List of massacres in the Philippines

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Name Date Location Deaths Notes
Chinese Massacre of 1603 1603 Manila, Captaincy General of the Philippines 15,000–25,000[1] Fearing an uprising by the large Chinese community in the Philippines, the Spanish colonists carried out a preemptive massacre, largely in the Manila area, in October 1603.[2]
Chinese Massacre of 1639 1639 Luzon, Captaincy General of the Philippines 17,000–22,000[1] The Spanish and their Filipino allies carried out a large-scale massacre, in which 17,000 to 22,000 Chinese rebels died.
Chinese Massacre of 1662 1662 Manila, Captaincy General of the Philippines Several thousand[1]
Cholera massacre October 9, 1820 Manila 39 Based on the eyewitnesses' accounts, a deadly cholera epidemic led to a massacre, wherein a mob of about 3000 men killed Europeans, mostly Spanish, and Chinese nationals.[3][4]
Balangiga massacre September 28, 1901 Balangiga, Eastern Samar 48[5][6](American soldiers)

2,000–50,000 (Filipino soldiers and civilians)[7][8][9]

A mess area, where soldiers are eating breakfast, was attacked by hundreds of residents led by Valeriano Abanador. With 22 injuries, it was the U.S. Army's "worst defeat" since a battle in 1876.[10][11]

Many Filipino historians argue that the true "Balangiga massacre" was the subsequent American retaliation,[12] which resulted in an unclear number of deaths. Although the original American report claimed that only 39 people were killed,[13] estimates by actual historians range from around 2,000[7] to roughly 50,000.[8][9]

Moro Crater massacre (Battle of Bud Dajo) March 10, 1906 Jolo Island 600

(figures varied)

Battle lasted for 4 days. Only seven were captured including three women and four children. While eighteen men escaped from the mountain.[14][15][16]
Shinyō Maru massacre September 7, 1944 off Mindanao, Sulu Sea 668 Occurred in the Pacific theater of World War II. In an attack on a Japanese convoy by the American submarine USS Paddle, 668 Allied prisoners of war were massacred by the Japanese or killed when their ship, the SS Shinyō Maru was sunk. Only 82 Americans survived the ordeal and were later rescued.[17]
Palawan massacre December 14, 1944 Puerto Princesa, Palawan 139 Occurred during World War II; Allied soldiers, imprisoned near the city, were murdered by Japanese soldiers during an air raid. Most of the victims burned alive. Only 11 men escaped the slaughter. Thirty-four Japanese officers and men were accused.[18]
Mangkaeng massacre January 23, 1945 Brgy. Guising Norte, Naguilian, La Union 400

(all civilians)

Japanese forces fired at the victims. Documentation of the incident was started since 2016.[19]
Manila massacre February 3 to March 3, 1945 various areas in Manila. At least 100,000[20] Committed by the Imperial Japanese Army, during the World War II Battle of Manila (1945).[20][21]
Japanese massacre of the De La Salle Brothers, et al. February 12, 1945 De La Salle Main Chapel, Taft Avenue, Manila[20] 41 civilians: former students, residents and 16 Christian Brothers[20] Occurred during the Manila massacres in February 1945. Only 10 people survived including one De La Salle Brother.[22]
Maliwalu massacre April 7, 1950 (Good Friday) Maliwalu, Bacolor, Pampanga 21 The "massacre" of 21 peasants who were seized by temporary policemen on in Maliwalu.[23]
Maragondon massacre September 1952 Maragondon, Cavite 4

(Municipal mayor, police chief, 2 policemen)

Allegedly on the orders of a Sen. Montano, from the victim's rival political party, Leonardo Manecio (Nardong Putik), his alleged hired killer, and his henchmen kidnapped town mayor Severino Rillo and stabbed to death along with the town chief of police and his officers.[24][25][26][27]

The involved, the senator and his men including Manecio, the vice mayor and two councilors of the town, were accused and charged of the killing. Manecio was later convicted, but the senator was acquitted.[24][28]

RCA Building incident August 26, 1963 RCA Bldg., Canonigo St., Paco, Manila 5

(security guards of the RCA Bldg.)

Victims were killed by a gang using a fireman's axe; another guard and a carpenter survived. Suspects then stole a huge amount of money. It was found to be an inside job which involves 4 employees, with another guard Apolonio Adriano as the killer; they were convicted and sentenced to death on 1966.[29]
Culatingan massacre[30] June 13, 1966 Culatingan, Concepcion, Tarlac 7 Farmers in the barrio of Culatingan were shot down. Ninoy Aquino, then secretary-general of the Liberal Party, was actively involved in the investigation and blames the Philippine Constabulary for the murders, marks the first confrontations between Ninoy and President Marcos.[30]
Lapiang Malaya massacre

(Bloody Sunday)

May 21, 1967 Taft Avenue, Pasay 33

(32 were farmers from Southern Luzon)

Bolo-wielding members of Lapiang Malaya (Freedom Movement) marched to Malacañang and conducted a rally, but were massacred as confronted by the police armed with rifles; 358 more were arrested and taken to Camp Crame in Quezon City.[31][32]
Jabidah massacre March 18, 1968 Corregidor Island 11

(figures varied: claims from a sole survivor, student activists, CMFR & MNLF)

Recounted by a survivor in interviews on 2008 and 2009, Muslim youth trained for "Operation Merdeka" were allegedly shot by their training officers.[33][34][35]
Tarlac incident October 8, 1969 Between Capas, Tarlac, and Camp O’Donnell, Pampanga. 10

(civilian security guards of the US Naval radio station, driver)

Victims were shot while on their transport vehicle.[36]
Manili massacre June 19, 1971 Brgy. Manili, Carmen, North Cotabato Unknown

(figures varied; all civilians)

Maguindanaoans were killed by soldiers inside a mosque.[37][38][39]
Tacub massacre October 24, 1971 Magsaysay, Lanao del Norte Unknown [40]
Massacre in Zamboanga City September 5, 1974 Zamboanga City 28 Five raiders described as Christians, armed with bolo knives and automatic rifles, raided an upland settlement and killed Muslims.[41]
Malisbong (Palimbang) massacre September 24, 1974 Brgy. Malisbong, Palimbang, Sultan Kudarat Unknown

(figures varied; all civilians)

Government forces burned the entire village with 300 houses, Moro men were shot inside Tacbil mosque, women and children were arrested and detained, some of them experienced "torture." Victims were recognized by the government in 2014.[14][33][37][38][42][43][44]
Massacre in Wao August 8, 1975 Wao, Lanao del Sur 32 Muslim rebels ambushed a truck carrying 34 civilians, killed one, tied the rest together and taken to a village in Bukidnon, where they were gunned down. Two survived.[45]
Massacre in Bingcul village 1977 Bingcul village, somewhere in Mindanao 42 Government militiamen massacred Muslim villagers and burned down their homes. Four survived.[46]
Tictapul incident 1977 Bo. Tictapul, Zamboanga City Unknown

(all civilians)

Patikul massacre October 10, 1977 Patikul, Sulu, Mindanao, Philippines 35 35 unarmed officers, including Brig. Gen. Teodulfo Bautista, commanding general of the 1st Infantry "Tabak" Division of the Philippine Army, were tricked into attending a "peace dialogue" with a group of MNLF rebels led by Usman Sali in Patikul, Sulu. They were ambushed and killed.
Buluan incident July 16, 1978 Buluan, Maguindanao 9

(all civilians)

Soldiers shot some 15 farmers working in a field.[38]
Massacre in Bongao Island April 1980 Bongao Island, Bongao, Tawi-Tawi 29 Philippine marines massacred them during a guerilla war. Motive unknown.[47]
Pata Island massacre February 12, 1981 Pata, Sulu 124

(government forces)

Government officers and soldiers were ambushed by Muslim rebels before the supposed peace talks; at that time, the worst attack since 1974 and the worst defeat on their side.[48][49] Sources, however, tagged the retaliation as a real massacre, wherein 3,000 Tausug civilians were killed in an operation launched by the military.[37]
Daet massacre June 14, 1981 Daet, Camarines Norte 4

(all civilians)

Marching protesters were fired by soldiers; more than 40 were wounded.[50][51][52][53]
Tudela incident

(Family murders)

August 24, 1981 Sitio Gitason, Bo. Lampasan, Tudela, Misamis Occidental 10

(family members)

Paramilitary members of a mock religious sect attacked Gumapon family's house with 12 persons inside.[50][51]
Sag-od massacre September 15, 1981 Bo. Sag-od, Las Navas, Northern Samar 45

(all civilians)

Armed security men of a timber company allied with a paramilitary group shot residents when they come out of their homes.[50][51][54]
Culasi incident December 19, 1981 Culasi, Antique 5

(all civilians)

Soldiers fired at the marching farmers while on the bridge.[50][51]
Talugtug incident January 3, 1982 Talugtug, Nueva Ecija 5

(all civilians)

Victims were gathered by the military. They were found dead a day later.[50][51]
Dumingag incident February 1982 Dumingag, Zamboanga del Sur 12

(all civilians)

Members of Ilaga cult killed the victims in retaliation for the death of their leader.[50][51]
Gapan incident

(Family murders)

February 12, 1982 Gapan, Nueva Ecija 5

(family members: couple, 3 children)

Men in camouflage attacked Bautista family's house.[51]
Hinunangan incident March 1982 Bo. Masaymon, Hinunangan, Southern Leyte 8

(all civilians, 6 were aged 3–18)

Only few reports given that victims were allegedly killed by soldiers.[50][51]
Bayog incident May 25 – June 1982 Bo. Dimalinao, Bayog, Zamboanga del Sur 5

(all civilians)

In retaliation for the death of 23 soldiers on May 23, military bombed the barrio by planes, killing 3. Victims were picked up days later, on May 30 and June 18, then killed. It was followed by an attack in the parish priest's residence.[50][51]
Bulacan massacre June 21, 1982 Pulilan, Bulacan 5

(all civilians)

Six peasant organizers conducting a meeting at a farmer's house were raided by soldiers and five of them were taken away. They were found dead in San Rafael town a day after. Only one, who evaded the raid, survived.[50][51][55]
Labo incident June 23, 1982 Labo, Camarines Norte 5

(all civilians)

In retaliation for the death of a soldier's friend, victims finishing the construction of the army detachment were shot by its soldiers.[50]
Tong Umapoy massacre 1983 Tawi-Tawi 57

(all civilians)

A Navy ship allegedly fired on a passenger boat, killing people on board.[42]
Godod ambush

(Rebel attack)

September 29, 1983 Godod, Zamboanga del Norte 46

(39 soldiers, 7 civilians)

About 70 suspected New People's Army rebels ambushed an army patrol unit in an incident with the highest casualty count suffered by Government forces in a single attack since leftist operations began a decade prior; only eleven survived.[56]
Sinasa village incident

(Either mass suicide or mass murder)

September 9, 1985 Sinasa village, Davao City 68

(perpetrator and his followers)

Similar to what happened in a settlement in Guyana on 1978, as local officials stated, religious leader Mangayanon Butaog fed poisoned food to his 69 followers in a remote mountain village, then later committed suicide; five survived.[57]
Escalante massacre September 20, 1985 Escalante, Negros Occidental 21

(all civilians)

People holding a strike were shot by government forces; scores injured.[50][58][59][60]
Inopacan massacre 1985[61] Mt. Sapang Dako, Baranggay Culisihan, Inopacan, Leyte[62][63][64] 67 The Communist New People's Army rebel purge victims' skeletal remains were discovered and exhumed by authorities in a mass grave site on August 28, 2006.[61][62][63][64][65]
Mendiola massacre
(Black Thursday)
January 22, 1987 Mendiola St., San Miguel, Manila 13 Government forces opened fire on 20,000 farmers while on their way to Malacanang.[66]
Lupao massacre February 10, 1987 Sitio Padlao, Namulandayan, Lupao, Nueva Ecija 17[67] Civilians, which were suspected members of the New People's Army by the military, were reported killed by Army soldiers in the town near the foot of the Caraballo mountain range. It is claimed that soldiers burned and looted their homes after a running gun battle with communist rebels, leading to the death of young Army Lt. Edgar Dizon and the wounding of his radioman.[67] The carnage, which also wounded 8,[68][69] remains unresolved.[67][70][71][72][73]
DXRA massacre August 27, 1987 Davao City 9

(4 local mediamen; 5 civilians)

Communist rebels attacked radio stations DXRA and DXMF, however, failed to cause casualties to the latter.[74]
Massacre in Midsalip November 22, 1988 Midsalip, Zamboanga del Sur 9 Machete ang knife-wielding assailants hacked to death a sleeping family, including a farmer, his wife and 7 children, in their home. Two survived.[75]
Massacre in Bagtik November 22, 1988 Bagtik, San Remigio, Cebu 17 Gunmen wearing fatigues arrived in an isolated mountain area, and for 10 minutes, sprayed automatic gunfire around the chapel and an adjacent residence, while villagers gathered for evening prayers. Victims including 4 children and 2 elderly women. At least 12 were wounded.[75][76]
Camp Cawa-Cawa siege (1989 Zamboanga City massacre) January 5, 1989 Camp Cawa-Cawa, Zamboanga City 14[77] Camp Cawa-Cawa was assaulted by Philippine security forces after Rizal Alih, a renegade Muslim policeman and his companions hostaged Gen. Eduardo Batalla and Col. Romeo Abendan of the Philippine Constabulary. The siege left more than a dozen people dead, including Batalla and Abendan.[77]
Rano massacre June 25, 1989 Binaton, Digos City, Davao del Sur 41 Thirty-nine victims were members of the United Church of Christ congregation, killed in church. Two New People's Army rebels also killed in an encounter. At least eight others were wounded.[78]
1989 Davao hostage crisis August 13–15, 1989 Davao City 21 A hostage-taking incident, army jail detainees took as hostages 15 Joyous Assembly of God members; 5 Christian Pentecostals and 16 detainees, also hostages, were killed.[79]
Digos massacre November 23, 1989 Digos, Davao Del Sur, Mindanao, Philippines 39[80] Including women and children.
Vizconde massacre

(Family murders)

June 30, 1991 BF Homes, Parañaque City, Metro Manila 3 Vizconde Family members were the victims, all had suffered multiple stab wounds.
Sablan massacre

(Family murders)

June 18–19, 1992 Sitio Dakes, Brgy. Banangan, Sablan, Benguet 3

(family members: survivor's sister and 2 cousins)

Victims were killed by five policemen; Myrna Diones was the only survivor.[81]
Massacre in villages December 13, 1992 Zamboanga del Sur 40 About 20 to 30 armed Muslims entered three villages: Alto Gulod, Lunot, Saguran. Villagers were lined up, stabbed and shot. Many were wounded.[82][83][84][85]
Antipolo massacre

(Rampage killing)

December 3, 1993 Sitio Kulasisi, Brgy. San Luis, Antipolo, Rizal 5

(perpetrator's neighbors)

Suspect Winefredo Masagca, believed to be "possessed by evil spirits," killed his neighbors in their house.[86]
Lipa massacre

(Family murders)

April 10, 1994 Sabang, Lipa City, Batangas 3 Angelina Arandia, along with her daughters Chelsea Liz and Anne Geleen were the victims, all had suffered multiple stab wounds
Ipil massacre

(Terror attack)

April 3, 1995 Ipil, Zamboanga del Sur

(now part of Zamboanga Sibugay)


(all civilians)

Approximately 200 heavily armed militants of the Abu Sayyaf fired upon residents, strafed civilian homes, plundered banks, took up to 30 hostages and then burned the centre of the town to the ground.[87][88] With more than 48 injuries.[89]
Payumo massacre

(Family murders)

September 9, 1995 Sta. Rosa, Laguna 4

(family members: mother, 3 children)

Victims were believed to be killed by drug addicts; a daughter of the family survived.[90][91]

Four suspects were convicted by the Biñan RTC on 1997.[92] However, on 2002, the Supreme Court lowered the death penalty sentence of three of them to four life terms each, while the fourth suspect, then sentenced to life imprisonment, was acquitted.[93]

Olongapo incident

(Rampage killing)

October 21, 1995 Olongapo City 8 Perpetrator Edgar Fernandez staged a shooting spree in a private hospital for its management's poor treatment; 3 were wounded.[94][95][96]
Buhi massacre

(Family murders)

December 28, 1995 Sitio Bogtong, Brgy. Gabas, Buhi, Camarines Sur 13

(family members: from the Cascante–Gayte clan: mother & 2 children; from the Gayte–Campo clan: couple & 5 children; also 2 another Gayte relatives and an adopted daughter. They including 5 young minors.)

The incident was triggered by a land dispute involving Nieva, Gayte, and Campo families. In retaliation for the killing of landlord Cristito Nieva, Jr. on Oct. 28, 1995, a number of armed men attacked the compound in a remote village and later shot and hacked the victims in their houses, with three of them beheaded, and the rest sustained gunshots.[97][98] One of them was the wife of one of the suspects implicated to the landlord's murder. Two of 9 survivors, one from each clan, stood as star witness.

Some of the involved and implicated were a police chief (with 5 others including Ramon Madrideo, once turned as state witness, they were arrested on Jan. 1996[99]) and 4 from the Nieva clan (including the alleged mastermind Ester Nieva, landlord's wife, they were arrested on 1999 in Cavite[100]).[101] A case was considered solved upon the surrender of remaining 3 of 13 suspects in the landlord's murder on Aug. 1996.[102]

Sara massacre August 12, 1998 Barangay Bacabac, Sara, Iloilo 10 Travelers, including a United States Peace Corps volunteer, were shot dead. On May 19, 2000, suspects, two Bragas cousins, were sentenced in prison, while another accused Ernesto Brito, sentenced to death despite denial in his involvement in the carnage.[103]
Rivilla family massacre December 17, 2000 24th Aguinaldo Street, Bacolod City 8 Killer, Bernon Gallo, was sentenced in prison for the murder of 6 Rivilla family members and their 2 housemaids.[104][105]
Zamboanga City massacre[106] December 19, 2002 San Roque, Zamboanga City 7 A wealthy family of four and three household employees were found murdered in the family's home. Businesswoman Juliet Tan, her three children and three household staff were found dead at their house. Two of the suspects; Rudy Botane, the slain businesswoman's stay-in helper, and Jonas Buenaventura; were arrested in a safehouse the same day.[106]
Luisita massacre November 16, 2004 Hacienda Luisita 7 Combined government troops attempted to disperse more than 6000 protesting farmers, later fired at them.[66][107]
Palo massacre November 21, 2005 Barangay San Agustin, Palo, Leyte 7 Claimed to be a legitimate operation by the military, the "gunfight" between the soldiers and alleged armed groups lasted for about 45 minutes at dawn. Resulted to the death of 7 peasants, including a seven-months-old-pregnant woman, 11 were wounded, 8 were arrested but only 6 were detained, and 2 were still missing.[108][109]
Calbayog massacre June 2, 2007 Gadgaran, Calbayog City, Samar 10 Danilo "Danny" Guades hacked to death 10 people with a bolo and injured 17 more on a drunk rampage through his neighbourhood at early morning.
Olongapo massacre March 13, 2008 Gordon Heights, Olongapo City 4

(including model Scarlet Garcia and her cousin)

Victims were killed in a condominium unit.[110][111][112]
Olongapo murders

(Family murders)

July 27, 2008 Sitio Kakilingan, Iram Resettlement, Brgy. Cabalan, Olongapo City 3

(Korean family members: mother, daughter, grandchild)

Victims were stabbed by unidentified men in their house.[113][114]
RCBC Cabuyao massacre May 16, 2008 Cabuyao City, Laguna 10 All bank employees were shot dead.
Maguindanao massacre

(Mass murder)

November 23, 2009 Ampatuan, Maguindanao 58

(including some 30 journalists, members of a clan who were perpetrator's rivals)

The 58 victims were kidnapped and killed while on their way to file a certificate of candidacy for Esmael Mangudadatu, vice mayor of Buluan, Maguindanao to challenge Datu Unsay mayor Andal Ampatuan Jr., son of the incumbent Maguindanao governor Andal Ampatuan Sr. and member of one of Mindanao's leading Muslim political clans,[115] in the forthcoming Maguindanao gubernatorial election, part of the national elections in 2010.[116] The people killed included Mangudadatu's wife, his two sisters, journalists, lawyers, aides, and motorists who were witnesses or were mistakenly identified as part of the convoy.

This incident led to the declaration of martial law in the province in December of the same year.[117][118][119][120]

Rendon massacre

(Family murders)

October 12, 2011 Brgy. Sta Felomina, San Pablo City, Laguna 4

(family members: couple, 2 children)

Suspect Ernie Tambuong, victims' neighbor, killed them because of a suspicion; only a daughter of the family survived.[121][122][123][124]
Sibago Island massacre

(Terror attack)

January 24, 2012 Sibago Island, Basilan 15

(all civilians: Pagadian City residents)

Gunmen, victim's rivals as stated by authorities, aboard three pump boats fired at them while fishing; three wounded.[89][125][126][127]
Roque-Sta. Ana. massacre

(Family murders)

August 16, 2012 St. Francis Village, Balagtas, Bulacan 4

(family members: grandfather, mother, 2 children)

Victims were killed in a robbery incident.[128][129]
Kawit massacre January 4, 2013 Tabon 1, Kawit, Cavite 8 (including the perpetrator) A 30-minute shooting rampage occurred when a drunk man named Ronald Baquiran Bae killed at least 7 people and a dog and wounded 12 other people with a semiautomatic pistol, before he was shot and killed by police. Another man, John Paul Lopez, was later arrested for assisting the gunman during the shooting by reloading his pistol magazine. The motive of the suspect is still unclear.
Atimonan massacre January 6, 2013 Atimonan, Quezon 13 Thirteen people were killed in a mass murder, authorities said to be an alleged shootout conducted by Philippine National Police.
Nunungan massacre

(Terror attack)

April 22, 2013 Nunungan, Lanao del Norte 13

(all civilians: including relatives of the town mayor, supporters)

Convoy of the town mayor was ambushed; 10 wounded.[89][130][131]
Pampanga massacre September 21, 2013 Angeles City, Pampanga 7 Edejer, a bangus (milkfish) trader, sustained a gunshot wound in the head during the killings that claimed the life of his wife Corazon, son Kenneth, nephew Nelson Dominico, housemaids Teresita Lansangan and Kaykay, and Benigno Villanueva.[132]
Baguio massacre April 6, 2014 Kayang Hilltop, Baguio City 5 Victims (including 3 minors and a maid) were stabbed dead inside a rented apartment on the fourth floor of the building that serves as a marketplace.[133] The Regional Trial Court Branch 4, Baguio City, on January 28, 2016 found Phillip Tolentino Avino, the accused in the killing, guilty beyond reasonable doubt. He was sentenced to suffer reclusion perpetua or life sentence without eligibility to parole for the five counts of murder filed against him.[134]
Talipao massacre July 28, 2014 Talipao, Sulu 21 Armed men opened fire at a convoy of civilians who were travelling to a feast to mark the end of Ramadan.[135]
Mamasapano clash (Also known as the Mamasapano massacre) January 25, 2015 Brgy. Tukanalipao, Mamasapano, Maguindanao 44 SAF personnel A police operation, codenamed Oplan Exodus, by Philippine National Police-Special Action Force (allegedly joined by United States Army Special Forces) against the Bangsamoro Islamic Freedom Fighters and the Moro Islamic Liberation Front; SAF members were fired by members of the MILF.[66]
Negros Oriental massacre February 5, 2016 Canlaon City, Negros Oriental 3 (including a 15-year-old girl) Roberto Montano Jr., 29, of Barangay Quezon, San Carlos City, is the prime suspect in the killing of Virgilio Tabanao, 61, his wife Erlinda, 69, and granddaughter, Kia, 15, at their home in Sitio Alibabay, Barangay Mabigo.[136]
SJDM massacre

(Family murders)

June 27, 2017 San Jose del Monte City, Bulacan 5

(family members: grandmother, mother, 3 children)

2018 Sagay massacre October 20, 2018 Sagay, Negros Occidental 9 In October 20, the Hacienda Nene massacre in Sagay, Negros Occidental, was committed by armed men – killing 9 sugar cane farmers. Three of the bodies were set on fire. Four farmers, two of which were minors, survived and escaped from the massacre, which would be uncovered to the media a day later.[139][140]


  1. ^ a b c Warfare and Armed Conflicts: A Statistical Encyclopedia of Casualty and Other Figures, 1492-2015. p. 61. ISBN 9780786474707.
  2. ^ Borao, José Eugenio (Nov 1, 1998). "The massacre of 1603: Chinese perception of the Spaniards in the Philippines" (PDF). Retrieved Feb 18, 2018.
  3. ^ "Massacre in Manila" Philippine Daily Inquirer. 8 July 2005. Retrieved 10 September 2016.
  4. ^ "6 Horrifying Facts That Get Let Out Of Philippine History". FilipiKnow. 11 October 2016. Retrieved 27 February 2017.
  5. ^ "Philippine bells toll memory of massacre" The Victoria Advocate. April 8, 1998. Retrieved September 10, 2016.
  6. ^ "Bells in Wyoming toll memory of massacre" Boca Raton News. April 8, 1998. Retrieved September 10, 2016.
  7. ^ a b Fritz, David L, Before "The Howling Wilderness": The Military Career of Jacob Heard Smith, Military Affairs, November–December (1979), p. 186
  8. ^ a b Young, Kenneth Ray, "Guerrilla Warfare Revisited", Leyte Samar Studies, XI:1 (1977), pp. 21–31
  9. ^ a b Dumindin, Arnaldo. "Philippine-American War, 1899–1902". Retrieved 2008-03-30.
  10. ^ Dumindin, Arnaldo (2006). "Balangiga Massacre, 1901". Philippine-American War, 1899–1902. Retrieved Feb 15, 2018.
  11. ^ Eperjesi, John. "For Whom the Balangiga Bells Toll". HuffPost. Retrieved Feb 15, 2018.
  12. ^ * Agoncillo, Teodoro C. (1990) [1960]. "History of the Filipino People" (8th ed.). Quezon City: Garotech Publishing: 228. ISBN 971-8711-06-6. Cite journal requires |journal= (help), "In their desperation, the American soldiers turned arsonists burning whole towns in order to force guerrillas to the open. One such infamous case of extreme barbarity occurred in the town of Balangiga, Samar, in 1901–1902. ..."
  13. ^ Nebrida, Victor. "The Balangiga Massacre: Getting Even". Archived from the original on 2 April 2008. Retrieved 2008-03-29.
  14. ^ a b "News: Duterte wants apology from US, but gives Marcos hero's burial when 1,500 Moros were massacred during Martial Law". Memebuster. Sep 8, 2016. Retrieved Feb 22, 2018.
  15. ^ "US soldiers pose with the bodies of Moro insurgents, Philippines, 1906". Rare Historical Photos. January 29, 2016. Retrieved September 10, 2016.
  16. ^ Clemens, Samuel (Mar 12, 1906). "Comments on the Moro Massacre". History is a Weapon. Retrieved Feb 15, 2018.
  17. ^ Mazza, Eugene A. (February 15, 2004). "The American Prisoners of War Rescued after the sinking of the Japanese transport, Shinyō Maru, by the USS Paddle, SS 263, on 7 September 1944". Submarine Sailor.
  18. ^ "Order arrest of 34 Japs for Philippines massacre" Toronto Daily Star. September 28, 1945. Retrieved September 10, 2016.
  19. ^ Diaz-Sabado, Joanna (Feb 8, 2018). "Feature: A Tree-bute: Remembering the 400 victims of Mangkaeng massacre". Philippine Information Agency. Retrieved Feb 19, 2018.
  20. ^ a b c d "Briefer: Massacres in the Battle of Manila". Republic of the Philippines Presidential Museum and Library. 2015. Retrieved February 20, 2016.
  21. ^ Aquino, Raymund Luther (January 30, 2015). "The Forgotten Massacre". BusinessWorld. Retrieved September 10, 2016.
  22. ^ "The Sack of Manila". Archived from the original on 20 August 2010. Retrieved 13 July 2006.
  23. ^ Soliven, Maximo (1962). "The Elections 1961". Philippine Studies. Ateneo de Manila University, Loyola Heights, Quezon City. 10 (1): 3–31. Retrieved March 23, 2017.
  24. ^ a b Ilagan, Karol (May 13, 2013). "Old, new, old-new bets split voters of Maragondon, Cavite". The PCIJ Blog. Retrieved May 20, 2019.
  25. ^ Trocki, Carl (1998). Gangsters, Democracy, and the State in Southeast Asia. New York: Southeast Asian Program Publications (Cornell University). p. 56. ISBN 0-87727-134-8.
  26. ^ "9 Extremely Notorious Pinoy Gangsters". FilipiKnow. Retrieved May 20, 2019.
  27. ^ Begas, Leifbilly (Feb 7, 2013). "Sino ang pumatay kay Nardong Putik?". Inquirer Bandera (Visayas), via PressReader (in Tagalog). Retrieved May 20, 2019.
  28. ^ "Nardong Putik". Law and Behold! (Blogspot). Aug 21, 2014. Retrieved May 20, 2019.
  29. ^ "10 Notorious Crimes of the 1960s That Shocked The Philippines". FilipiKnow. Retrieved February 12, 2016.
  30. ^ a b "The Life of Benigno Simeon "Ninoy" Aquino Jr". Retrieved February 20, 2016.
  31. ^ "Lapiang Malaya". Bantayog ng mga Bayani. October 9, 2015. Retrieved Feb 1, 2018.
  32. ^ "A History of the Philippine Political Protest". Official Gazette, Republic of the Philippines. Archived from the original on March 4, 2016. Retrieved February 25, 2016.
  33. ^ a b c de Santos, Jonathan (2016). "The Forgotten War". The Philippine Star. Retrieved Feb 22, 2018.
  34. ^ "The Jabidah Massacre of 1968". Bantayog ng mga Bayani. Oct 15, 2015. Retrieved Feb 1, 2018.
  35. ^ Whitman, Paul (2002). "The Corregidor Massacre – 1968". Corregidor Historic Society. Retrieved Feb 22, 2018.
  36. ^ Arillo, Cecilio (Jul 5, 2017). "Why President Marcos declared martial law (Part 5)". Business Mirror. Retrieved Feb 22, 2018.
  37. ^ a b c Maulana, Nash (Aug 28, 2016). "Moros recall massacres under Marcos". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved Feb 22, 2018.
  38. ^ a b c Ayroso, Dee (Feb 24, 2016). "#NoMoreMarcos | 'Moros were killed like chickens during Martial Law'". Bulatlat. Retrieved Feb 22, 2018.
  39. ^ Mawallil, Amir (Jun 27, 2016). "Manili Massacre: Don't look back in anger". Rappler. Retrieved Feb 22, 2018.
  40. ^ Mawallil, Amir (Oct 7, 2016). "Opinion: Before Martial Law, there was the Tacub Massacre". ABS-CBN News. Retrieved Feb 22, 2018.
  41. ^ "Christians blamed, Moslems victims in massacre" Ottawa Citizen. September 6, 1974. Retrieved September 10, 2016.
  42. ^ a b "Vera Files Fact Sheet: Palimbang massacre and Marcos' other transgressions against the Bangsamoro". Vera Files. Sep 24, 2017. Retrieved Feb 22, 2018.
  43. ^ Mawallil, Amir (Jul 30, 2016). "Opinion: The Malisbong Massacre and the privilege to remember". ABS-CBN News. Retrieved Feb 22, 2018.
  44. ^ "1,500 Moro massacre victims during Martial Law honored" MindaNews. Sep 26, 2014. Article also appeared on UNPO website on Sep 29, 2014. Retrieved Feb 22, 2018.
  45. ^ "Massacre in Philippines" The Sydney Morning Herald. August 14, 1975. Retrieved September 10, 2016.
  46. ^ "Massacre charges suggested" The Spokesman-Review. April 26, 1980. Retrieved September 10, 2016.
  47. ^ "Philippine marines massacre 29 in remote island, report says " Lakeland Ledger. April 17, 1980. Retrieved September 10, 2016.
  48. ^ "Massacre reported" The Bryan Times. February 14, 1981. Retrieved September 10, 2016.
  49. ^ "Moslem rebels massacre 124 soldiers" The Sydney Morning Herald. February 16, 1981. Retrieved September 10, 2016.
  50. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Doyo, Ma. Ceres (Sep 22, 2016). "Martial law massacres". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved Feb 22, 2018.
  51. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Post from Marcos Martial Law Never Again (book) Facebook page. Apr 25 2016. Accessed Feb 22, 2018.
  52. ^ Jun 14, 2015. "The Daet Massacre". Bantayog ng mga Bayani. Retrieved Feb 1, 2018.
  53. ^ "Martyrs of the 1981 Daet Massacre". Bantayog ng mga Bayani. Retrieved Feb 1, 2018.
  54. ^ "Marcos regime massacre that 'nearly wiped out' an entire village in Samar remembered". Eastern Vista. Sep 18, 2017. Retrieved Feb 22, 2018.
  55. ^ "Bulacan Martyrs of 1982". Bantayog ng mga Bayani. Nov 30, 2012. Retrieved Feb 1, 2018.
  56. ^ Trumbull, Robert (Oct 3, 1983). "46 killed by Philippine rebels in ambush of an Army patrol". The New York Times. Retrieved Nov 7, 2018.
  57. ^ "Cult chief poisons Filipino villagers,, kills self in Jonestown-style massacre" Gainesville Sun. September 21, 1985. Retrieved September 10, 2016.
  58. ^ "Escalante Massacre". Bantayog ng mga Bayani. Oct 12, 2015. Retrieved Feb 22, 2018.
  59. ^ "Escalante Massacre, 31 years ago today". Bantayog ng mga Bayani. Sep 20, 2016. Retrieved Feb 1, 2018.
  60. ^ Cañet, Carla (Sep 15, 2016). "Martial law victims to stage protest vs Marcos rule". Sun.Star. Retrieved Feb 22, 2018.
  61. ^ a b "The communists' power couple". PhilStar Global. March 24, 2014. Retrieved June 16, 2016.
  62. ^ a b "NPA commander involved in 2006 'Inopacan massacre' falls in Bohol". The Daily Tribune News. June 15, 2015. Retrieved June 16, 2016.
  63. ^ a b "Leyte marks 2nd year commemoration of Inopacan mass grave exhumation". Samar August 27, 2008. Retrieved June 16, 2016.
  64. ^ a b "Suspect linked to Inopacan massacre arrested in Bohol". Sun.Star. June 14, 2015. Retrieved June 16, 2016.
  65. ^ "Ex-Mayor Linked to Inopacan Massacre". The Manila Times. June 14, 2015. Retrieved June 16, 2016.
  66. ^ a b c "#BigasHindiBala (blog)". Get Real Post. Retrieved Feb 22, 2018.
  67. ^ a b c Paredes, Joel (February 25, 2015). "Lupao Massacre | Memory of Ecija farmers killed 28 years ago casts a pall on EDSA's joy". InterAksyon, TV5. Archived from the original on February 19, 2016. Retrieved February 25, 2016.
  68. ^ Haugen, Gary (1999). Good News About Injustice. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press. pp. 149–156. ISBN 978-0-8308-3710-6.
  69. ^ Bolos, Abner. "Two Presidents and the Lupao Massacre". Bulatlat. Retrieved August 26, 2006.
  70. ^ "Massacre of Filipinos alleged" Lakeland Ledger. February 14, 1987. Retrieved September 10, 2016.
  71. ^ "Civilian massacre charged in Philippines" The Hour. February 12, 1987. Retrieved September 10, 2016.
  72. ^ "Report of massacre probed in Philippines" Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. February 14, 1987. Retrieved September 10, 2016.
  73. ^ "Philippines invedtigating massacre" The Tuscaloosa News. February 13, 1987. Retrieved September 10, 2016.
  74. ^ Dedace, Sophia (Aug 28, 2009). "Army men in Davao City vow to protect journalists". GMA News. Retrieved Feb 19, 2018.
  75. ^ a b "Sleeping family slain in Philippines Massacre; 18 rebels dead" Observer-Reporter. November 25, 1988. Retrieved September 10, 2016.
  76. ^ "17 die in village church massacre" The Sydney Morning Herald. November 25, 1988. Retrieved September 10, 2016.
  77. ^ a b "Fugitive cop says he's sorry, willing to take punishment". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Google News Archive. January 16, 2006. Retrieved February 25, 2016.
  78. ^ "Communist Army Admits Massacre" The Victoria Advocate. June 28, 1989. Retrieved September 10, 2016.
  79. ^ "Military on carpet for Davao massacre" Manila Standard. August 17, 1989. Retrieved September 10, 2016.
  80. ^ Quimpo, Mariz. "Digos Massacre Remembered". Philadelphia Independent Media Center. Archived from the original on 15 April 2013. Retrieved 6 December 2012.
  81. ^ "G.R. Nos. 111009-12". The LawPhil Project. Dec 8, 1994. Retrieved Feb 23, 2018.
  82. ^ "Massacre in Philippines reported" Sun Journal. December 14, 1992. Retrieved September 10, 2016.
  83. ^ "Report Philippine massacre" The Presscott Courier. December 14, 1992. Retrieved September 10, 2016.
  84. ^ "40 dead in Philippines massacre" The Telegraph. December 14, 1992. Retrieved September 10, 2016.
  85. ^ "Philippines report massacre" The Southeast Missourian. December 14, 1992. Retrieved September 10, 2016.
  86. ^ "Antipolo Massacre". Retrieved Feb 23, 2018.
  87. ^ "Troops seek killers of 53 in Philippines". Ocala Star-Banner. 12 April 1995. Retrieved 27 May 2013.
  88. ^ "Gunmen raid Philippine town, 100 dead". Times-Union. Associated Press. 4 April 1995. Retrieved 27 May 2013.
  89. ^ a b c "10 Worst Terrorist Attacks in the Philippines". Pinoy Top Tens. Retrieved Feb 23, 2018.
  90. ^ "Police probe Philippine massacre". UPI. Sep 10, 1995. Retrieved Feb 23, 2018.
  91. ^ "Ano na ang nangyari sa nag-iisang survivor ng Payumo massacre?". Retrieved Nov 7, 2018.
  92. ^ G.R. Nos. 130078-82. Oct 4, 2002. Retrieved Nov 7, 2018.
  93. ^ Porcalla, Delon (Nov 9, 2002). "High Court spares 3 massacre suspects from death". The Philippine Star. Retrieved Nov 7, 2018.
  94. ^ "Hospital help kills 8 in the Philippines". UPI. Oct 22, 1995. Retrieved Feb 23, 2018.
  95. ^ "Philippine Hospital Orderly Kills 8 With Rifle In Rampage". Orlando Sentinel. Oct 22, 1995. Retrieved Feb 23, 2018.
  96. ^ "Youth goes on rampage after failing to get RM18 loan". New Straits Times. Oct 22, 1995. Retrieved Feb 23, 2018.
  97. ^ "Philippine massacre kills 11". United Press International. Dec 29, 1995. Retrieved Nov 7, 2018.
  98. ^ "Philippine Gunmen Kill 14 People Watching Television". Associated Press. Dec 29, 1995. Retrieved Nov 7, 2018.
  99. ^ "Police Major, 5 more, tagged in Buhi massacre. Some suspects still at large" Manila Standard. January 12, 1996. Retrieved September 10, 2016.
  100. ^ Barcia, Rhaydz (Jan 25, 1999). "Suspects in Buhi Massacre nabbed". Philippine News Agency. Retrieved Nov 7, 2018.
  101. ^ "Camarines Sur massacre: Witness names mastermind, cohorts" Manila Standard. January 3, 1996. Retrieved September 10, 2016.
  102. ^ "Buhi massacre: Nieva slay suspects surrender to police" Manila Standard. August 17, 1996. Retrieved September 10, 2016.
  103. ^ "Ruling on Sara massacre out; victims' kin cry for death" Philippine Daily Inquirer. May 20, 2000. Retrieved September 10, 2016.
  104. ^ "'Ghosts' haunt case of Bacolod massacre" Philippine Daily Inquirer. November 3, 2001. Retrieved September 10, 2016.
  105. ^ "Bacolod massacre sad end of year in Visayas" Philippine Daily Inquirer. January 5, 2001. Retrieved September 10, 2016.
  106. ^ a b Parentildeo, Roel (December 20, 2002). "Businesswoman, 3 kids, 3 maids massacred in Zamboanga". PhilStar Global. The Philippine Star. Retrieved February 25, 2016.
  107. ^ "Activists commemorate Luisita massacre". 16 November 2011. Retrieved 16 November 2011.
  108. ^ "Bullets Rain Over Palo Farmers". Bulatlat. 3 December 2005. Retrieved 13 June 2016.
  109. ^ "Farmers Acquitted; Soldiers in Palo Massacre Face Criminal Suit". Bulatlat. 26 November 2006. Retrieved 13 June 2016.
  110. ^ "Traffic cop probed over Olongapo killings". GMA News. Mar 16, 2008. Retrieved Feb 23, 2018.
  111. ^ Cantos, Joy (Mar 15, 2008). "Babae utak sa Gapo massacre". The Philippine Star (in Tagalog). Retrieved Feb 23, 2018.
  112. ^ "Miyembro ng TMG iniimbestigahan kaugnay ng Olongapo massacre". GMA News (in Tagalog). Mar 16, 2008. Retrieved Feb 23, 2018.
  113. ^ Malabanan, Jess (Jul 31, 2008). "Police bag suspects in massacre of Korean family in Olongapo". ABS-CBN News. Retrieved Feb 23, 2018.
  114. ^ "Korean family massacre case in Olongapo solved". SubicBay News. Aug 5, 2008. Retrieved Feb 23, 2018.
  115. ^ "Behind the Philippines' Maguindanao Massacre". Time. November 27, 2009.
  116. ^ Jimenez-David, Rina (November 24, 2009). "Understanding the unbelievable". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Archived from the original on November 27, 2009. Retrieved November 24, 2009.
  117. ^ "Arroyo declares martial law in Maguindanao province". GMA News. Dec 5, 2009. Retrieved Feb 22, 2018.
  118. ^ "Philippines declares martial law in massacre area". Associated Press via Mercury News. Dec 5, 2009. Retrieved Feb 22, 2018.
  119. ^ "Martial law in Philippines province after massacre". BBC News. Dec 5, 2009. Retrieved Feb 22, 2018.
  120. ^ Beaumont, Peter (Dec 6, 2009). "Philippines province under martial law after massacre". The Guardian. Retrieved Feb 22, 2018.
  121. ^ Cinco, Maricar (Oct 13, 2011). "Family of 5 massacred in Laguna, one survives". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved Feb 23, 2018.
  122. ^ "Massacre sa Laguna, 4 na magkakapamilya ang patay". GMA News (in Tagalog). Oct 13, 2011. Retrieved Feb 23, 2018.
  123. ^ Batallones, Jeck (Oct 13, 2011). "Row over horse leads to massacre in Laguna (video)". ABS-CBN News (in Tagalog). Retrieved Feb 23, 2018.
  124. ^ "Slain horse behind Laguna massacre?". ABS-CBN News. Oct 13, 2011. Retrieved Feb 23, 2018.
  125. ^ Yu Santos, David (Jan 24, 2012). "Attack on fishing boats kills 15 in Basilan". Rappler. Retrieved Feb 23, 2018.
  126. ^ "Gunmen kill 15 fishermen in the Philippines" Associated Press. Jan 24, 2012. Also appeared on The Guardian (link) and NY Daily News (link). Accessed Feb 23, 2018.
  127. ^ Alipala, Julie (Jan 30, 2012). "2 fishermen's bodies found off Sulu a week after massacre at sea". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved Feb 23, 2018.
  128. ^ "Family of four massacred in Bulacan home — police". GMA News. Aug 16, 2012. Retrieved Feb 23, 2018.
  129. ^ Santos, Matikas (Aug 16, 2012). "4 knifed to death in Bulacan robbery". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved Feb 23, 2018.
  130. ^ "Lanao Norte mayor's convoy ambushed; 13 killed". Philippine Daily Inquirer/Agence France-Presse. Apr 26, 2013. Retrieved Feb 23, 2018.
  131. ^ "13 Killed in Lanao massacre". Manila Times (via PressReader). Apr 27, 2013. Retrieved Feb 23, 2018.
  132. ^ Orejas, Tonette. "Fatalities in Pampanga slays rise to 7".
  133. ^ Comanda, Zaldy; Landingin, JJ (8 April 2014). "5 dead in 'Baguio Massacre'". Manila Bulletin. Retrieved 10 March 2016.
  134. ^ Picaña, Thom (January 28, 2016). "Baguio massacre suspect found guilty". The Manila Times. Retrieved March 10, 2016.
  135. ^ Casimiro, Queenie (July 28, 2014). "Suspected Abu gunmen kill 21 in Sulu massacre". ABS-CBN News. Retrieved June 9, 2016.
  136. ^ {{cite web|url=}}
  137. ^ Reyes-Estrope, Carmela (Jun 28, 2017). "Massacre in Bulacan". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved Feb 15, 2018.
  138. ^ "5 dead in Bulacan massacre". GMA News. Jun 27, 2017. Retrieved Feb 15, 2018.
  139. ^
  140. ^
What is Wiki.RIP There is a free information resource on the Internet. It is open to any user. Wiki is a library that is public and multilingual.

The basis of this page is on Wikipedia. Text licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0 Unported License..

Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. is an independent company that is not affiliated with the Wikimedia Foundation (Wikimedia Foundation).

Privacy Policy      Terms of Use      Disclaimer