the commander from "kills" by laser hits.

Deployment scheme

The force generation system, posited in 2006 by General Schoomaker, projected that the U.S. Army would be deployed continuously. The Army would serve as an expeditionary force to fight a protracted campaign against terrorism and stand ready for other potential contingencies across the full-spectrum of operations (from humanitarian and stability operations to major combat operations against a conventional foe).

Under ideal circumstances, Army units would have a minimum "dwell time," a minimum duration of which it would remain at home station before deployment. Active-duty units would be prepared to deploy once every three years. Army Reserve units would be prepared to deploy once every five years. National Guard units would be prepared to deploy once every six years. A total of 71 combat brigades would form the Army's rotation basis, 42 from the active component with the balance from the reserves.

Thus, around 15 active-duty combat brigades would be available for deployment each year under the 2006 force-generation plan. An additional 4 or 5 brigades would be available for deployment from the reserve component. The plan was designed to provide more stability to soldiers and their families. Within the system, a surge capability would exist so that about an additional 18 brigades could be deployed in addition to the 19 or 20 scheduled brigades.

From General Dan McNeil, former Army Forces Command (FORSCOM) Commander: Within the Army Forces Generation (ARFORGEN) model, brigade combat teams (BCTs) would move through a series of three force pools;[293] they would enter the model at its inception, the "reset force pool", upon completion of a deployment cycle. There they would re-equip and reman while executing all individual predeployment training requirements, attaining readiness as quickly as possible. Reset or "R" day, recommended by FORSCOM and approved by Headquarters, Department of the Army, would be marked by BCT changes of command, preceded or followed closely by other key leadership transitions. While in the reset pool, formations would be remanned, reaching 100% of mission required strength by the end of the phase, while also reorganizing and fielding new equipment, if appropriate. In addition, it is there that units would be confirmed against future missions, either as deployment expeditionary forces (DEFs-BCTs trained for known operational requirements), ready expeditionary forces (REFs-BCTs that form the pool of available forces for short-notice missions) or contingency expeditionary forces (CEFs-BCTs earmarked for contingency operations).

Based on their commanders' assessments, units would move to the ready force pool, from which they could deploy should they be needed, and in which the unit training focus would be at the higher collective levels. Units would enter the available force pool when there is approximately one year left in the cycle, after validating their collective mission-essential task list proficiency (either core or theater-specific tasks) via battle-staff and dirt-mission rehearsal exercises. The available phase would be the only phase with a specified time limit: one year. Not unlike the division-ready brigades of past decades, these formations would deploy to fulfill specific requirements or stand ready to fulfill short-notice deployments within 30 days.

The goal was to generate forces 12–18 months in advance of combatant commanders' requirements and to begin preparing every unit for its future mission as early as possible in order to increase its overall proficiency.

Personnel management would also be reorganized as part of the Army transformation. Previously, personnel was managed on an individual basis in which soldiers were rotated without regard for the effect on unit cohesion. This system required unpopular measures such as "stop loss" and "stop move" in order to maintain force levels. In contrast, the new personnel system would operate on a unit basis to the maximum extent possible, with the goal of allowing teams to remain together longer and enabling families to establish ties within their communities.

Abrams 2016 noted that mid-level Army soldiers found they faced an unexpected uptempo in their requirements,[34] while entry-level soldiers in fact welcomed the increased challenge.[34]

Sustainable Readiness Model

This model is "a structured progression of increased unit readiness over time, resulting in recurring periods of availability of trained, ready, and cohesive units prepared for operational deployment in support of geographic Combatant Commander requirements".[370][139][211][371] ARFORGEN was replaced by the Sustainable Readiness Model (SRM) in 2017.[372][373][374][34][58] In 2016 the Chief of Staff of the Army identified the objective of a sustainable readiness process as over 66 percent of the Active Army in combat ready state at any time;[375] in 2019 the readiness objective of the National Guard and Army Reserve units was set to be 33 percent; Total Army readiness for deployment was 40 percent in 2019.[177][ReadyArmy 3]

In 2018 Chief of Staff Mark Milley's readiness objective is that all operational units be at 90 percent of the authorized strength in 2018, at 100 percent by 2021, and at 105 percent by 2023.[299] The observer coach/trainers at the combat training centers, recruiters, and drill sergeants are be filled at 100 percent strength by the end of 2018.[299]

The requested strength of the Active Army in FY2020 is increasing by 4,000 additional troops from the current 476,000 soldiers;[16] this request covers the near-term needs for cyber, air & missile defense, and fires (Army modernization).[16] [376]

The Acting CG of FORSCOM, Lt. Gen. Laura Richardson, has noted that the Sustainable Readiness Model uses the Army standard for maintenance readiness, denoted 10/20,[58] which makes commanders responsible for maintaining their equipment to the 10/20 standard, meaning that "all routine maintenance is executed and all deficiencies are repaired".[377]:p. 79 But Richardson has also spoken out about aviation-related supplier deficiencies hurting readiness both at the combatant commands and at the home stations.[378][379]

Prepositioned stocks

Materiel for 2nd Armored Brigade Combat Team, 1st Infantry Division,[380] arriving in Gdansk, Poland

Army Materiel Command (AMC), which uses Army Field Support Brigades (AFSBs) to provision the Combatant Commands, has established Army prepositioned stocks (APS) for supplying entire Brigade Combat Teams (BCTs),[381] at several areas of responsibility (AORs):[135]

By 2020 AMC had seven Army prepositioned stocks.[179]

Medical readiness is being tested by the U.S. Army Medical Materiel Agency, an LCMC. The LCMCs are stocking three additional locations in the US (APS-1), as well as APS-2 (EUCOM), and Korea, as of 12 February 2019.[385] For example, during Operation Spartan Shield, the LCMC's relevant AFSB effected the hand-off of prepositioned stocks to 155th Armored Brigade Combat Team (ABCT) within 96 hours.[386] In the same Operation, 155th ABCT was issued an entire equipment set for an ABCT, drawn from APS-5 stocks, over 13,000 pieces.[387]

Air Defense Artillery deployments

On 27 March 2018 the 678th Air Defense Artillery Brigade (South Carolina National Guard) deployed to EUCOM, Ansbach Germany for a nine-month rotation, for the first time since the Cold War.[388] 10th AAMDC is the executive agent for EUCOM.

In September 2018, the Wall Street Journal reported that four Patriot systems—[389] Two from Kuwait, and one apiece from Jordan and Bahrain are redeploying back to the U.S. for refurbishment and upgrades, and will not be replaced.[390]

Forward-deployed materiel

As the U.S. Army's only forward-deployed Airborne brigade, 173rd Airborne Brigade Combat Team, stationed in EUCOM, was supplied with new communications materiel — Integrated Tactical Networks (ITN) in 2018.[391] New ground combat vehicles, the Infantry Carrier Vehicle - Dragoon (ICVD) are being supplied to 2nd Cavalry Regiment. ICVDs are Strykers with an unmanned turret and 30 mm autocannon (CROWS), and an integrated commander's station, upgraded suspension and larger tires.[391][392] The Army brigades of EUCOM have been in position for testing materiel, as its elements engaged in a 2018 road march through Europe, training with 19 ally and partner nations in Poland in 2018.[391]

Dynamic force employment

2nd Armored Brigade Combat Team (ABCT), 1st Armored Division (2/1AD) element in a snap deployment from Fort Bliss to Drawsko Pomorskie training area, Poland, 29 March 2019

This initiative, designed by then-DoD-Secretary James Mattis, exercises the ability of selected BCTs to rapidly surge combat-ready forces into a theater,[55] such as EUCOM, on short notice.[393] In several such cases, at the direction of the Secretary of Defense in March 2019, troops were rapidly alerted, recalled and deployed to a forward position, under (simulated) emergency conditions, to prove a capability (such as an ABCT, and a THAAD battery)[394][395][396] against near-peers.[397] The ABCT element next participated in a joint live-fire exercise with Polish troops of the 12th Mechanized Brigade, 12th Mechanised Division (Poland) in Drawsko Pomorskie Training Area, Poland.[398] (A Mission Command element of TRADOC served in the role of echelon-above-brigade for the maneuver and interoperability of the joint multi-national armored brigades.)[398] In September 2018, the 278th Armored Cavalry Regiment had already assumed a forward deployment in Poland.[399] [400] Poland and the US are planning for regular rotations going forward.[401][402][403][404] Similar initiatives are planned for other alliances.[227][14]

FORSCOM exercised its Emergency deployment readiness exercises (EDREs) in 2019 by sending 2nd Brigade Combat Team, 10th Mountain Division to the Joint Readiness Training Center in Fort Polk LA by sealift, simultaneously exercising the logistics planners at Fort Drum, the seaports in Philadelphia PA, and Port Arthur TX as well as 2nd BCT.[58] Through the EDRE program, 20 of the ports have been exercised to ready them for sealift deployments.[58] A division-sized move of 20,000 pieces of equipment from the US to Europe began a month-long process in January 2020.[231][232][237][227] In 2020 "wide-spanning maneuvers will focus on the Baltic States, Poland, and Georgia" which would have involved 36,000 troops from 11 countries ranging from the Baltic to the Black Seas,[234] a number still in flux.[218]

Force size and unit organization

Overall, the Army would end up with 71 brigade combat teams and 212 support brigades, in the pre-2013 design. The Regular Army would move from 33 brigade combat teams in 2003 to 43 brigade combat teams together with 75 modular support brigades, for a total of 118 Regular Army modular brigades. In addition the previously un-designated training brigades such as the Infantry Training Brigade at Fort Benning assumed the lineage & honors of formerly active Regular Army combat brigades. Within the Army National Guard, there would be 28 brigade combat teams and 78 support brigades. Within the Army Reserve, the objective was 59 support brigades.(Chief of Staff Mark Milley credits a previous Chief, Creighton Abrams, for placing most of the support brigades in the reserve and national guard, in order to insure that the nation would use the total army, rather than only the active army alone, in an extended war involving the entire nation.)[96]:minute 42:30

In the post-2013 design, the Regular Army is planned to reduce to 32 BCTs after all the BCTs have been announced for inactivation.[405] The Reserve component will be playing an increased role.[55]

Army commands

Army service component commands

Army direct reporting units

Field armies

Army corps

Divisions and brigades

Note: these formations were subject to change, announced in 2013 reform[407]

The 2018 budget will further reduce 40,000 active-duty soldiers from 490,000 in 2015 to 450,000 by 2018 fiscal year-end. Thirty installations will be affected; six of these installations will account for over 12,000 of those to be let go.

In early 2015, the plan was to cut entire BCTs; by July 2015, a new plan, to downsize a BCT (4,500 soldiers) to a maneuver battalion task force (1,032 soldiers, with the possibility of upsizing if need be) was formulated. In 2015, a plan was instituted to allow further shrinking of the Army, by converting selected brigades to maneuver battalion task forces.[408] A maneuver battalion task force includes about 1,050 Soldiers rather than the 4,000 in a full BCT.[409] This 9 July 2015 plan, however, would preclude rapid deployment of such a unit until it has been reconstituted back to full re-deployable strength. This is being addressed with the #"Associated units" training program from the Reserve and Guard, and the #Sustainable Readiness Model (SRM).[373][34] Funding has been allocated for two (out of six planned) Security Force Assistance Brigades (SFABs)[410] composed of 529 senior officers and senior NCOs (a full chain of command for a BCT).[411] The changes announced so far affect:[412]

Active-duty division:

  • 11 division headquarters (one division headquarters stationed overseas in South Korea)

Active-duty combat brigades: 31 at the end of 2017

Support brigades

Active-duty Support Brigades (with reserve-component numbers in parenthesis: ARNG/USAR)

See also


  1. ^ One consequence of a standardized BCT is that actions performed by one BCT can be made in behalf of a successor BCT. Thus pre-positioned stocks can aid in the rapidity of deployment: Army Prepositioned Stocks site in the Netherlands was established 15 Dec 2016, which will store and service about 1,600 U.S. Army vehicles.
  2. ^ The Army is introducing drones in its combat aviation brigades in order to increase its reconnaissance capability.
  3. ^ In the 2013 reform, the active duty brigades are deactivating by 2015, leaving only the National Guard's, and the Reserve's, maneuver enhancement brigades.
  4. ^ a b The capabilities as prioritized by the Chief of Staff, will use subject matter experts in the realms of requirements, acquisition, science and technology, test, resourcing, costing, and sustainment, using Cross Functional Teams (CFTs) for:
    1. Improved long-range precision fires (artillery):—(Fort Sill, Oklahoma) Lead: BG John Rafferty ... PEO Ammunition (AMMO)
    2. Next-generation combat vehicle—(Detroit Arsenal, Warren, Michigan) Lead: BG Ross Coffman ... PEO Ground Combat Systems (GCS)
    3. Vertical lift platforms—(Redstone Arsenal, Huntsville, Alabama) Lead: BG Wally Rugen ... PEO Aviation (AVN)
    4. Mobile and expeditionary (usable in ground combat) communications network (Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland)
      1. Network Command, Control, Communications and Intelligence— Lead: MG Pete Gallagher ... PEO Command Control Communications Tactical (C3T)
      2. Assured Position Navigation and Timing— (Redstone Arsenal, Huntsville, Alabama) Lead: William B. Nelson, SES
    5. Air and missile defense—(Fort Sill, Oklahoma) Lead: BG Brian Gibson, ... PEO Missiles and Space (M&S)
    6. Soldier lethality
      1. Soldier Lethality—(Fort Benning, Georgia) Lead: BG David M. Hodne ... PEO Soldier
      2. Synthetic Training Environment —(Orlando, Florida) Lead: MG Maria Gervais ... PEO Simulation, Training, & Instrumentation (STRI)
    • Above, 'dotted line' relationship (i.e., coordination) is denoted by a ' ... '

Ready Army

  1. ^ Perkins discusses operationalizing the Army Operating Concept (AOC) AOC="Win in a Complex World"
  2. ^ Steve DeVane and Rachael Riley (Jan. 4, 2020) Fort Bragg community in North Carolina on edge as soldiers head to Middle East 82nd Airborne (with 18,000 troops) has an 18-hour readiness status (after the first phone call).—Secretary of Defense Mark Esper
  3. ^ a b c "Ready Army is a proactive campaign to increase Army community resilience and enhance force readiness by informing Soldiers, their Families, Army Civilians and contractors of relevant hazards, and encouraging them to
    • Be Informed,
    • Make A Plan,
    • Build a Kit and
    • Get Involved." see: DEFCON


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  2. ^ Eric Shinseki (10 June 2003) End of Tour Memorandum
  3. ^ Jeff Martin (24 Jan 2020) Video: Can the Army achieve ‘transformational change’? | Defense News Weekly full episode, Jan. 24, 2020 Army Chief of Staff: "We need transformational change", rather than incremental change.
  4. ^ David Vergun, Army News Service (December 8, 2017) US Army Futures Command to reform modernization, says secretary of the Army
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  6. ^ a b Modernization turnaround worth the effort, says acting SecArmy McCarthy
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  8. ^ a b Col. Richard Hough (4 January 2018) Opinion: "Army’s Basic Illusions Gone; Time For Futures Command" Breaking
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  12. ^ Joe Lacdan, Army News Service (20 February 2020) CSA: Strong partnerships serve as deterrent to armed conflict
  13. ^ C. Todd Lopez, (July 16, 2019) Milley talks modernization at confirmation hearing: —Milley's priorities: "provide the best military advice, to maintain steady continuity of military leadership, implement the National Defense Strategy with emphasis on increasing the readiness and modernization of the joint force, maintain and grow our network of allies and partners, sustain great power peace in an era of great power competition and provide unwavering support, care and leadership to our troops and their Families."
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  48. ^ Mark Pomerleau (March 23, 2018) The Army’s newest satellite antenna is remarkably simple
  49. ^ Mr. Joe Welch, Lt. Col. Jack "Shane" Taylor and Mr. Michael Beery (July 12, 2016) Network Marketplace: Open for Business and Growing
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  122. ^ Indiana National Guard to stand up new assistance brigade
  123. ^ SOF News (January 30, 2019) 54th Security Force Assistance Brigade
  124. ^ C. Todd Lopez (May 8, 2019) Success of first SFAB in Afghanistan proves 'Army got it right,' commander says
  125. ^ a b c Force Assistance Command Public Affairs (December 3, 2018) Security Force Assistance Command, 2nd Security Force Assistance Brigade activate at Fort Bragg
  126. ^ Fort Bragg will be home to Security Force Assistance Command
  127. ^ (4 April 2018) General Officer Assignments
  128. ^ Maj. Matthew Fontaine (August 18, 2018) 1st SFAB Commander earns 1st Star and Promotion to Brigadier General
  129. ^ (7 September 2018) 2nd SFAB commander earns first star
  130. ^ Todd South (8 May 2019) The next Army SFAB deployments might look a whole lot different from recent ones
  131. ^ U.S. Army Public Affairs (18 October 2018) Department of the Army announces upcoming 2nd Security Force Assistance Brigade unit rotation to Afghanistan Spring 2019
  132. ^ Kyle Rempfer (16 July 2019) 3rd Security Force Assistance Brigade activates, preps for Mideast missions
  133. ^ U.S. Army Public Affairs (August 16, 2019) Army announces upcoming 3rd Security Force Assistance Brigade unit rotation
  134. ^ Kari Hawkins (AMCOM) (September 16, 2009) Security Assistance Command plants its flag
  135. ^ a b Megan Cotton (June 6, 2019) Ensuring Readiness for Strategic Support: Strategic Power Projection
  136. ^ a b Col. Rodney H. Honeycutt, Richard A. Bezold, and Robin T. Dothager (September 5, 2017) Establishing Europe's Army pre-positioned stocks
  137. ^ a b Justin Graff, 401st AFSB Public Affairs (December 16, 2017) AMC deputy commander assesses APS-5 readiness, combat configuration
  138. ^ a b Headquarters, Dept of the Army (July 2019) ADP 6-0 Mission Command: Command and Control of Army Forces 4 chapters. See also ADP 3-0; ADP 6-22; FM 6-22; ADP 1-1; and ADP 5-0
  139. ^ a b David B. Larter (9 Oct 2018) The US Army is preparing to fight in Europe, but can it even get there?
  140. ^ Capt. Richard Foote, 593rd Sustainment Command (Expeditionary) (April 21, 2017) Putting the expeditionary in ESC
  141. ^ Maj. Daniel J. N. Belzer (January 2, 2019) Command relationships between corps and ESCs ESC = (Expeditionary Support Command); TSC = (Theater Support Command)
  142. ^ a b See, for example Francis J.H. Park (November/December 2007) "The strategic plans and policy officer in the modular division"
  143. ^ The 29th Division (National Guard) headquarters is deployed as Intermediate Command for ARCENT in Kuwait
  144. ^ Two National Guard division headquarters are deployed simultaneously for the first time since the Korean war
  145. ^ a b "We need two command posts. We need to be able to shut one down and move it while the other is still in the fight." —MG Pat White, CG 1st Armored Division Army senior leaders meet at Bliss for command post huddle accessdate=2017-01-26
  146. ^ Amy Walker, PEO C3T/PM Tactical Network Public Affairs (January 11, 2018) Army pushing to get Secure Wi-Fi on battlefield to gain strategic edge over enemies
  147. ^ Staff Sgt. Samuel Northrup (April 1, 2019) New Army vehicles being developed to counter modern threats to Command Post Directed Requirement Pilot Program of prototypes
  148. ^ Army improves mobility, readiness with new secure wireless systems accessdate=2017-06-09
  149. ^ Todd South (June 4, 2019) How changes to mission command will mean soldiers taking risks and taking charge on complex battlefields
  150. ^ a b AUSA (27 March 2018) Army not ready to announce Futures Command home
  151. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (13 Sep 2018) Futures Command Won’t Hurt Oversight, Army Tells Congress
  152. ^ Sean Kimmons, Army News Service (July 19, 2019) In first year, Futures Command grows from 12 to 24,000 personnel
  153. ^ Army Futures Command Task Force (28 March 2018) "Army Futures Command"
  154. ^ Austin American-Statesman (12 July 2018) Report: Austin selected as site of Army’s new Futures Command center
  155. ^ (7 Nov 2017) Army Directive 2017-33 (Enabling the Army Modernization Task Force)
  156. ^ USArmy tweet: Futures Command will have the overarching objective to achieve clear overmatch in future conflicts, making Soldiers and units more lethal to win the nation's wars, then return home safely.
  157. ^ Long-range, short term
  158. ^ Picatinny Arsenal, PEO (AMMO)
  159. ^ First unit with TRILOS
  160. ^ Rapid Capabilities Office (RCO) note PNT capability
  161. ^ a b Army Will Field 100 Km Cannon, 500 Km Missiles: LRPF CFT
  162. ^ Vergun, David. "US Army Futures Command to reform modernization, says secretary of the Army". Retrieved 5 June 2018.
  163. ^ (13 July 2018) University of Texas System to serve as home base for U.S. Army Futures Command
  164. ^ Army’s new Futures Command to set up headquarters at University of Texas
  165. ^ Sean Kimmons, Army News Service (August 15, 2018) Army Futures Command aims to tap into innovative culture in Austin and beyond
  166. ^ a b c d e DVIDs video, 24 August 2018 press conference
  167. ^ a b Ryan McCarthy (06 October 2017) Army Directive 2017-24 (Cross-Functional Team Pilot In Support of Materiel Development)
  168. ^ (12 Sep 2017) Army Directive 2017-22 (Implementation of Acquisition Reform Initiatives 1 and 2)
  169. ^ 3 Pillars of AFC
  170. ^ a b c Breaking Defense (26 March 2018) Army Outlines Futures Command; Org Chart In Flux
  171. ^ AUSA (14 June 2018), "Authority Transfers Begin to Army Futures Command"
  172. ^ Reference for Department of the Army General Order No. 2018-10. (4 June 2018)
  173. ^ ARL Public Affairs (October 5, 2018) Officials announce new senior executive at Army Research Laboratory
  174. ^ a b Army General order G.O.2018-10
  175. ^ Ms. Audra Calloway (Picatinny) (September 19, 2018) With new Army Futures Command, senior acquisition leader discusses role of Program Executive Offices
  176. ^ David Vergun, Army News Service (October 10, 2018) Army Futures Command to become 'global command,' says its leader
  177. ^ a b c Arpi Dilanian and Matthew Howard (April 1, 2019) The number one priority: An interview with Gen. Mark Milley: Readiness (both current and future)
  178. ^ ASA(ALT) Assistant Secretary of the Army (Acquisition, Logistics and Technology) (Friday, October 4, 2019) Army Advanced Manufacturing Initiative
  179. ^ a b Devon L. Suits, Army News Service (10 February 2020) AMC evaluating power-projection capabilities in Defender-Europe 2020 Defender Pacific 2021 is in planning stage. To support readiness, 3-D printing rights are under negotiation.
  180. ^ Sean Kimmons, Army News Service (10 March 2020) Soldier-centered approach helping lead ground modernization efforts FY2021 planning in the top six priorities for modernization
    • $9 billion was realigned using the "night court review" of items in the Army's budget over the next 5 fiscal years; $63 billion is now allocated for modernization in that 5 year period
    • For Soldier lethality:
      • Enhanced Night Vision Goggle-Binocular was defined and fielded in 18 months
      • Similarly, a software system for mission command, the Command Post Computing Environment has now been fielded
    • In Long range precision fires, successful tests have occurred in:
      • ERCA (Extended range cannon artillery) has demonstrated accurate hits (within 1 meter) at over 40 miles range
      • PrSM (Precision strike missile) has demonstrated 150 mile range within its expected accuracy and instrumentation in an overhead detonation
  181. ^ a b c d Gen. David G. Perkins, U.S. Army (November-December 2017) Military Review III "Multi-Domain Battle The Advent of Twenty-First Century War"
  182. ^ David Vergun (05.31.2017) Multi-domain battle has immediate applications, says Gen. Perkins
  183. ^ (Sep 16, 2015) Perkins discusses operationalizing the Army Operating Concept
  184. ^ Maj. Richard W. Gibson (October 1, 2018) Applying Multi-Domain Concepts Against Counter-Space Threats
  185. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (24 Jan 2019) Hack, Jam, Sense & Shoot: Army Creates 1st Multi-Domain Unit an MDO BN for Targeting, I Corps
  186. ^ Adm. Harry B. Harris Jr., U.S. Pacific Command (May 25, 2016) LANPAC Symposium 2016: “Role of Land Forces In Ensuring Access To Shared Domains”
  187. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (17 September 2018) Trump Eases Cyber Ops, But Safeguards Remain: Joint Staff
  188. ^ Mark Pomerleau (8 May 2019) New authorities mean lots of new missions at Cyber Command
  189. ^ PEO C3T May 30, 2018
  190. ^ a b Justin Eimers, PEO C3T (October 3, 2018) Network Cross-Functional Team, acquisition partners experimenting to modernize tactical network
  191. ^ a b Theresa Hitchens (November 14, 2019) OSD & Joint Staff Grapple With Joint All-Domain Command Joint_Chiefs_of_Staff#Joint_Staff buy-in
  192. ^ Theresa Hitchens (December 02, 2019) Hey SDA, AFRL Boosts Space-Based Internet Tests
  193. ^ a b c Amy Walker, PM Tactical Network, PEO C3T public affairs (December 4, 2019) Global network design unifies Army modernization efforts GAIT will be used in Defender 2020
  194. ^ U.S. Army (April 30, 2019) Profile: Program Executive Office for Command, Control and Communications-Tactical (PEO C3T)
  195. ^ Joe Lacdan, Army News Service (October 25, 2018) Interoperability a key focus in building the Army's future network
  196. ^ DoD (May 16, 2018) Army Officials Testify on FY 2019 Budget Request
  197. ^ Mark Pomerleau (April 1, 2019) How the Army will sustain its tactical network of the future ITN to take advantage of Tobyhanna depot
  198. ^ Mark Pomerleau (21 Jan 2020) What a deployment to the Middle East means for testing a new Army network An operational deployment begun 1 Jan 2020, which won't be instrumented, will provide some Soldier feedback, but instrumented testing is deferred until after redeployment.
  199. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (3 April 2019) Multi-Domain Networks: The Army, The Allies & AI: Incremental ITN Capability sets '21, '23, '25
  200. ^ Devon L. Suits, Army News Service (June 21, 2019) New tech, accessibility to improve Army tactical networks
  201. ^ a b DEFENDER-EUROPE 20 videos, images and stories
  202. ^ By Matthew Dalton (29 February 2020) Unmanning a Twenty-Second Century Navy "America's principal national defense strategy: deterrence in peacetime"
  203. ^ Lt. Col. Travis Dettmer (9 February 2020) U.S. Army Futures and Concepts Center teaches Multi-Domain Operations to NATO Allied Land Command MDO
  204. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (January 13, 2020) Infinite Games & War By Other Means: Ryan McCarthy: "We must be engaged in constant competition, versus an episodic engagement strategy" —Secretary Ryan McCarthy
  205. ^ a b Kyle Mizokami (8 Mar 2020) The Air Force’s New Weapon Is…Shipping Containers? "Drone maker Kratos Defense is proposing inserting its new XQ-58A Valkyrie drone in a modified shipping container" into selected Indo-Pacific locations as pre-positioned stock for quick armed response to threats. Hundreds of containers could be deployed but not all need be occupied with Valkyries.
  206. ^ a b Amy Walker and Justin Eimers, PEO C3T Public Affairs (April 8, 2019) Multinational exercises aim to improve coalition data sharing
  207. ^ Shawn Nesaw (March 20, 2019) Latest sensor upgrades boost recon vehicle capabilities NBCRV
  208. ^ a b Spc. Miguel Ruiz, Joint Modernization Command (MAY 8, 2019) Back to the future: US, partner nations assess future warfighting capabilities at JMC-sponsored JWA 19
  209. ^ Maj. Gen. Rodney D. Fogg, Brig. Gen. Douglas M. McBride Jr., and Maj. Graham Davidson (July 18, 2019) Focus:Sustaining the Future Fight LSCO compared to Patton's 3rd Army
  210. ^ a b Capt. Matthew Miller (July 18, 2019) Multi-Domain Intelligence Support for Sustainment Risks of non delivery
  211. ^ a b Gen. Gustave "Gus" Perna (July 18, 2019) AMC Commander: Battlefield Sustainment Requires Intuition
  212. ^ Lt. Gen. Michael Lundy, Col. Richard Creed, and Lt. Col. Scott Pence (July 18, 2019) Feeding the Forge: Sustaining Large-Scale Ground Combat Operations
  213. ^ Kyle Rempfer (September 20, 2019) Army’s new chief looks to prep the force for large-scale combat 40th CSA mulls deployments for Large-Scale Combat Operations — LSCO
  214. ^ The Indo-Pacific Theater is "our priority theater"—Mark Esper. Aaron Mehta (27 August 2019) Esper calls for new basing investments in the Pacific Sites to be determined
  215. ^ Todd South (10 Jan 2020) The Pacific must mean more than Korea rotations for the Army to counter China —Secretary McCarthy
  216. ^ Todd South (May 8, 2019) The Pacific push: New rotation, thousands more soldiers heading to the region as the Army readies for a new kind of fight
  217. ^ a b Jen Judson (4 February 2020) US Army wants to expand pre-positioned stock in Pacific APS Preparation for 2021: Test of the 24-hour/7-days a week operations center, and Army sealift capability in Pacific, just as Defender 2020 is a "test of the rails and roads in Europe"
  218. ^ a b c Headquarters, United States European Command (11 March 2020) Exercise Defender-Europe 20 update Troop reduction
  219. ^ a b Theresa Hitchens (13 March 2020) COVID-19: WH Relocates Space Council Meet; Space Symposium Postponed
  220. ^ U.S. Army (16 March 2020) DEFENDER-Europe 20 modified in size and scope
  221. ^ Kevin Baron (17 March 2020) Attacks on DOD Networks Soar As Telework Inflicts ‘Unprecedented’ Loads
  222. ^ Sean Kimmons, Army News Service (October 11, 2018) Second phase of Multi-Domain Task Force pilot headed to Europe
  223. ^ a b Paul McLeary (16 December 2019) From The Baltic To Black Seas, Defender Exercise Goes Big, With Hefty Price Tag
  224. ^ a b Jen Judson (8 September 2019) US Army’s multidomain force emerges in Europe
  225. ^ a b Jacob Kriss, CECOM Public Affairs (October 16, 2019) CECOM Empowering Strategic Support Area Readiness: Strategic Power Projection Pre-positioned stocks "with enough equipment for an entire brigade or division, up to 15,000"
  226. ^ a b Joe Lacdan (September 25, 2019) More joint efforts likely as the Army prepares for multi-domain operations Combined Resolve XII; 10th Mountain Div for Atlantic Resolve; 2/1CD & Cab/3ID to Eucom; AR to : Immediate Response (hosted by Croatia and Slovenia), Saber Guardian (in Bulgaria, Hungary and Romania), and Swift Response; Operation Cobra Gold (hosted by Thailand). A speedup in tempo by CFTs is needed.
  227. ^ a b c d Sydney J. Freedberg, Jr. (June 13, 2019) Poland Deal Lays Groundwork For Division-Strength Deployment: A division-scale exercise next year in Europe, Defender 2020, will be the largest in a quarter-century. Establishes 7 major elements going forward beyond 2020.
  228. ^ U.S. Army Public Affairs (October 7, 2019) Army exercise largest in 25 years Test the ability to deploy 20,000 Soldiers to Europe
  229. ^ Lt. Gen. Stephen Twitty (October 1, 2019) Logistics Important to Shaping the European Theater
  230. ^ Major Bradley Cooper, U.S. Army (September 2019) Precision Logistics: Sustainment for Multi-Domain Operations LSCO
  231. ^ a b U.S. Army Public Affairs (21 January 2020) Army begins movement for Defender-Europe 20 exercise
  232. ^ a b Sgt. 1st Class Kelvin Ringold (16 January 2020) 'Wolfpack' prepares for DEFENDER mission 13th Expeditionary Sustainment Command (ESC)
  233. ^ a b Christopher Woody (Oct 16, 2019) The US Army is worried about a potential showdown with Russia, and it's practicing a new way to get to a fight in Europe
  234. ^ a b Roger N. McDermott (03 February 2020) Moscow Reacts Warily to NATO’s Largest Military Exercise in 25 Years "The wide-spanning maneuvers will focus on the Baltic States, Poland and Georgia, involving more than 36,000 personnel from 11 countries (, January 26, 2020)"
  235. ^ Megan Specia (12 March 2020) What You Need to Know About Trump’s European Travel Ban
  236. ^ US Army (October 15, 2019) Army Guard improves readiness, supports National Defense Strategy "is in the process of realigning eight full National Guard divisions for the Army"
  237. ^ a b Sean Kimmons, Army News Service (October 15, 2019) Defender exercise to deploy 20,000 Soldiers to project power in Europe
  238. ^ a b JOHN VANDIVER (January 6, 2020) Middle East crisis could mean adjustments to Europe’s largest military exercise in decades "The Army will adapt as needed, USAREUR officials said."
  239. ^ Aaron Mehta (15 Mar 2020) Estonia’s top military officer on putting aside national interests for regional defense
  240. ^ a b Spc. Elliott Page (3 February 2020) Coleman Barracks Army Prepositioned Stock Site DEFENDER-Europe 20 Movement
  241. ^ Sean Kimmons, Army News Service (October 23, 2019) TITAN system being developed to tie 'deep sensing' to long-range fires TITAN: expeditionary ground station prototype at Defender 2020
  242. ^ Sean Kimmons, Army News Service (7 February 2020 Vice chief of staff: Speed of modernization no longer at 'glacial pace'
  243. ^ Sean Kimmons, Army News Service (23 October 2019) TITAN system being developed to tie 'deep sensing' to long-range fires
  244. ^ BREAKING DEFENSE STAFF (17 October 2019) Mind the Gap: The Army Looks to a New Assault Bridge for Heavy Armor Maneuvers in Europe
  245. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (06 February 2020) OMFV: The Army’s Polish Bridge Problem Optionally manned fighting vehicle (OMFV) is a modernization project. The 11-meter Joint Assault Bridge is short for a major European river. Abrams tanks are heavier than typical Eastern European bridges' weight limits.
  246. ^ Office of the Chief of Public Affairs (10.16.2019) 2019 AUSA Warriors Corner - The Art, Science, and Challenges of River Crossing (USACE)
  247. ^ ART Conduct Forward Passage of Lines
  248. ^ (2020) DEFENDER Europe Trifold
  249. ^ a b c d Paul McCleary (4 September 2019) Major War Game To Jolt 4 Services, Force Decisions
  250. ^ a b Sydney Freedberg, Jr. (January 14, 2020) Army Chief Seeks ‘Minimally Manned’ Vehicles, Joint C2 LRPF, ITN, IBCS, FARA, FLRAA, and "We need a joint command and control system" —Army Chief of Staff James C. McConville
  251. ^ a b Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (November 22, 2019) SecArmy’s Multi-Domain Kill Chain: Space-Cloud-AI Army Multi-Domain Operations Concept, December 2018 slide from TRADOC pam 525-3-1
  252. ^ Dan Gouré (May 24, 2019) A New Joint Doctrine for an Era of Multi-Domain Operations MDO- MDC2- Distributed Maritime Operations- Marine Corps Operating Concept- "distributed lethality to connect ships, submarines, aircraft and satellites in networks for sensing, commanding and shooting"
  253. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (September 12, 2019) Army Multi-Domain Wargame Reveals C2 Shortfalls MDC2 software improvements needed
  254. ^ Lt. Gen. David Perkins (June 18, 2013) Understanding Mission command is beyond C2
  255. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (28 Feb 2020) Army Ramps Up Funding For Laser Shield, Hypersonic Sword In FY2021 HELs funding is up 209 percent; LRHW funding is up 86 percent. RCCTO spending is $1 billion in 2021.
  256. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg, Jr. (17 Sep 2019) Target, Kaliningrad: Air Force Puts Putin On Notice
  257. ^ a b CRS Insight (IN11019) (January 17, 2019) The U.S. Army and Multi-Domain Operations
  258. ^ Todd South (13 September 2019) Massive simulation shows the need for speed in multi-domain ops "400 participants working with 55 formations, 64 concepts and 150 capabilities"
  259. ^ a b Office of the Chief of Public Affairs, US Army (10.16.2019) 2019 AUSA Warriors Corner - TacticalSpace: Delivering Future Force Space Capabilities The Army is the largest user of Space
      1. Assured Positioning, Navigation and Timing
      2. Tactical Space: SDA is structuring a multi-layer satellite system:
        1. Backbone layer for data transport downward to the long-range precision fires
        2. Custody layer for missiles' trajectories, whether friendly or threat
        3. Tracking layer for hypersonic glide vehicles which represent threats to the multi-layer satellite system
        4. Space situational awareness for cis-lunar trajectories,
      3. NavWar
  260. ^ a b Colin Clark (18 Feb 2020) Gen. Hyten On The New American Way of War: All-Domain Operations
    • "A computer-coordinated fight": in the air, land, sea, space, cyber, and the electromagnetic spectrum (EMS)
      • "forces from satellites to foot soldiers to submarines sharing battle data at machine-to-machine speed"
    • "it’s the ability to integrate and effectively command and control all domains in a conflict or in a crisis seamlessly"—Gen. Hyten, Vice Chairman of the Joint Chiefs
      • All-Domain Operations use global capabilities: "space, cyber, deterrent [the nuclear triad (for mutually assured destruction in the Cold War, an evolving concept in itself)], transportation, electromagnetic spectrum operations, missile defense"
  262. ^ a b Lauren C. Williams (NOV 13, 2019) Air Force gears up for first 'connect-a-thon'
  263. ^ "Finding and engaging high-value relocatable ground systems within rapid timelines" is the Air Force's operational objective in this JADC2 exercise —Eliahu Norwood, Greg Grant, and Tyler Lewis (December 2019) A new battle command architecture for multi-domain operations: countering peer adversary power projection
  264. ^ Theresa Hitchens (6 Dec 2019, updated 5:21pm) First Multi Domain C2 Exercise Planned: ABMS Onramp
  265. ^ Theresa Hitchens (21 Jan 2020) ABMS Demos Speed New Capabilities To Warfighters connections: C130 to LEO Starlink; F22 to F35;
  266. ^ Theresa Hitchens (December 23, 2019) OSD, Services Get First Look At Air Force Multi-Domain Chops
  267. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (22 Jan 2020) ABMS Can’t Be ‘Sole Solution’ For Joint C2, Army Tells Air Force — Exclusive Scaling sensors, shooters, land-based C2, and JADC2
  268. ^ David Larter and Carl Pinze (September 15, 2019) Armed with a new missile, the LCS comes of age
  269. ^ Paul Birch, Ray Reeves and Brad DeWees (19 February 2020) How To Build JADC2 To Make It Truly Joint "Any sensor should be able to link to any shooter and any command and control node"
  270. ^ Joseph Lacdan, Army News Service (October 21, 2019) AFC deputy: Combined capabilities make military might more lethal
  271. ^ a b Loren Thompson (4 February 2020) Pentagon Aims To Build Vast Space Sensor Layer
  272. ^ a b Theresa Hitchens (3 March 2020) Attack On US Satellites Focus Of Next ABMS Test: Goldfein Joint Chiefs will attend the next ABMS test, which will span bases from Eglin AFB to Nellis AFB; Yuma Proving Ground to White Sands Missile Range. All the joint chiefs plan to be there
  273. ^ Paul McLeary (2 April 2020) EXCLUSIVE Indo-Pacom Chief’s Bold $20 Billion Plan For Pacific; What Will Hill Do?
  274. ^ Sydney J Freedberg Jr (13 Mar 2020) ‘No Timeout’ In Future Wars: Army Gen. Murray EXCLUSIVE
  275. ^ a b Headquarters DCS, G3-5-7 (July 23, 2018) U.S. Army Allies and Partners: 9 lines of effort
  276. ^ An example exercise —Spc. Joseph Knoch, 5th Public Affairs Detachment (July 11, 2019) Guard units join US Army and Hungarian forces in exercise: 3rd 197th Artillery Battalion from the Ohio and New Hampshire National Guards working alongside Hungarian Defense Forces (HDF)
  277. ^ Joe Lacdan, Army News Service (July 12, 2019) Relationship with allies key to maintaining competitive edge, says SF commander From the perspective of Special Forces
  278. ^ "Interoperability is huge for our Army; we fight as a coalition..."—Lt. Gen. Jim Richardson Joe Lacdan, Army News Service (April 4, 2019) Allies to join Army Futures Command
  279. ^ a b c Lt. Col. Edward A. Fraser and Command Sgt. Maj. Robert V. Abernethy (April 1, 2019) Strong Europe: A continental-scale combat sustainment laboratory includes Euler diagram of European alliances, partners, competitors
  280. ^ Sgt. LaShic Patterson (August 6, 2019) 2/2CR unloads vehicles at the Poti port for AS19 Agile Spirit 19: Vaziani Military Base, Tbilisi, Georgia
  281. ^ Maj. Kevin Sandell, U.S. Army Central Public Affairs (June 26, 2019) U.S. physician teaches Steppe Eagle 19 medical participants to 'race the Reaper'
  282. ^ Wendover Productions (27 August 2019) The US' Overseas Military Base Strategy Estimates 800 current DoD bases, but some of them are transitory. Video clip.
  283. ^ Eric Schmitt The New York Times (14 July 2019) "Rehearsing for a Shadow War Against a Foe Embraced by Trump" pp. A1, A10.
  284. ^ Reuters (11 Jan 2020) Minister says Britain must reduce military dependence on U.S.: report
  285. ^ National Guard Bureau (January 2019) State Partnership Program See this sub-link: State Partnership Program, for mapping between the states and their allied countries
  286. ^ Sgt. Christopher Stewart (April 8, 2019) Germany's 1st Armored Division Spearheads Allied Spirit X
  287. ^ Spc. Yon Henderson (April 17, 2019) Exercise brings American firepower to European partners
  288. ^ Sgt. Thomas Mort (April 23, 2019) 2-34 Intel team proves invaluable during Allied Spirit X
  289. ^ Capt. Jay Beeman, 5th Battalion, 1st Security Force Assistance Brigade (April 30, 2019) Combat advisor teams sharpen skills in multinational exercise
  290. ^ Sgt. Sean Harding (25 February 2020) 3rd SFAB and Kurdish Peshmerga work side by side to defeat threats Peshmerga means "Those who face death" in Kurdish
  291. ^ a b Devon L. Suits, Army News Service (July 19, 2019) Building relationships, interoperability through exchange program
  292. ^ a b Thomas Brading, Army News Service (13 January 2020) More deployments, stronger presence set for Pacific, says SecArmy
  293. ^ a b GEN Charles C. Campbell (June 2009), "ARFORGEN: Maturing the Model, Refining the Process". Army Magazine,
  294. ^ "Allyn outlines keys to readiness under pressure | Article | The United States Army". 2016-06-13. Retrieved 2016-10-21.
  295. ^ Thomas Brading, Army News Service (October 22, 2019) Half of BCTs now at highest level of readiness, as Army looks to add more
  296. ^ Mark Cancian and Adam Saxton (14 February 2020) 2021 Budget Spells The End of US Force Expansion Reduced topline $740.5 billion; Army remains at 31 BCTs, 5 SFABs, and 11 CABs.
  297. ^ Thomas Brading, Army News Service (19 February 2020) Army leaders save $1.2 billion to fund modernization push After a set of 'Night court' cuts
  298. ^ Sean Kimmons, Army News Service (August 8, 2019) Former Army Ranger helps save man on commercial jet
  299. ^ a b c d David Vergun (October 9, 2018) Army readiness, lethality increasing amid troubled world, says chief of staff
  300. ^ Mark Cancian (25 March 2019) 2020 Budget: One Half Step Towards A Great Power Strategy: Notes Army's difficulty reaching end-strength objectives.
  301. ^ Sgt. LaShawna Custom, 32nd Army Air and Missile Defense Command (March 27, 2019) OC/Ts improved readiness during Roving Sands 19 Observer-Coach/Trainer
  302. ^ Army Times (17 Nov 2018) The Army is extending recruiters orders by two months
  303. ^ Gary Sheftick, Army News Service (May 13, 2019) Large cities see jump in recruits
  304. ^ ‘ AUSA (October 26, 2018) Atrophied’ Recruiting Strategy Being Overhauled surge operation in 22 cities, 3 other actions
  305. ^ a b Army Directive 2018-22 (8 Nov 2018) Retention Policy for Non-Deployable Soldiers
  306. ^ U.S. Army Center for Initial Military Training Staff (May 20, 2019) Army to conduct assessment of alternate ACFT events
  307. ^ Office of the Assistant Chief of Staff for Installation Management Friday, (August 16, 2019) Soldier and Family Readiness Groups
  308. ^ a b Joe Lacdan, Army News Service (June 12, 2019) Army making improvements to Family Readiness Groups
  309. ^ a b Devon L. Suits (October 17, 2018) Study reveals impact of Army Families on retention, recruiting: When spouses favor Army life, 93% of Soldiers stay; but when spouses do not, 44% stay in the Army.
  310. ^ The US Army (Aug 9, 2019) Change of Responsibility Ceremony: Army Chief of staff and sergeant major of the Army
  311. ^ a b Strangers as family 32nd AAMDC helps Soldier, family, in need
  312. ^ US Army (6 March 2019) US Military plans release of Tenant bill of rights
  313. ^ (6 Feb 2019) Senior leaders discuss upcoming moves to ease family concerns Army to receive authorization for direct hires of personnel, e.g., childcare workers
  314. ^ Sean Kimmons, Army News Service (June 11, 2019) Army lengthens tours for Soldiers in Europe, Japan
  315. ^ But moves in summertime cause satisfaction ratings to drop from 95% down to 80%. The Military Moves Hundreds of Thousands of Families Each Summer. Many of Them Don't Go Well
  316. ^ Terri Moon Cronk, (10 February 2020) DOD vows to help Exceptional Family Member Program
  317. ^, Did you know ..." example notice —p.2A, lower right-hand corner
  318. ^ Chaplain (Capt.) Calvin Park (20 June 2019) Count the cost page 5b
  319. ^ Stand-to: Headquarters, U.S. Army Surgeon General (Friday, 24 January 2020) Transfer of Army Medical Treatment Facilities (MTFs) to Defense Health Agency (DHA), no later than (NLT) 21 October 2021.
  320. ^ Sean Kimmons, Army News Service (6 December 2019) Surgeon general reaffirms promise of quality care during DHA transfer
  321. ^ Devon L. Suits, Army News Service (15 August 2019) Army makes changes to Total Army Sponsorship Program
  322. ^ Army News Service (11 Feb 2019) Installation Management Command to realign under Army Materiel Command
    • "We are deeply troubled by the recent reports highlighting the deficient conditions in some of our family housing. It is unacceptable for our families who sacrifice so much to have to endure these hardships in their own homes."—Secretary of the Army, Dr. Mark T. Esper and Chief of Staff of the Army, Gen. Mark A. Milley "US Army statement on military housing". U.S. Army. 13 February 2019. Retrieved February 16, 2019.
  323. ^ (2019 summary) Reuters special report on military housing
  324. ^ a b Army Public Affairs (2 October 2019) Army senior leaders discuss progress in reforming the Military Privatized Housing Initiative
  325. ^ Kari Hawkins, AMC (21 January 2020) Army focuses on making installations number one choice for military families
  326. ^ U.S. Army Public Affairs (6 February 2020) Army Secretary Ryan D. McCarthy, other service secretaries, meet with housing executives Lists 7 measures
  327. ^ Devon L. Suits, Army News Service (March 4, 2020) DOD working to add key provisions to tenant bill of rights 3 more provisions sought: "a dispute resolution process, the right to withhold rent until a dispute is resolved, and access to a building's maintenance history before the move-in date"
  328. ^ U.S. Army (11 February 2019) Army Family Readiness
  329. ^ Secretary of the Army (1 April 2019) Army Directive 2019-17 (Changes to the Soldier and Family Readiness Group Program) Army Directive 2019-17 restrictions on fundraising or commercial tie-ins
  330. ^ Josephine Pride (25 March 2020) Life in quarantine: A family perspective on West Point 14-day quarantine
  331. ^ Sgt. 1st Class Matthew MacRoberts (2 March 2020) COVID-19: Prevention and Treatment Steps to take to reduce your chance of becoming infected
  332. ^ Sydney J Freedberg (3 March 2020) Coronavirus: Army Experts Press Hard For Vaccines, Diagnostics
  333. ^ Danielle Wallace (25 Mar 2020) Active-duty Army officer in Maryland pulled to develop coronavirus vaccine "A doctoral student at the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, was tapped for the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research (WRAIR) in Silver Spring, MD"
  334. ^ Ben Kesling (16 March 2020) Coronavirus Pandemic Prompts U.S. Agency of Last Resort to Gear Up "Department of Veterans Affairs serves as the nation’s backup health-care system for emergencies"
  335. ^ Thomas Brading, Army News Service (19 March 2020) Army grappling with COVID-19 head-on, says Army secretary Army has an action plan and a proposed price tag of $1 billion to float to Congress. Secretary of the Army commends Army virus experts, the National Guard's actions, as well as the US Forces Korea's handling of COVID-19.
  336. ^ Sydney J Freedberg (24 March 2020) COVID-19 Strikes A Supercarrier; ‘Months’ Of Virus, Esper Says COVID-19 appears to have an 8 to 10 week period
  337. ^ US Army Guidance (20 Mar 2020) COVID-19 Coronavirus Army change of mission
    • protect the force,
    • posture the force to maintain global operational readiness, and
    • support the national effort to fight against COVID-19
  338. ^ Ryan Browne (3 Apr 2020) US military preparing to deploy additional forces to support coronavirus response
  339. ^ Katie Bo Williams (2 April 2020) Exclusive: US Army Wants To Train Hundreds of Soldiers in Coronavirus ‘Safety Bubbles’
  340. ^ Sydney J Freedberg (6 April 2020) COVID-19: Army Stops Bringing New Recruits To Basic Training
  341. ^ a b c Patti Bielling, Synthetic Training Environment CFT (June 11, 2019) 1st SFAB Soldiers hone close combat skills on Army's newest virtual trainer
  342. ^ a b Spc. William Griffen (20 February 2020) HHBN masters the fundamentals of convoy escort
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