Pablo Iglesias Turrión

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Pablo Iglesias
Pablo Iglesias 2020 (portrait).jpg
14th Second Deputy Prime Minister of Spain
Assumed office
13 January 2020
MonarchFelipe VI
Prime MinisterPedro Sánchez
Preceded byManuel Chaves (2011)
Minister of Social Rights and 2030 Agenda
Assumed office
13 January 2020
MonarchFelipe VI
Prime MinisterPedro Sánchez
Preceded byMaría Luisa Carcedo
(Health, Consumer Affairs and Social Welfare)
Secretary General of Podemos
Assumed office
15 November 2014
Preceded byPosition established
Member of the Congress of Deputies
Assumed office
13 January 2016
Member of the European Parliament
In office
1 July 2014 – 27 October 2015
Personal details
Born (1978-10-17) 17 October 1978 (age 41)
Madrid, Spain
Political partyPodemos (2014–present)
Other political
Communist Youth Union of Spain (1992–1999)
Spouse(s)Irene Montero (domestic partner)
Alma materComplutense University
Charles III University
European Graduate School

Pablo Iglesias Turrión (Spanish pronunciation: [ˈpaβlo iˈɣlesjas tuˈrjon]; born 17 October 1978) is a Spanish politician, serving as Second Deputy Prime Minister and as Minister of Social Rights and 2030 Agenda of the Government of Spain since January 2020. He has been the Secretary-General of Podemos since 2014.

Before then, he was a lecturer in political science at the Complutense University of Madrid and tv host. He was elected to the European Parliament in the 2014 elections as the leading candidate of the newly created Podemos.


Family and early life

Pablo Manuel Iglesias Turrión was born on 17 October 1978 in Madrid,[1][n. 1] son to Luisa Turrión, a lawyer for the trade union CCOO (and daughter of the historic PSOE member Manuel Turrión de Eusebio [es]),[3] and Javier Iglesias, a labour inspector and retired history teacher, and, according to Iglesias, former member of the Revolutionary Antifascist Patriotic Front.[4][n. 2] Iglesias was named as Pablo after Pablo Iglesias, a labour movement leader who founded the Spanish Socialist Worker's Party (PSOE) in 1879.[6]

Moved to Soria with his family at age 2, Iglesias was raised in the latter provincial capital until he had 13 years old, studying in CP Numancia, Infantes de Lara and Las Pedrizas.[7] After his parents separated, he went back to Madrid with his mother, establishing in Vallecas, where he became a member of the Communist Youth at age 14.[8][9] A member of the Global Resistance Movement [es] by the turn of the century,[10] he took part then in anti-globalization protests extolling civil disobedience.[11][6][12][13]

From 1996 to 2001 Iglesias studied Law (with an average grade of the student record of 7,3/10) at the Complutense University of Madrid and then Political Science (2004), in which he got the best record of his promotion, average grade of record of 9,22, 13 Honours and he was awarded the Extraordinary Prize of Degree. He stayed at the University of Bologna as part of the Erasmus programme.[14] Aside from Spanish, he can speak in English and Italian.[1][n. 3]

Post-graduate activities

In 2003, he started a TV show on Tele K [es] (a grassroots TV station from Vallecas): La Tuerka,[15] that was later broadcast by Público TV.

Iglesias also earned the teaching certificate (2004), DEA (2005) and PhD (2008).[16]

His doctoral dissertation under the supervision of Heriberto Cairo Carou dealt with civil disobedience of the anti-globalization movement in early 21st-century Spain and Italy and it was titled Multitud y acción colectiva postnacional: un estudio comparativo de los desobedientes: de Italia a Madrid (2000-2005).[17][18] Iglesias has also obtained a Master of Humanities (2010, honours) from Charles III University with a thesis regarding a political analysis of cinema, and a Master of Arts in Communication (2011, distinction) from the European Graduate School in Switzerland, where he studied political theory, cinema and psychoanalysis.[16][19]

Since the early-2000s, Iglesias was involved with the Center for Political and Social Studies Foundation (CEPS) and spent a time in the executive board of the organisation.[20][21] During the 2000s, Iglesias was involved in Latin American politics for the CEPS Foundation and monitored elections in Paraguay and Bolivia while acting as a strategic analysis advisor for the government of Venezuela and as a consultant for the government of Bolivia.[21][22]

He worked as acting senior lecturer of political science at the UCM,[23] where he was named honorary professor in September 2014.[24] He defended in 2008 his dissertation, which was supervised by Heriberto Cairo Carou,[17] and whose subject was collective political action in post-millennial political history.[25] Since 2002, he has published more than 30 articles in academic journals.[26] He has also written articles in media such as Público,[27] Kaosenlared,[28] Diagonal[29] and[30]

Iglesias in 2012, working as field reporter for La Tuerka.

In 2012, he was hired by United Left's Yolanda Díaz to work as political advisor vis-à-vis the electoral campaign for the 21 October Galician regional election, in which Díaz ran as candidate of the Galician Left Alternative platform.[31]

In January 2013,[32] the broadcasting of Fort Apache was started; the TV show, produced by 360 Global Media and CMI and funded by the Iranian government's HispanTV,[33] featured from 2013 to 2019 a weekly discussion on hot political subjects moderated by Iglesias.[34]

On 25 April 2013, Iglesias was invited to the political talk show El gato al agua (Intereconomía) as panelist.[35] This marked a breaking point, as the doors to mainstream media opened for Iglesias (until then mostly known in restricted circles),[35] gaining a certain public visibility. He became a regular of TV political shows, featuring in El cascabel al gato (13TV), La Sexta Noche (La Sexta), Las Mañanas de Cuatro (Cuatro) and La Noche en 24 Horas (24 Horas).

In October 2013, he was given the "Enfocados" prize by the Department of Journalism and Audiovisual Communication of the Universidad Carlos III of Madrid[36] for his contribution to social change, which he shared with Ignacio Escolar and Jordi Évole in the individual category.

Creation of Podemos

Iglesias intervening in the presentation of Podemos on 16 January 2014

By late 2013, after an informal dinner at Raúl Camargo's residence, to which Iglesias, Miguel Urbán, Jorge Moruno attended, the idea of launching a platform for the 2014 European Parliament election began to take form.[37] According to Iglesias, he had already the name Podemos in mind, inspired by the homonymously named Tuto Quiroga's bolivian right-wing platform PODEMOS; the name allowed to mix the ideas of 'Power' (poder) and 'Democracy' (democracia).[38]

Days after the issuing of the Mover ficha: convertir la indignación en cambio político ("Moving the counter: converting indignation into political change") manifesto on 14 January 2014,[39] Iglesias presented, along with other people and groups, the Podemos movement,[40] intending to run in the European election. He was elected to lead the list of Podemos (just registered as political party) in open primary elections.[41] His face was used as logo on the ballot paper as he was more known than the party by that time.[42]

He was then elected to the European Parliament, as the party earned 5 seats at the election. On 25 June 2014, GUE/NGL, the European Parliament group Podemos joined, elected him as its proposed candidate for the presidency of the European Parliament.[43][44] As a MEP, Iglesias served in the Committee on Foreign Affairs, the Subcommittee on Human Rights and in the vice-chair of the Delegation for relations with Mercosur. He was also a substitute for the Subcommittee on Security and Defence and the Committee on Agriculture and Rural Development.[45]

Iglesias became the host of Otra vuelta de tuerka, a new TV show featuring an interview by Iglesias to a public figure; it was inaugurated on 6 October 2014, with a talk between Iglesias and Jesús Cintora.[46] Broadcast until 2020, through the years Iglesias interviewed more than 150 individuals, including the likes of Thomas Piketty, Toni Negri, Manuel Castells, Baltasar Garzón, Dilma Rousseff, Owen Jones, Ahed Tamimi, Guilherme Boulos, Nancy Fraser or José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero.

Juan Carlos Monedero, Jesús Montero [es], José Manuel López, Pablo Iglesias and Íñigo Errejón attending the investiture of Manuela Carmena as Mayor of Madrid on 13 June 2015

On 15 November 2014 Iglesias became the first Secretary-General of Podemos, after commanding the support from a 88.6% of the registered party members who took part in the voting, ending the two-month long Yes We Can Citizen Assembly (Vistalegre I) that defined the party's organizational structure and elected the party cadres.[47]

In March 2015, Iglesias and Tania Sánchez jointly announced the breakup of their domestic partnership;[48] they had been roughly three years together.[49]

Following the results of the May 2015 local elections, and the ensuing success of the lists tacitly endorsed by Podemos in the big cities, Iglesias deemed the new municipal governments in Madrid and Barcelona, presided by Manuela Carmena and Ada Colau respectively, as models in order to "start the (political) change" in the country.[50]

Failed sorpasso

On 27 October 2015, Iglesias renounced to his seat in the European Parliament in order to focus on the campaign for the 2015 Spanish general election.[51]

Iglesias ran first in the Podemos in Madrid for the Congress of Deputies election; Podemos earned 44 seats; forming a parliamentary group with the addition of the legislators elected with En Comú Podem and En Marea; gathering 69 deputies, the new group became the third biggest group in the Lower House.[52] On 15 February 2016, Podemos (along En Comú Podem and En Marea) delivered to PSOE a proposal intending to agree on the government formation with PSOE, but PSOE deemed some of the points as unacceptable; on 30 March, after meeting Pedro Sánchez, Iglesias make public he would renounce to enter government if that were to smooth the negotiations for the investiture of Sánchez as prime minister, while also declaring he was open to the prospect of meeting Albert Rivera, leader of Citizens (4th group in Congress en la cámara baja), that had already reached a tentative agreement with the PSOE.[53]

After the absence of any investiture, on 3 May 2016 a a new general election was called for 26 June. Three days after Eduardo Inda [es] (Okdiario's chief editor) accused Iglesias of allegedly having received illegal funding from the Venezuelan government via a tax haven.[54][55] The report on which the information was based (whose authorship has been tracked to the so called "patriotic police" set up by Minister Jorge Fernández Díaz and that included as payment order fake evidence elaborated through clippings taken out of the Internet), led to many headlines in the Spanish press for months although it led to nowhere as evidence in the Courts.[56][57]

Iglesias and Alberto Garzón in 2016 after reaching a deal for the coalition of Podemos and IU for the 2016 general election, the "pacto de los botellines".

On 9 May 2016 Pablo Iglesias and Alberto Garzón (Coordinator-General of IU), announced and agreement vying for an electoral alliance between Podemos and IU vis-à-vis the upcoming general election; this agreement came to be known as the pacto de los botellines.[58] The coalition was named Unidos Podemos and Iglesias ran 1st in the Madrid list. The seats of Unidos Podemos, plus those of En Comú Podem, En Marea and Compromís amounted to 71,[59] and the Unidos Podemos-En Comú Podem-En Marea Confederal Parliamentary Group stood as third political force in the Lower House. The results of the 2016 election brought a breaking point in Podemos as both Iglesias and Íñigo Errejón deemed the results of the election largely as a strategical failure, but because of different interpretations; Iglesias in particular thought the strategy of transversality endorsed by Errejón had shown its limits (conversely Errejón blamed it precisely on the tight alliance with IU).[60]

From December 2016 to February 2017 the 2nd Citizen Assembly of Podemos ("Vistalegre II") took place. Pablo Iglesias bid to repeat as Secretary-General of the party, winning in the leadership vote in which the only challenger he faced was Juan Moreno Yagüe (89% vs. 10,9%).[61] In addition, his platform also imposed over that of Errejón in the voting of the composition of the Podemos State Council and some party papers, and thus his grip on the party strengthened.[62][61]

In April 2017, Iglesias and Podemos tabled a censure motion against the PP government due to a series of corruption scandals of the governing party. The other opposition parties refused to support it,[63] and the motion failed, with only 82 votes in favor against 170 opposed and 97 abstaining.[64] As no-confidence motions in Spain are constructive, Iglesias designated himself as replacement candidate for Prime Minister in the event his motion succeeded in toppling Rajoy.

In May 2018, Iglesias and his domestic partner Irene Montero put their positions in Podemos up for a vote of confidence due to an internal controversy over their purchase of a €600,000 house in Galapagar outside Madrid; some party members saw the purchase as contrary to the party's beliefs.[65][66] The vote of confidence in their positions passed with 68.4% of members voting in their favour.[67]

On May 2018, just after the Audiencia Nacional delivered the sentence condemning the People's Party as participant of the Gürtel corruption scheme "on a lucrative basis" and the ensuing filing PSOE parliamentary group of a vote of no confidence in the Prime Minister Mariano Rajoy for 1 June 2018, Iglesias announced that shall the latter motion fail Podemos would file another one just for the purpose of immediately calling for a new general election; this move has been attributed to the will to force the 'yes' vote of the MPs of the Basque Nationalist Party (in principle hostile to new elections and favouring abstention instead); the 'yes' votes of the Basque MPs ultimately determined the success of the motion.[68]

Following the results of the April 2019 Spanish general election (that delivered a plurality to the PSOE in the Congress of Deputies) and the subsequent proposal of Pedro Sánchez as Prime Ministerial candidate by the King, tasked with searching supports for his investiture, Iglesias faced the negotiations between the PSOE and Podemos regarding the investiture vowing for some Podemos politicians to enter the Council of Ministers in a number relative to the PSOE proportional to the votes of each party. Even if on 19 July 2019, Iglesias made clear his personal presence at the Council of Ministers was not to be an excuse not to form a government, dropping any pretense of becoming a minister,[69] the negotiations with the PSOE vis-à-vis the portfolios entrusted to Podemos politicians ultimately failed, and Sánchez could not pass his first investiture in July 2019.

Cabinet member

Iglesias and Sánchez hugging after the announcement of a tentative agreement for a "progressive" government (Palacio de las Cortes, 12 November 2019).

Following the results of the November 2019 Spanish general election, on 12 November 2019 Pedro Sánchez and Iglesias announced a preliminary agreement between PSOE and Unidas Podemos to rule together.[70][71] The successful investiture of Sánchez as prime minister in a second round vote ensued on 7 January 2020.[72]

Appointed as Second Deputy Prime Minister and as Minister of Social Rights and 2030 Agenda in the Sánchez II Government, he took office along the rest of the ministers in the cabinet on 13 January 2020.[73][74][75] The protocol established for the smooth functioning of the coalition government signed by PSOE and Podemos envisaged Iglesias to quit the role of host in TV shows such as Otra vuelta de tuerka and Fort Apache when he became Deputy Prime Minister.[76] Iglesias chose Podemos local leader in Madrid and former JEMAD Julio Rodríguez to be his Chief of Staff,[77] while he opted for Nacho Álvarez [es] and Ione Belarra [es] as Secretaries of State in the Ministry.[78]


He is an admirer of the Italian Communist Party and Antonio Gramsci, as is interested in the party strategy of Palmiro Togliatti and the theoretical work of Antonio Negri.[17][n. 4]

Vis-à-vis the Vistalegre II party congress in 2017, Iglesias represented one of the two proposals within Podemos—sometimes portrayed as a "traditional left-wing" (Iglesias) vs "classic populist strategy" (Errejón)—that clashed during the event: the Iglesias' line stance was to strengthen the Podemos-United Left current alliance in opposition to the Errejón's line, that envisioned the coalition locked the party too much into a radical-left identity.[80][n. 5]

In August 2015, Iglesias endorsed Jeremy Corbyn's campaign in the Labour Party leadership election[n. 6] He has declared himself a defender of the Venezuelan Bolivarian government several times and has stated his admiration for the policies of Hugo Chávez.[13][83] He has later changed his public statements regarding Venezuela and disavowed some of his earlier comments, calling the crisis in Venezuela a "disaster".[84][n. 7]

Iglesias is a prominent republican, saying that a "new republic would be the best guarantee of a united Spain built on a foundation of respect and freedom to decide".[86]

He is not religious, but says he finds himself in agreement with many of Pope Francis's views.[87]

Electoral history

Electoral history of Pablo Iglesias
Election List Constituency List position Result
European parliament election, 2014 Podemos Spain 1st (out of 54) Elected
Spanish general election, 2015 Podemos Madrid 1st (out of 36) Elected
Spanish general election, 2016 Unidos Podemos Madrid 1st (out of 36) Elected
Spanish general election, April 2019 Unidas Podemos Madrid 1st (out of 37) Elected
Spanish general election, November 2019 Unidas Podemos Madrid 1st (out of 37) Elected


  • — (2009). Multitud y acción colectiva postnacional. Madrid: Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Servicio de Publicaciones.
  • — (2011). Desobedientes. De Chiapas a Madrid. Madrid: Editorial Popular.
  • — (2013). Maquiavelo frente a la gran pantalla. Cine y política. Akal.
  • Iglesias Turrión, Pablo; Monedero, Juan Carlos (2011). ¡Que no nos representan!: El debate sobre el sistema electoral español. Madrid: Popular.
  • Iglesias Turrión, Pablo; Romero Laullón, Ricardo (2013). Abajo el Régimen. Conversación entre Pablo Iglesias y Nega LCDM. Icaria.
  • Iglesias Turrión, Pablo; Espasandín, Jesús, eds. (2007). Bolivia en Movimiento. Acción colectiva y poder político. Madrid: El Viejo Topo.
  • Iglesias Turrión, Pablo, ed. (2013). Cuando las películas votan. Lecciones de ciencias sociales a través del cine. Catarata.


Informational notes
  1. ^ Always known as "Pablo", he formally dropped his second name "Manuel" in 2015, after he began to be derisively addressed in public as "Pablo Manuel" by some PSOE politicians.[2]
  2. ^ Pablo's paternal grandfather Manuel Iglesias Ramírez was sentenced to death in Francoist Spain, but the sentence was not carried out because the accusations against him were proven to be false.[5]
  3. ^ He is also studying French.[1]
  4. ^ He has declared that, politically, he is "Italian", adding that "my political mind was made in Italy".[79]
  5. ^ He had nonetheless acrimoniously derided the old IU cadres before back in June 2015 declaring "keep on living in your existential pessimism. Boil yourself in your sauce plenty of red stars and stuff, but don't approach (us), because you are precisely the (individuals) responsible for nothing being changed in this country. You are killjoys. I don't want political killjoys, people who have been unable to do anything in 25 years. I don't want political leaders in IU, and I have worked for them, unable to read the political situation, to approach us.[81]
  6. ^ "We salute and support him," he told reporters. "The fact that at this moment Jeremy Corbyn is the favourite to win... and make a 180-degree turn from the direction set out by Tony Blair shows how much things are changing across Europe." Iglesias added: "A different Labour Party that returns to its origins as a representative of the popular classes is, I believe, very important."[82]
  7. ^ Despite this, during the 2019 Venezuelan presidential crisis, Iglesias argued, in what it was considered a defense of Nicolás Maduro, that the Government of Spain and the EU "should defend international legality, instead of a coup", also arguing that neither Donald Trump nor his allies "were interested in democracy and human rights in Venezuela".[85]
  1. ^ a b c Menéndez, María (2016-06-09). "Pablo Iglesias afronta su "segunda vuelta electoral" con el 'sorpasso' al PSOE en la cabeza". (in Spanish). Retrieved 2020-01-20.
  2. ^ "Iglesias confiesa que hizo cambiar su DNI en 2015 para no le llamaran Pablo Manuel'". 27 April 2017.
  3. ^ Cortés, Josep Maria. "'Iglesias baila un Valls'". Crónica Global (in Spanish). Retrieved 2020-01-20.
  4. ^ El último secretario general, Público, 18 September 2012.
  5. ^ "El abuelo de Pablo Iglesias fue represaliado por el franquismo". (in Spanish). 13 August 2014. Retrieved 1 October 2014.
  6. ^ a b Minder, Raphael (29 May 2014). "Spanish Upstart Party Said It Could, and Did. Now the Hard Part Begins". The New York Times. Retrieved 16 December 2014.
  7. ^ (2012-06-20). " / Periódico digital de Soria". (in Spanish). Retrieved 2020-01-20.
  8. ^ Suárez, Gonzalo (2014-06-01). "El monaguillo Pablo Iglesias". El Mundo (in Spanish). Retrieved 2020-01-20.
  9. ^ Mora, Jaime G. (2014-05-31). "El fenómeno izquierdista de Podemos, de la «a» a la «z»". ABC (in Spanish). Retrieved 2020-01-20.
  10. ^ " | encuentro digital con Pablo Iglesias". Retrieved 2020-01-20.
  11. ^ 20minutos (2014-05-26). "Pablo Iglesias, el triunfo de un profesor aupado por movimientos 'indignados' y tertulias en TV". - Últimas Noticias (in Spanish). Retrieved 2020-01-20.
  12. ^ "Iglesias to head Spain's leftist Podemos party". The Local. 16 November 2014. Retrieved 18 December 2014.
  13. ^ a b Ames, Paul (15 November 2014). "Europe looks left". Global Post. Retrieved 8 January 2015.
  14. ^ Torreblanca, José Ignacio (2015-04-09). Asaltar los cielos: Podemos o la política después de la crisis (in Spanish). Penguin Random House Grupo Editorial España. ISBN 978-84-9992-540-0.
  15. ^ Rozas, Daniel (3 July 2012). "I am not a crock! "A la izquierda le falta imaginación"". Diagonal. Retrieved 13 July 2013.
  16. ^ a b Iglesias Turrión, Pablo. "Pablo Iglesias Turrión's CV" (PDF) (in Spanish). Archived from the original (PDF) on 30 October 2014. Retrieved 26 September 2014.[unreliable source?]
  17. ^ a b c Chazel & Fernández Vázquez 2019, p. 6.
  18. ^ Juliana, Enric (16 September 2018). "Las tres tesis". La Vanguardia.
  19. ^ Profesorado-Pablo Iglesias Turrión UCM's website, 3rd Department of Political Science. Access date 23 May 2014.
  20. ^ "¿Qué es la Fundación CEPS?". CEPS Foundation (in Spanish). Retrieved 11 February 2015.
  21. ^ a b Mercado, Francisco (17 June 2014). "La fundación relacionada con Podemos cobró 3,7 millones de Chávez en 10 años". El Pais. Retrieved 8 February 2015.
  22. ^ Ruiz Valdivia, Antonio (11 May 2014). "25 datos que no sabías de Pablo Iglesias". Huffington Post. Retrieved 8 February 2015.
  23. ^ Pacho, Nacho (12 July 2014). "La Complutense quiere que Pablo Iglesias sea profesor honorífico". El Mundo (in Spanish). El rector explica que Iglesias ya no pertenece a la UCM desde el pasado 1 de julio, cuando perdió su condición de profesor titular interino
  24. ^ "La Complutense nombra profesor honorífico a Pablo Iglesias". (in Spanish). 25 September 2014. Retrieved 25 September 2014.
  25. ^ Marina González (6 August 2014). "El que puede". La Diaria (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 26 September 2014.CS1 maint: unfit url (link)
  26. ^ Pablo Iglesias Turrión in Google Scholar. Access date 23 May 2014.
  27. ^ "Otra vuelta de Tuerka". Público (in Spanish). Retrieved 13 July 2013.
  28. ^ "Artículos de Pablo Iglesias". Kaosenlared (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 19 October 2012. Retrieved 13 July 2013.
  29. ^ Iglesias Turrión, Pablo (22 July 2006). "Asamblea constituyente y revolución". Diagonal (in Spanish). Retrieved 13 July 2013.
  30. ^ "Artículos de Pablo Iglesias". Rebelió (in Spanish). Retrieved 13 July 2013.
  31. ^ Junquera, Natalia (5 January 2019). "Yolanda Díaz, la política que fichó a Iglesias como asesor". El País.
  32. ^ "Radiografía en crudo de Pablo Iglesias, un líder forjado al ritmo de la 'Tuerka style'". El Confidencial (in Spanish). 2015-04-07. Retrieved 2020-01-20.
  33. ^ Diariocrí "'Fort Apache': el reducto mediático de Pablo Iglesias". Diariocrí (in Spanish). Retrieved 2020-01-20.
  34. ^ Elorza Múgica, Alejandra (2014-12-13). "Iglesias reconoce ahora que sí cobró por las tertulias". La Razón (in Spanish). Retrieved 2020-01-20.
  35. ^ a b Suanzes, Pablo R.; Bécares, Roberto (2014-05-27). "El líder que profesionalizó las tertulias". El Mundo (in Spanish). Retrieved 2020-01-20.
  36. ^ "Celebrada la primera edición de los Premios de Periodismo para el Cambio Social". entreculturas (in Spanish). 13 November 2013. Retrieved 24 May 2014.
  37. ^ "Podemos nació en un coche". CTXT. 16 April 2015.
  38. ^ Riveiro, Aitor (2017). El cielo tendrá que esperar: Un recorrido por los tres primeros años de vida de Podemos.
  39. ^ Kadner, M. (5 November 2014). "Podemos, siete momentos clave". El País.
  40. ^ Europa Press (13 March 2014). "Podemos formaliza su inscripción como partido político". (in Spanish). Retrieved 12 July 2014.
  41. ^ "Pablo Iglesias, elegido cabeza de lista por Podemos en las primarias con más participación para las europeas". Público (in Spanish). 3 April 2014. Retrieved 30 May 2014.
  42. ^ "La cara de Pablo Iglesias en las papeletas de Podemos a las europeas, carne de tuit -". (in Spanish). Retrieved 2020-01-20.
  43. ^ Fariza, Ignacio (25 June 2014). "Pablo Iglesias, candidato de la Izquierda Unitaria a la presidencia de la Eurocámara". El País.
  44. ^ Europa Press (25 June 2014). "Pablo Iglesias, elegido candidato a presidir el Parlamento Europeo por la Izquierda Unitaria Europea". El Mundo.
  45. ^ "Pablo IGLESIAS". European Parliament. Retrieved 21 November 2015.
  46. ^ "La historia de amor de Pablo Iglesias y Jesús Cintora". Libertad Digital (in Spanish). 2014-10-07. Retrieved 2020-01-20.
  47. ^ Riveiro, Aitor (15 November 2014). "5.311 personas eligen a Pablo Iglesias secretario general de Podemos".
  48. ^ "Tania Sánchez y Pablo Iglesias dan a conocer su ruptura". La Vanguardia (in Spanish). 2015-03-22. Retrieved 2020-01-20.
  49. ^ Villar, Cote (2015-01-24). "El porqué y el cómo de la ruptura entre Pablo Iglesias y Tania Sánchez". El Mundo (in Spanish). Retrieved 2020-01-20.
  50. ^ "Pablo Iglesias hace propio el triunfo de Colau y Carmena y abre la vía a otro frente popular". El Confidencial (in Spanish). 2015-05-25. Retrieved 2020-01-20.
  51. ^ Francesco, Manetto (27 October 2015). "Iglesias deja el Parlamento Europeo con un duro ataque a la gran coalición". El País. Retrieved 1 December 2015.
  52. ^ "Resultados elecciones generales españolas. XI legislatura. Página web de El País".
  53. ^ VL (30 March 2016). "Pablo Iglesias, dispuesto a no estar en el Gobierno y a reunirse con Ciudadanos".
  54. ^ "Pablo Iglesias y Podemos demandan a Esperanza Aguirre y Eduardo Inda". 9 July 2014.
  55. ^ "Pablo Pablo Iglesias pierde la batalla judicial por su honor contra Eduardo Inda y tendrá que pagar las costas". 18 April 2017.
  56. ^ Romero, José Manuel (7 April 2019). "Las cloacas del Estado, bajo la lupa judicial". El País.
  57. ^ Gálvez, J.J. (28 March 2019). "El falso informe que trató de tumbar a Podemos en pleno auge". El País.
  58. ^ Carvajal, Álvaro (7 May 2017). "¿Queda algo de IU un año después del 'pacto de los botellines'?". El Mundo.
  59. ^ "Resultados elecciones generales españolas 2015. XII legislatura. Página web de El País".
  60. ^ Chazel & Fernández Vázquez 2019, p. 3.
  61. ^ a b García de Blas, Elsa (12 February 2017). "Iglesias logra todo el control para imponer el Podemos más radical". el País.
  62. ^ "Iglesias arrasa en Vistalegre II y seguirá como secretario general de Podemos". 12 February 2017.
  63. ^ Torres, Diego (27 April 2017). "Podemos divides opposition with Rajoy no-confidence motion". Politico. Retrieved 21 February 2019.
  64. ^ Paul Day (13 June 2017). "Spain's parliament rejects no-confidence motion against PM Rajoy". Reuters. Retrieved 21 February 2019.
  65. ^ "Leader of Spain's Podemos to face party vote on 600,000 euro house purchase". Reuters. 21 May 2018. Retrieved 26 March 2020.
  66. ^ Jones, Sam (20 May 2018). "Spain's Podemos leader to face party vote over luxury house purchase". The Guardian. Retrieved 26 March 2020.
  67. ^ Stothard, Michael (27 May 2018). "Spanish leftwing leader wins confidence vote after house furore". The Financial Times. Retrieved 26 March 2020.
  68. ^ Pardo Torregrosa, Iñaki (1 June 2016). "El papel clave de Podemos en el desalojo de Rajoy". La Vanguardia.
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  70. ^ Sánchez, Manuel; Asuar, Beatriz (12 November 2019). "Sánchez e Iglesias pactan un Gobierno de coalición, pero la estructura se conocerá tras la investidura". Público (in Spanish). Display Connectors, SL. Retrieved 12 November 2019.
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  • Chazel, Laura; Fernández Vázquez, Guillermo (2019). "Podemos, at the origins of the internal conflicts around the 'populist hypothesis': a comparison of the theoretical production, public speeches and militant trajectories of Pablo Iglesias and Íñigo Errejón". European Politics and Society. doi:10.1080/23745118.2019.1582256.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)

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New office Second Deputy Prime Minister of Spain
Preceded by
María Luisa Carcedo
as Minister of Health, Consumption and Social Welfare
Minister of Social Rights and 2030 Agenda
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