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List of massacres in Spain

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The following is a list of massacres that have occurred in Spain (numbers may be approximate):

Ancient history

Germanic Kingdoms

Reconquista

Name Date Location Deaths Perpetrators Notes
Day of the Ditch 807 Toledo 700 Emirate of Córdoba 700 city notables massacred in a special ditch by Muslim army under Amrus ibn Yusuf
Martyrs of Córdoba 851 Cordoba 48 Emirate of Córdoba Forty-eight Christians executed by Muslims
Cordoba massacre 1013 Cordoba 2,000 Berbers Invading soldiers under Sulayman ibn al-Hakam sacked and pillaged the city resulting in the deaths of many people in Cordoba, including Jews.[1]
1066 Granada massacre 30 December 1066 Granada 4,000[2] Muslim mob Muslim mobs massacred Jews
Toledo massacre 7 May 1355 Toledo 1,200 Henry of Trastámara Henry of Trastámara leads forces that kill 1,200 Jews in Toledo
Seville massacre 6 June 1391 Seville 4,000 Christian mob Mob in Seville kills 4,000 Jews.
Córdoba massacre June 1391 Cordoba 2,000 Christian mob Mob in Córdoba kills 2,000 Jews.

Habsburg Spain

Name Date Location Deaths Perpetrators Notes
Galera massacre 10 February 1570 Galera 2,500 Spanish Army Spanish Army under John of Austria massacres 2,500 Moriscos.
Corpus de Sang 07-10 June 1640 Barcelona 12-20 Catalan peasants Between 12 and 20 royal officials, including the Viceroy of Catalonia, were killed by the rioters. The massacre was one of the first events of the Reapers' War.

Bourbon Spain (1701-1808)

Independence War, Kingdom of Spain and First Republic (1808-1875)

Name Date Location Deaths Perpetrators Notes
Dos de Mayo Uprising 3 May 1808 Madrid 113 Grande Armée French Army under Joachim Murat executed 113 Spanish rebels
Siege of Badajoz (1812) 6 April 1812 Badajoz 200-300 British Army Anglo-Portuguese Army under the Earl of Wellington massacres between 20% and 30% of the Spanish civilians[3]
San Andrés beach mass execution 11 December 1831 Málaga 49 Spanish Army 49 Liberal rebels, including their leader José María de Torrijos y Uriarte, were executed extrajudicially by firing squad.
Massacre of Heredia 17 March 1834 Heredia 118 Carlists Carlists execute 118 Liberal prisoners of war. The massacre was ordered by general Tomás de Zumalacárregui.
1834 massacre of friars in Madrid 17 July 1834 Madrid 73 Anti-clerical liberals Mobs assaulted and burned convents in the capital after a rumour that the friars had poisoned the water to favor the Carlist offensive spread in the city. 73 friars were killed and 11 were injured.[4][5][6]
1835 Anti-clerical riots Summer 1835 Aragón and Catalonia 78 Anti-clerical liberals Mobs assaulted and burned monasteries in Aragón and Catalonia, killing 70 friars and 8 priests. The most important mutinies happened in Reus, Barcelona and Zaragoza.[5][6]
Battle of Andoain 14 September 1837 Andoain 60 Carlists Carlists execute 60 British Auxiliary Legion prisoners of war
Bombardment of Barcelona (1842) 3 December 1842 Barcelona 20-30 Spanish Army The bombardment was ordered personally by the general Baldomero Espartero to end a revolt that started in Barcelona the previous month and had forced the army to take refuge in the Montjuic Castle and Parc de la Ciutadella. The indiscriminate artillery bombardment of the city was made from Montjuïc, killing between 20 and 30 people.[7][8]
Martyrs of Carral 26 April 1846 Carral 12 Spanish Army 12 rebel leaders of the failed 1846 revolution were executed extrajudicially in the town of Carral (Galicia).[9][10]
Night of San Daniel 10 April 1865 Madrid 14 Guardia Civil
Various units of the Spanish Army
The Guardia Civil and Spanish Army brutally repressed a group of students of the Central University of Madrid that were protesting in support of the rector of said university. 14 students were killed and 193 were injured.[11][12]

Restoration (1875-1931)

Name Date Location Deaths Perpetrators Notes
Ríotinto massacre 04 Februat 1888 Minas de Ríotinto 200[13] Spanish Army On 4 January 1888, in the Plaza de la Constitución of Minas de Ríotinto (Province of Huelva, Andalusia) around 200 people were shot dead by two companies of the Spanish Army when they protested for better wages and the end of the emission of toxic fumes in the mines. Protestors were mainly workers of the local mines, led by anarchist Maximiliano Tornet. The massacre lasted only 15 minutes and the bodies of the dead were probably buried under the slag of some mine in the region.
Bombing of the Gran Teatro del Liceo 7 November 1893 Barcelona 20[14] Anarchist Santiago Salvador On 7 November 1893, on the opening night of the season and during the second act of the opera Guillaume Tell by Rossini, two Orsini bombs were thrown into the stalls of the opera house. Only one of the bombs exploded; some twenty people were killed and many more were injured. The attack was the work of the anarchist Santiago Salvador and it deeply shocked Barcelona, becoming a symbol of the turbulent social unrest of the time. The Liceu reopened its doors on 18 January 1894, but the seats occupied by those killed by the bombs were not used for a number of years.
Bombing of the Copus Christi procession in Barcelona 7 June 1897 Barcelona 12[14][15] Anarchist Tomás Ascheri Fossatti An Italian anarchist attacked the Corpus Christi procession, which had just left the Church of Santa Maria del Mar, killing twelve people. The bombing led to the Montjuïc trial, in which about 400 suspects were arrested, from whom 87 were put on trial and five executed.
Carnival massacre in Vigo 24 February 1903 Vigo 3 Guardia Civil Guardia Civil fired at a crowd of protesting workers during the local carnival festivities, killing 3 people, including a 12-year-old.[16][17]
Morral affair 31 May 1906 Madrid 24 Anarchist Mateu Morral Attempted regicide of Spanish King Alfonso XIII and his bride, Victoria Eugenie, on their wedding day. The attacker, Mateu Morral, acting on a desire to spur revolution, threw a bomb concealed in a flower bouquet from his hotel window as the King's procession passed, killing 24 bystanders and soldiers, wounding over 100 others, and leaving the royals unscathed. Morral sought refuge from republican journalist José Nakens but fled in the night to Torrejón de Ardoz, whose villagers reported the interloper. Two days after the attack, militiamen accosted Morral, who killed one before killing himself. Morral was likely involved in a similar attack on the king a year prior.
A Coruña massacre 30-31 May 1901 A Coruña (Galicia) 8[18][19] Guardia Civil The Guardia Civil shot striking workers in the city of A Coruña, killing 8.
Oseira massacre 22 April 1909 Parish of Oseira, San Cristovo de Cea (Galicia) 7[20][21][22] Guardia Civil The Guardia Civil shot the residents of Oseira, who protested against the transfer of several artistic pieces of value from the local convent.
Nebra massacre 12 October 1912 Parish of Nebra, Porto do Son (Galicia) 5[20][23][21] Guardia Civil Around 300 peasants of Nebra (Porto do Son) were protesting in the bridge of Cans against a new tax ordered by the mayor to solve the local deficit. The Civil Guard fired indiscriminately at the demonstrators, killing 5 people and injuring 32.
El Descargador incidents 7 March 1916 La Unión, Murcia 7 Guardia Civil
Regimiento de Infantería "Sevilla" n.º 33 of the Spanish Army
Guardia Civil and a unit of the Spanish Army opened fire at a crowd of striking workers in La Unión, killing 7 and injuring 16.[24][25][26]
Bread riots in Málaga 09-21 January 1918 Málaga 4 Guardia Civil A popular revolt against an increase bread prices in the city of Málaga was repressed by the Guardia Civil, causing 4 deaths.[27][28]
Bread riots in Ferrol 09-15 March 1918 Ferrolterra (Galicia) 9 Spanish Army
Guardia Civil
A popular revolt against an increase bread prices in the region of Ferrolterra was repressed by the Spanish Army and the Guardia Civil, causing 9 deaths.[29][21]
Sofán massacre 16 February 1919 Parish of Sofán, Carballo (Galicia) 4[20][23][21] Guardia Civil 4 peasant women of the Parish of Sofán (Carballo) were killed by the Guardia Civil.
Sobredo massacre 28 November 1922 Parish of Guillarei, Tui (Galicia) 3[23][21] Guardia Civil Parish of Guillarei (Tui) were killed by the Guardia Civil during a protest against the semi-feudal land system that existen in Galiza at the time, the "foros",[a] that were finally abolished in 1926.
Pobla de Passanant massacre 21 May 1928 Pobla de Passanat, Catalonia 10 José Marimon Carles Mass murder incident.[30][31]

Second Republic (1931-1936)

Name Date Location Deaths Perpetrators Notes
Castilblanco incident 31 December 1931 Castilblanco (Extremadura) 4 Local peasants affiliated with the UGT 4 Civil Guards were lynched by local landless peasants affiliated with the National Federation of Land Workers (part of the Unión General de Trabajadores (UGT)).[32][33]
Arnedo incident 5 January 1932 Arnedo (La Rioja) 11[34] Guardia Civil Local workers, organized by the socialist union UGT strike in a shoe factory. Guardia Civil kills 11 and injures 30 during a protest, part of the strike, in the local Plaza de la República.[35]
Casas Viejas incident 11 January 1933 Benalup-Casas Viejas 24[36]-26[37] Guardia de Asalto Spanish police burn and shoot 24 anarchists
Martyrs of Turon October 1934 Turón (Mieres) 8 Asturian revolutionaries A group of eight De La Salle Brothers and a Passionist priest who were executed by revolutionaries in Spain in October 1934. They were canonized in 1999 by Pope John Paul II.
Repression after the failed 1934 Asturian revolution October 1934 Asturias 200 Spanish Legion
Guardia Civil
Moroccan Regulares
Around 200 individuals were killed in the repression following the failed revolution (among them the journalist Luis de Sirval, who pointed out tortures and executions and was arrested and killed by three officers of the Legion).[38][39]
"Martirs of Carbayín" 22-24 October 1934 Santa Marta Carbayín, Siero (Asturias) 24 Guardia Civil 24 left-wing individuals were killed extrajudicially in the repression following the failed Asturian revolution after being tortured for days.[40]
Incidents during the funeral of Anastasio de los Reyes 16 April 1936 Madrid 5 Guardia de Asalto Guardia de Asalto opened fire at the funeral procession of Anastasio de los Reyes (Guardia Civil killed by left-wingers 2 days before), killing 5 people.
Yeste incident 29 May 1936 Yeste, Albacete 19[b] Guardia Civil Guardia Civil opened fire at a group of local peasants during a protest.[41]

Civil War (1936-1939)

Name Date Location Deaths Perpetrators Notes
Red Terror (Spain) 1936–1939 across Spain 38,000–72,344[42][43] Republicans
White Terror (Spain) 1936-1945 across Spain 58,000–400,000 Nationalists
17 July Massacre of Melilla 17 July 1936 Melilla 189 Nationalists The same day as the coup d'état all the members of trade unions, left-wing parties, Masonic lodges and anyone known to have voted for the Popular Front were arrested in the city of Melilla. On the first night, the Nationalists executed 189 civilians and soldiers. This was the first massacre of the Civil War.[44]
Córdoba massacres during the first weeks of the war 18 July 1936-August 1936 Córdoba 2,000[45] Nationalists On 18 July, the military governor of Córdoba, Ciriaco Cascajo, started the coup in the city, bombing the civil government and arresting the civil governor, Rodríguez de León. After that, he and the major Bruno Ibañez, Don Bruno (sent there by general Queipo de Llano, furious because no reprisals had been carried out yet), carried out a bloody repression, with 2,000 executions just in the first weeks.
Valladolid massacres 19 July 1936-September 1936 Cemetery of El Carmen, Valladolid 1,000 Nationalists Around 1,000 people were killed in the Cemetery of El Carmen (city of Valladolid) during the first months of the war.[46][47] There are 10 known mass graves in the cemetery.[48]
Zaragoza cemetery massacres 19 July 1936-April 1939 Cemetery of Torrero, Zaragoza 3,096 Nationalists 3,096 republicans were killed in the Cemetery of El Torrero (city of Zaragoza) during the three years of the war in successive mass executions.[49]
Palencia massacres 20 July 1936 – 1938 Cemetery of El Carmen, Palencia 497 Nationalists At least 497 people were killed in the Municipal Cemetery of Palencia, mainly during the first months of the war, although some executions also happened in 1937 and 1938. The mass grave is known as the Fosa de los Alcaldes.[50][51]
Beatos Mártires Claretianos de Barbastro 20 July 1936 – 18 August 1936 Barbastro (Aragón) 51[52][53]-52[54] Republicans Anarchist CNT-AIT militias killed 51 or 52 Claretians and seminarists in the town of Barbastro in 5 successive mass executions.
Beatos Mártires Benedictinos de Barbastro 20 July 1936 – 18 August 1936 Barbastro (Aragón) 18[55][56] Republicans 18 Benedictine monks of the El Pueyo monastery killed by Anarchist CNT-AIT militias.
Bombing of Otxandio 22 July 1936 Otxandio (Bizkaia) 57[57]-61[58] Nationalists 2 Breguet XIX bombers attacked the main square of the town of Otxandio during the celebration of the "fiestas de Santa María", killing 57 or 61 people, almost all of them civilians.[59]
Seville massacres 22 July 1936-January 1937 Seville 3,028[60][61][62] Nationalists
Mass executions in the Cemetery of Granada 23 July 1936 – 1 April 1939 Granada 5,000 Nationalists Around 5,000 people were killed in various mass-executions the Cemetery of San José (Grajada) during the war, most of them during the first year.[63] The most famous victim was Federico García Lorca. After the war ended the cemetery continued being used as an execution site for political prisoners until 1956.[64]
Monte de Estépar massacres 2 August-12 October 1936 Estépar, Province of Burgos 371[65]-1,000[66] Nationalists The mass graves of Estépar (or of Mount Estépar) are a set of mass graves located in a hill near the village of Estépar (Province of Burgos). In these places hundreds of people were killed and buried. It is documented and confirmed that 371 people were killed and buried there,[65] but some historians increase the figure to about 1,000.[66]

Between 2 August, just two weeks after the start of the war, and on 12 October sixteen "sacas" were registered in the Prison of Burgos. In those "sacas" prisoners were taken to be extrajudicially executed and buried in hidden mass graves.

Mártires escolapios de Barbastro 20 July 1936 – 18 August 1936 Barbastro (Aragón) 10 Republicans 10 piarists were killed by Anarchist CNT-AIT militias in Barbastro.[67]
Mártires escolapios de Alcañiz 20 July 1936 – 18 August 1936 Alcañiz (Aragón) 9 Republicans 9 piarists were killed by Anarchist CNT-AIT militias in Alcañiz.[67]
Executions of the ships España 3 and Sil 14-15 August 1936 Cartagena 214[68]-215[69] Republicans Massacre of prisoners who were held in two prison ships in the port of Cartagena.
Almendralejo 14 August massacre 14 August 1936 Almendralejo (Extremadura) 40 Nationalists 40 republican soldiers were executed after surrendering.[70]
1936 Massacre of Badajoz 15 August 1936 Badajoz 1,341[71]-4,000[72] Nationalists
Modelo Jail of Madrid massacre 22-23 August 1936 Madrid 24[73]-30[74] Republicans Anarchist militias entered the Modelo Jail of Madrid and killed dozens of prisoners, including important figures like Ramón Álvarez Valdés, Melquíades Álvarez, Joaquín Fanjul or José María Albiñana. This, and other massacres by uncontrolled militias, led to a crisis in the Republican government, that was solved with the creation of the Popular Courts, that were expected to appease the revolutionary excesses and offer at least some judicial guarantees to the defendants.[75]
Sacas in the jail of Estella 5-24 September 1936 Estella-Lizarra (Navarre) 81 Nationalists 81 republican prisoners of the Estella jail were killed extrajudicially in 7 mass-executions.[76]
Plaza de Colón bombing October 1936 Madrid 16 Nationalists 16 people dead and 60 wounded in Nationalist air raid against Madrid. Six bombs detonate in the Plaza de Colón, in the middle of the City. One bomb falls into a queue of women waiting for milk for their children. The air raid was made by German pilots in Junkers Ju 52s. Madrid had no air defenses to prevent enemy aircraft from flying over the city.[77]
Hernani mass executions October 1936 Hernani (Gipuzkoa) 128-200[78][79] Nationalists Around 200 people were extrajudicially executed by firing squad at the Hernani cemetery in October 1936. Among those executed there were priests, members of political parties and trade unions, pregnant women and even a 17-year-old. Virtually none of the victims had significant political responsibilities during the Republic.[78]
Sacas in the jail of Tafalla 17-21 November 1936 Tafalla (Navarre) 86 Nationalists 86 republican prisoners of the Tafalla jail were killed extrajudicially in various mass-executions.[80][81]
Atlante prison-ship massacre 18-20 November 1936 Mahón (Minorca) 75 Republicans 75 people (37 priests and monks, 37 civilians and military) imprisoned in the Atlante prison-ship, anchored in Mahón, were killed by a mob as a revenge for a nationalist bombing over the same city just hours before.[82][83]
Paracuellos massacres November–December 1936 Paracuellos del Jarama, Torrejón de Ardoz 1,000-4,000[84][85][86] Republicans
Navas del Madroño massacre January 1937 Cáceres 68 Nationalists 68 neighbors of the Extremaduran town of Navas del Madroño were arrested and killed by a squad of Civil Guards and Falangists.[87][88]
La Fatarella incidents 25 January 1937 La Fatarella (Catalonia) 23-34[89][90] Republicans[c] Peasants opposed to the collectivizations of the anarcho-syndicalist union CNT-AIT were executed by anarchists from other towns. The peasants were supported by other Republican organizations like the socialist UGT, Republican Left of Catalonia or the Unió de Rabassaires. The killings ended with the intervention of the Generalitat and the Guardia de Asalto. This was one of the first conflicts between different republican factions.
Bilbao prisons massacre 4 January 1937 Bilbao 224[91] Republicans A mob, formed mainly my UGT and CNT militias, assaulted the 5 prisons of Bilbao and massacred 224 national prisoners in revenge for a bombing that happened in the city that same morning.[92]
Málaga-Almería road massacre 8 February 1937 Málaga-Almería road 3,000[93]-5,000[94] Nationalists
Málaga massacres 8 February 1937-December 1937 Málaga 2,300[95]-4,000[96][97] Nationalists After the fall of the city, nationalists took an enormous number of prisoners, with thousands of them being executed in the following weeks.
Bombing of Albacete 19 February 1937 Albacete 150 Nationalists The nazi Condor Legion bombed the city of Albacete, killing around 150 people.[98][99]
Bombing of Durango 31 March 1937 Durango 248[100][101]-336[102] Nationalists On 31 March, German and Italian transport planes modified to carry bombs (German Ju 52 and Italian Savoia-Marchetti SM.81) from the Condor Legion[103] and the Aviazione Legionaria bombed Durango in relays. Two churches were bombed during the celebration of mass, killing 14 nuns and the officiated priest. Furthermore, Heinkel He 51 fighters strafed fleeing civilians. Altogether, around 250 civilians died in the attack.
Bombing of Jaén 1 April 1937 Jaén 159 Nationalists On 1 April 1937, six German Ju 52 bombers of the German Legion Condor bombed the city of Jaen,[104] which had no legitimate military targets or anti-aircraft defenses. Current estimates indicated there were 159 deaths among the civilian population and several hundred injured, comparable with the Bombing of Guernica, which occurred four weeks later.
Revenge killings of Jaén 2 April 1937 – 7 April 1937 Jaén 128 Republicans As a reprisal for the Bombing of Jaén, the local republican authorities executed 128 Nationalist prisoners.[105]
Bombing of Guernica 26 April 1937 Gernika 150-300[d] Nationalists The city of Gernika was destroyed in a deliberate bombing against civilians.
Bombardment of Almería 31 May 1937 Almería 19-20 Nationalists The Kriegsmarine bombed the city of Almería in retaliation for a Republican air attack on the German cruiser Deutschland.
July 1937 Bombing of Tarragona 29 July 1937 Tarragona 51[106] Nationalists Bombing of civilians in the city of Tarragona by the Italian Aviazione Legionaria. 51 people died and 104 were injured.[106]
3 October bombing of Valencia 3 October 1937 Valencia 50 Nationalists On 3 October 1938, 5 Savoia-Marchetti S.M.81 of the Italian Aviazione Legionaria bombed the city of Valencia. 50 people died, 78 were injured and 160 buildings were destroyed.[107]
1937 Bombing of Lleida 2 November 1937 Lleida 150-300[108] Nationalists Bombing of civilians in the city of Lleida by the Italian Aviazione Legionaria. 48 of the dead were children that were studying in the Liceu Escolar de Lleida.
Christmas massacre of Cáceres 2 November 1937 Cáceres 196 Nationalists Various mass-exections of high-profile Republican prisoners in the Extremaduran city of Cáceres, starting on the Christmas Day and ending with 196 killed a few days later.[109][110]
1938 January bombings of Barcelona 1 to 30 January 1938 Barcelona 185-250 Nationalists First "terror bombings" over Barcelona, carried by the Italian Aviazione Legionaria.[111] The attacks caused 210 civilian deaths, injured 125 people and destroyed or damaged 87 buildings.[112]
January bombing of Valladolid 25 January 1938 Valladolid 14 Republicans The Republican Airforce bombed the city of Valladolid, killing 14 civilians and injuring 70 people.[113][114]
Bombing of Alcañiz 16 to 138 March 1938 Alcañiz, Province of Teruel 300-500 Nationalists The town of Alcañiz was bombed by the Italian fascist Aviazione Legionaria, deliberately targeting civilians.[115][116][117][118]
1938 March bombings of Barcelona 16 to 18 March 1938 Barcelona 1,000-1,300 Nationalists Between 16 and 18 March 1938, Barcelona was bombed by bombers of the Italian Aviazione Legionaria, the branch of the Italian Air Force fighting in the Spanish Civil War. The first raid came at 22:00 of 16 March by German Heinkel He 51s. After that, there were 17 air raids by the Italian Savoia-Marchetti SM.79 and Savoia-Marchetti SM.81 bombers at three-hour intervals until 15:00 of 18 March. Barcelona had little anti-aircraft artillery and no fighter cover. Up to 1,300 people were killed and at least 2,000 wounded.
1938 bombing of Lleida 27 March 1938 Lleida 400 Nationalists The nazi Condor Legion bombed the city of Lleida to demoralize the local civilian population,[119] causing around 400 deaths.[120][121]
Bombing of Alicante 25 May 1938 Alicante 275–393 Nationalists On 25 May 1938, between seven and nine Italian SM.79 and SM.81 bombers of the Aviazione Legionaria bombed Alicante. The anti-aircraft artillery of the city was obsolete and the air-alarm system of the city did not work. The bombers dropped ninety bombs and many of them fell in the central market of the city. There were between 275 and 393 civilian deaths (100 men, 56 women, 10 children and more than 100 unidentified bodies), and 1000 wounded.
Bombing of Granollers 31 May 1938 Granollers, Catalonia 100-224 Nationalists On 31 May 1938, the Italian Aviazione Legionaria bombed the town of Granollers. There were between 100 and 224 civilian deaths.
Bombing of Águilas 3 August 1938 Águilas (Region of Murcia) 11 Nationalists Aerial bombing of a civilian hospital in Águilas, Region of Murcia. All the victims were women and children.[122]
Bombing of La Barceloneta 16 September 1938 La Barceloneta (Barcelona, Catalonia) 31 Nationalists Aerial bombing of the neighborhood of La Barceloneta, Barcelona. All victims were civilians.[122]
Bombing of Alcoi 20-23 September 1938 Alcoi (Valencian Community) 50 Nationalists Aerial bombing of the city of Alcoi, that lasted 3 days. The main objective of the bombing were the local factories, many of the victims were workers.[123]
Bombing of Sant Vicenç de Calders 8 October 1938 Sant Vicenç de Calders (Catalonia) 40-60 Nationalists Aerial bombing of the railway station of Sant Vicenç de Calders, Catalonia, during the Spanish Civil War. It was carried out on 8 October 1939 at the behest of Francisco Franco's nationalist government by the Aviazione Legionaria of its Fascist Italian allies.
Bombing of Dénia 18 October 1938 Dénia (Valencian Community) 12 Nationalists Aerial bombing of the city of Dénia, Valencian Community.[124]
Bombing of Cabra 7 November 1938 Cabra, Andalusia 101-109 Republicans On 7 November 1938, three Tupolev SB bombers of the FARE, bombed the town of Cabra, in the province of Cordoba. One of the bombs (200 kilograms) fell on the town's market, killing dozens of civilians. The aircraft dropped six tons of bombs. Most of the bombs exploded in the market and in the working class districts. There were between 101 and 109 civilians dead and 200 wounded. The Nationalist antiaircraft artillery was taken by surprise and reacted too late. The airstrike was carried out in the belief that Italian mechanized troops were stationed in the village. Once over the target, the pilots mistook the market's awnings for military tents. The bombing of Cabra was the deadliest bombing carried out by the Republican air force during the war.
Bombings of Figueres 27 January 1939 – 7 February 1939 Figueres, Catalonia 291-400[125] Nationalists The small city of Figueres was bombed 18 times in just 13 days. The bombings killed between 291 and 400 civilians and affected around 500 buildings, including schools, the local hospital and the local cemetery.[126] The attack did not have any military justification or aims.[127]
Bombing of La Garriga 29 January 1939 La Garriga, Catalonia 13[128] Nationalists La Garriga was a tiny town of 10,000 inhabitants (among them 7,000 refugees from Madrid and the Basque Country), without air defenses. On 28 January the retreating Lister's troops left the town and fled to the north and the following day ten Italian Savoia-Marchetti bombers, bombed the town. On 29 January, the Italian bombers, attacked the town again. There were 13 civilian deaths, among them five refugees and seven children.
Bombing of Xàtiva 29 January 1939 Xàtiva, Valencian Community 129 Nationalists Aerial bombing of the railway station of Xàtiva, Valencia Province. It was carried out on 12 February 1939 at the behest of Francisco Franco's nationalist government by the Aviazione Legionaria of its Fascist Italian allies.
Bombing of Sant Hilari Sacalm 31 January 1939 Sant Hilari Sacalm, Catalonia 12 Nationalists Aerial bombing of the town of Sant Hilari Sacalm, Barcelona Province. It was carried out on 12 February 1939 at the behest of Francisco Franco's nationalist government by the Aviazione Legionaria of its Fascist Italian allies. 12 people were killed.[129]

Francoism (1939-1975)

Name Date Location Deaths Perpetrators Notes
White Terror (Spain) (Killed after the War) 1939-1945 across Spain 58,000[130]-400,000[131][132] Francoist regime
Mass executions in El Camp de la Bota 1939-1952[e] Sant Adrià de Besós (near Barcelona) 1,717 Guardia Civil, Spanish Army and Falangists Various mass executions were held in the Camp de la Bota area, after the end of the Spanish Civil War.[133]
Mass executions in the Cemetery of La Almudena 1939-1944 Madrid 2,933 Guardia Civil, Spanish Army and Falangists Various mass executions were held in the cemetery of La Almudena after the end of the Spanish Civil War.[134]
Mass executions in Paterna 1939-1956[f] Paterna (Valencian Community) 2,238 Guardia Civil, Spanish Army and Falangists Various mass executions were held in the cemetery of Paterna after the end of the Spanish Civil War, there are 70 common graves with the remains of those shot.[135][136]
Mass executions in the cemetery of Zaragoza 1939-1946 Zaragoza 447[137] Guardia Civil, Spanish Army and Falangists Various mass executions were held in the cemetery of Zaragoza after the end of the Spanish Civil War. During the war another 3,096 people had already been killed there.[137][138]
Mass executions in Gijón 1939-1949 Gijón 408[139][g] Guardia Civil, Spanish Army and Falangists After the war 408 people were killed by the new regime in or around the city of Gijón. The bodies are buried in the common burials of Ceares/El Sucu. Another 1,526 republicans were killed (judicially or extrajudicially) during the war.[139]
Massacre of Alía 16 August 1942 Alía (Extremadura) 24 Guardia Civil Extrajudicial execution of a group of people suspected of collaborating with the anti-Francoist guerrilla by agents of the Civil Guard, on 16 August 1942. The victims were 24 inhabitants of the Extremaduran towns of Alía and La Calera, who were killed in a field near the first town.[140][141]
Massacre of Monroyo 11 November 1947 Monroyo (Aragón) 6-8[142][143] Guardia Civil Extrajudicial executions of people suspected of collaborating with the anti-Francoist guerrilla by Falangists and Guardia Civil agents, between March and April 1948. The victims were nine militants and relatives of left-wing militants, who were killed near a pit cave located in the Peñamayor range, known as the Pozu Funeres. The victims were then thrown into the cave.
Massacre of Pozo Funeres March and April 1948 Pozu Funeres, Laviana (Asturias) 9[144]-18[145] Guardia Civil and Falangists Extrajudicial executions of people suspected of collaborating with the anti-Francoist guerrilla by Falangists and Guardia Civil agents, between March and April 1948. The victims were nine militants and relatives of left-wing militants, who were killed near a pit cave located in the Peñamayor range, known as the Pozu Funeres. The victims were then thrown into the cave.
Massacre of Cortijo del Enjembraero 1 February 1949 Near the village of Helechal, Benquerencia de la Serena (Extremadura) 4 Guardia Civil Extrajudicial execution of 4 peasants suspected of collaborating with the anti-Francoist guerrilla by agents of the Guardia Civil.[146][147]
Construction Strike of Granada 21 July 1970 Granada 3 Armed Police Corps 3 construction workers were killed by the Armed Police.[148]
Ferrol incidents of 1972 10 March 1972 Ferrol 2 Armed Police Corps 2 workers (Amador Rey and Daniel Niebla, members of the clandestine union CCOO) were killed by the Armed Police. Another 16 were injured by bullets, 160 workers were fired, 101 arrested, 60 incarcerated and 54 fined with between 50,000 and 250,000 pesetas. 10 March is officially commemorated in Galicia as Day of the Galician Working Class.[149][150]
Cafetería Rolando bombing 13 September 1974 Madrid 13 ETA political-military The attack killed 13 people and wounded 71.

Transition (1975–1982)

Name Date Location Deaths Perpetrators Notes
Vitoria massacre 3 March 1976 Vitoria-Gasteiz 5[151][152][153] National Police Corps More than 150 injured.[151][152][153] Another two people were killed in the protests against police violence after the incident, one in Tarragona and another in Basauri.[154]
Montejurra massacre 9 May 1976 Montejurra mountain, near Estella-Lizarra 2 Neofascists and the Spanish Secret Service Two left-wing Carlists militants were killed and another three seriously wounded by right-wing gunmen at the annual Carlist Party celebration that was held in Montejurra, Navarre.
Assassination of Juan María de Araluce Villar 4 October 1976 San Sebastián 5 ETA Three ETA members carrying pistols and submachine guns killed Araluce, the Government appointed President of the Provincial Deputation of Gipuzkoa and member of the Council of the Realm. Araluce's driver was killed in the attack together with three police guards.[155] Ten bystanders were also injured in the attack, which was ETA's deadliest of 1976.
1977 Massacre of Atocha 24 January 1977 Madrid 5[156] Alianza Apostólica Anticomunista 4 injured[156]
Assassination of Augusto Unceta Barrenechea 24 January 1977 Gernika 3 ETA Three ETA members carrying pistols and submachine guns killed Unceta, the Government appointed President of the Provincial Deputation of Biscay and Mayor of Guernica.[157] He was ambushed as he arrived to play his weekly sports game. His two bodyguards, Antonio Hernández Fernández-Segura and Ángel Rivera Navarrón[158] were also killed in the attack.
Scala case 15 January 1978 Barcelona 4 Joaquín Gambín Hernández El Grillo (Police confidant) 4 workers (all victims were, members of the CNT themselves) were killed in an incendiary attack after a legal demonstration of the CNT in the center of Barcelona. Originally, both the police and the media blamed the CNT and the anarchist movement, but in the trials (1980–1983) it was discovered that the culprit was a police confidant called Joaquín Gambín. The CNT has always maintained that the attack was a frame-up by the police to stop its growth during the Spanish transition, a position supported by various researchers.[159][160][161][162][163][164]
Getxo attack 22 October 1978 Getxo 3 ETA Gun attack by the Basque separatist organisation ETA which occurred on 22 October in the Basque town of Getxo, a suburb of Bilbao. 3 Civil Guards were killed.
July 1979 Madrid bombings 20 January 1980 Madrid 7 ETA political-military Bomb attacks carried out by ETA political-military (ETA-pm). The attacks, consisting of coordinated bombings in Barajas Airport and the train stations of Atocha and Chamartín, killed 7 people and injured a further 100. The bombings occurred a day after two attacks in Bilbao and San Sebastian, with both attacks killing two people.
Alonsotegi bombing 20 January 1980 Alonsotegi (Bizkaia) 4 Grupos Armados Españoles Grupos Armados Españoles (GAE), an armed group operating in the Basque Country in the early years of the Spanish democracy, planted a bomb in a local bar which exploded that evening killing four civilians and wounding ten. The bar was targeted as it was thought to be a meeting point for Basque moderate nationalists in the area. No official inquiries have been made so far.
Caso Almería 10 May 1980 Bilbao 3 Guardia Civil Three young men were kidnapped, tortured and killed by civil guards who had confused them with members of ETA. Then, they shot them to pretend that they died in a supposed shooting. In 1984 a movie about the incident was released.
1980 Bilbao bombing 23 July 1980 Bilbao 3 Alianza Apostólica Anticomunista A bomb exploded in the Ametzola neighborhood of Bilbao. In the explosion, two teenagers died at the scene and an employee of the municipal cleaning service, was fatally injured.
California 47 Café Attack 26 May 1979 Madrid 9[165] GRAPO (denied by GRAPO) A bomb exploded in the Café California 47, in the center of Madrid. 9 people died and 61 were injured. Two First of October Anti-Fascist Resistance Groups (GRAPO) members were condemned in 1981 for the attack, although that organization has always denied that they were the authors of the bombing, blaming it on far-right groups.[166]
1980 Markina attack 20 September 1980 Markina-Xemein 4 ETA Gun attack by the Basque separatist organisation ETA near the Basque town of Markina (Spanish: Marquina). The targets were a group of off-duty civil guards who were having lunch in a bar in the town. Four civil guards were killed.
September 1982 Rentería attack 14 September 1982 Errenteria 4 ETA Ambush by the Basque separatist organisation ETA near the Basque town of Errenteria. The targets were several national police officers, four of whom were killed in the attack, with the fifth seriously injured..

Contemporary Spain (1982-...)

Name Date Location Deaths Perpetrators Notes
Pasaia ambush 22 March 1984 Near Pasaia (Basque Country) 4 National Police Corps National Policeman ambushed five members of the Comandos Autonomos Anticapitalistas and killed 4 of them near the town of Pasaia (Gipuzkoa).[167][168]
El Descanso bombing 12 April 1985 Madrid 18 Islamic Jihad Organization The explosion caused the three-story building to collapse, crashing down on about 200 diners and employees, killing 18 people and injuring 82 others, including fifteen Americans working at the nearby Torrejón Air Base who frequented the restaurant.
Plaza República Dominicana bombing 14 July 1986 Madrid 11 ETA Bomb attack carried out by the armed Basque separatist group ETA in Madrid, Spain on 14 July 1986, which killed 12 people and injured a further 32. The dead were all members of the Guardia Civil studying in the nearby traffic school on Príncipe de Vergara. The ETA members later convicted of participation in the attack included significant figures in the group such as Antonio Troitiño and Iñaki de Juana Chaos.
1987 Hipercor bombing 19 June 1987 Barcelona 21 ETA Car bomb attack by the Basque separatist organisation ETA which occurred on 19 June 1987 at the Hipercor shopping centre on Avinguda Meridiana, Barcelona, Spain. The bombing killed 21 people and injured 45, the deadliest attack in ETA's history. Controversy surrounded the timing of telephone warnings made before the attack and the authorities' response to them.
Zaragoza Barracks bombing 11 December 1987 Zaragoza 11 ETA Car bomb attack by the Basque separatist organisation ETA, which occurred on 11 December 1987. A vehicle containing 250 kilograms of ammonal was parked beside the main Guardia Civil barracks in the city of Zaragoza, Spain; its subsequent explosion caused the deaths of 11 people, including 5 children. A total of 88 people were injured, the majority of them civilians.
Puerto Hurraco massacre 26 August 1990 Puerto Hurraco, Benquerencia de la Serena 9 Brothers Antonio and Emilio Izquierdo Mass murder incident at occurred in Puerto Hurraco, a village in Benquerencia de la Serena municipality in the Province of Badajoz, Spain on 26 August 1990, when brothers Antonio and Emilio Izquierdo fired at people in the streets with two shotguns, killing nine and wounding at least six others.
Sabadell bombing 8 December 1990 Sabadell 6 ETA Car bombing carried out by the armed Basque separatist group ETA in Sabadell, Catalonia, Spain on 8 December 1990. The target was a convoy carrying eight members of the National Police force on the way to police a football game between Sabadell and Málaga CF. Six of the police officers were killed, with the other two injured. Several civilians were also injured in the attack.
1991 Vic bombing 29 May 1991 Vic 10 ETA A car bomb, carrying more than 200 kg of explosive, exploded outside a Civil Guard barracks in the Catalan city of Vic, Spain. The bombing killed 10 people, including five children, and injured 44 people.
Mutxamel bombing 16 September 1991 Mutxamel 3 ETA Attempted car bombing by ETA in Mutxamel, Valencian Community. However the bomb initially failed to explode near its target. The police treated the car as an abandoned vehicle, not realising that it contained a bomb and while being towed away, the car bomb exploded, killing two police officers and the civilian towing the car away.
1992 Madrid bombing 6 February 1992 Madrid 6 ETA Car bomb attack carried out by the armed Basque separatist group ETA in Madrid, Spain on 6 February 1992, which killed 5 people and injured a further 7. The target was a military vehicle transporting members of the army. The dead included three captains, a soldier driving the vehicle and a civilian working for the armed forces.
1993 Madrid bombings 21 June 1993 Madrid 7 ETA Car bomb attacks carried out by the armed Basque separatist group ETA in Madrid, Spain on 21 June 1993, which killed 7 people and injured a further 29. The target was an army vehicle transporting members of the army. The dead included four Lieutenant colonels, a Commander, a Sergeant and the civilian driver of the vehicle.
Puente de Vallecas bombing 11 December 1995 Madrid 6 ETA Car bomb attack carried out by the armed Basque separatist group ETA in the Puente de Vallecas district of Madrid, Spain on 11 December 1995, which killed 6 people and injured a further 19. The target was a camouflaged army vehicle which was transporting nine civilian employees of the army towards the nearby motorway.
October 2000 Madrid bombing 30 October 2000 Madrid 3 ETA ETA detonated a large car bomb on Arturo Soria avenue in Madrid, Spain. The blast killed three people; a Spanish Supreme Court judge, Francisco Querol Lombardero, his driver, and his bodyguard. One of the injured, a bus driver, died from his injuries days later.
2004 Madrid train bombings 11 March 2004 Madrid 193 Al-Qaeda 2,050 injured
Olot massacre 14 December 2010 Barcelona 4[169] Pere Puig Puntí Mass murder incident.
Barcelona school killing 20 April 2015 Barcelona 1 A 13 years old student 5 injured
2017 Barcelona attacks 17 August 2017 Barcelona 16 Jihadists 16 victims and 8 terrorists dead. 152 injured

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  1. ^ The Foros were abusive contracts between the peasants and the landowners in Galicia until their total abolition in 1926. Foros were long-term or often perpetual, so that a person or institution ceded the use or/and benefit of a thing (almost always a land), in exchange for the fulfillment of various conditions previously laid down. This conditions were normally a part of the agrarian production or a part of the monetarian of the production. Sometimes the peasants had to pay up to the 50% of its production. It was a mode of semifeudal exploitation of the land, with the owners usually being fidalgos (low nobility), priests or rich peasants.
  2. ^ 18 civilians a 1 Civil Guard.
  3. ^ Victims were also Republicans.
  4. ^ The exact number has historically been controversial. More details in Casualties of the bombing of Guernica.
  5. ^ The vast majority of the mass killings happened in the first years
  6. ^ The vast majority of the mass killings happened in the first years
  7. ^ Counting those killed between April 1939 and 1949.
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