List of massacres in Russia

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The following is a list of massacres that have occurred in Russia (numbers may be approximate). For massacres that occurred in the Soviet Union, see List of massacres in the Soviet Union:

Pre-Soviet and Soviet Russia

Name Date Location Deaths Description
Siege of Ryazan December 1237 Ryazan, Russia Nearly the entire population of Ryazan murdered Mongols massacred almost the whole population of Ryazan.
Siege of Kazan September–October 1552 Kazan, Khanate of Kazan Upwards of 50,000 Last battle of the Russo-Kazan Wars where the forces of Tsar Ivan IV (The Terrible) besieged the city of Kazan and killed the cities population once taken.
Massacre of Novgorod 1570 Novgorod, Russia 2,500–60,000 Attack launched by Tsar Ivan IV (The Terrible)'s oprichniki on the city of Novgorod, Russia.
Fire of Moscow (1571) May 1571 Moscow, Russia 60,000–200,000+ Massacre conducted by Crimean and Turkish forces.
Copper Riot August 4, 1662 Moscow, Russia Around 1000 Muscovites riot and demand that Tsar Aleksey Mikhailovich hand over a group of "traitors" thought responsible for economic hardship in the city. Troops under the command of the Tsar put down the riot.
Bezdna unrest April 1861 Biznä, Kazan Governorate 50+ Russian troops under the orders of Tsar Alexander II put down a peasant rebellion led by Anton Petrov. The rebels were protesting the details of the Emancipation reform of 1861.
Circassian genocide March 6, 1864–May 21, 1864 Circassia 400,000–1,500,000+ The Russian Empire ethnically cleansed the Circassian people. The survivors fled to the Ottoman Empire. The Circassian genocide is denied by the Russian government.
Uprising of Polish political exiles in Siberia June 24–28, 1866 On the Circumbaikal Highway, south of Lake Baikal 300 Uprising by Polish Sybiracy in Siberia put down by Russian troops. Leaders of the uprising are all killed.
Bloody Sunday January 22, 1905 Saint Petersburg 143–234 Protesters led by Russian Orthodox priest George Gapon were fired upon by the Leib Guard as they marched on the Winter Palace to petition Tsar Nicholas II.
Lena massacre April 17, 1912 northeast of Bodaybo 150–270 Shooting of goldfield workers on strike in Siberia.
White Terror 1917–1923 Nationwide

20,000[1] to 300,000[2]

Red Terror 1918–19 Nationwide 100,000[3] – 1,300,000[4] In Crimea alone, 50,000 White PoWs and civilians were executed with Lenin's approval in 1920. 800,000 Red Army desertees were arrested and many were killed with their families.
Tambov Rebellion 19 August 1920 – June 1921 Tambov Governorate 15,000+ (figure of deaths due to execution only) Total of 240,000[5] rebels and civilians killed by communist forces.

Post-Soviet Russia

Name Date Location Deaths Description
Shali cluster bomb attack January 3, 1995 Shali, Chechnya 55–100 Russian fighter jets dropped cluster munitions on the town of Shali. Targets included a school; cemetery, hospital, fuel station and a collective farm.
Samashki massacre April 7–8, 1995 Samashki, Chechnya 250+ The massacre of 100–300 civilians in the village of Samashki by Russian paramilitary troops.
Budyonnovsk hospital hostage crisis 14–19 June 1995 Budyonnovsk, Stavropol Krai 166 Some 200 armed men under the command of Chechen warlords Shamil Basayev, Aslambek Abdulkhadzhiev and Aslambek Ismailov occupied key areas of the city of Budyonnovsk. They took hostages and demanded the end of the First Chechen War.
Kizlyar-Pervomayskoye hostage crisis January 9–18, 1996 Kizlyar and Pervomayskoye-Sovetskoye, Dagestan At least 26 Forces led by warlord Salman Raduyev crossed over from Chechnya and took thousands of hostages in Kizlyar. Most were released but at least 26 were killed and some 200 fighters on both sides died during the battle that followed.
Killing of Red Cross workers at Novye Atagi December 17, 1996 Novye Atagi, Chechnya 6 Unidentified men stormed a Red Cross facility in the Selo of Novye Atagi. All 6 killed came from outside Russia and Chechnya.
Russian apartment bombings September 4–16, 1999 Buynaksk, Moscow and Volgodonsk 293 A number of bombs go off in high rise apartment buildings in three Russian cities. Another bomb was defused in Ryazan. The Russian government blamed the breakaway Republic of Chechnya but a number of conspiracies abound.
Elistanzhi cluster bomb attack October 7, 1999 Elistanzhi, Chechnya 34 Two Russian Air Force Sukhoi Su-24 use cluster munitions on the remote mountain village of Elistanzhi. The local school is destroyed with 9 children inside.
Grozny ballistic missile attack October 21, 1999 Grozny, Chechnya 118[6] 100 plus people die in indiscriminate bombing on the Chechen capital of Grozny by the Strategic Missile Troops.
Baku–Rostov highway bombing October 29, 1999 Shami-Yurt, Chechnya 25 Low flying Russian Air Force helicopters perform repeated attack runs on a large numbers refugees trying to enter Ingushetia.
1999 Grozny refugee convoy shooting December 3, 1999 Goity, Chechnya Around 40 OMON officers use automatic rifles on a convoy of refugees at a federal roadblock on the road to Ingushetia.
Alkhan-Yurt massacre December, 1999 Alkhan-Yurt, Chechnya 17–41 Over two weeks drunken Russian troops under the command of General Vladimir Shamanov went on the rampage after taking the town from the forces of Akhmed Zakayev.
Staropromyslovski massacre December 1999–January 2000 Grozny, Chechnya 38–56 Summary executions of at least 38 confirmed civilians by Russian federal soldiers in Grozny, Chechnya.
Bombing of Katyr-Yurt February 4, 2000 Katyr-Yurt, Chechnya 170–363 Indiscriminate bombing by the Russian Air Force of the village of Katyr-Yurt and a refugee convoy under white flags.
Novye Aldi massacre February 5, 2000 Groznensky District, Chechnya 60–82 The killings, including executions, of 60 to 82 local civilians by special police unit, OMON, and rapes of at least six women along with arson and robbery in Grozny, Chechnya.
Komsomolskoye massacre March 20, 2000 Komsomolskoye, Chechnya 72 Chechen combantants who surrendered after the Battle of Komsomolskoye on the public promise of amnesty are killed and "disappeared" shortly after.
Kaspiysk bombing May 9, 2002 Kaspiysk, Dagestan 44 A bomb planted at a military parade to celebrate Victory Day goes off. The Russian state blamed Rappani Khalilov.
Moscow theater hostage crisis October 23–26, 2002 Moscow 204 Chechen terrorists under the command of Movsar Barayev storm a theatre in Moscow and took hostages. They demanded an end to the Second Chechen War. They killed some of the hostages and then Russian special forces stormed the building.
2003 Stavropol train bombing December 5, 2003 Yessentuki, Stavropol Krai 46 A suicide bomber detonates a bomb on a commuter train.
2003 Red Square bombing December 9, 2003 Moscow 6 A female suicide bomber detonates a bomb on a busy street near the Kremlin. The government blames Riyad-us Saliheen.
Moscow Metro bombing February 6, 2004 Moscow 41 Anzor Izhayev blows himself up on the Russian Metro.
Beslan school hostage crisis September 1, 2004 Beslan, Republic of North Ossetia-Alania 334 Hostage taking of over 1,100 people (including 777 children) ending with 385 people killed in School Number One (SNO) in Beslan, North Ossetia, Russia.
Kushchyovskaya massacre November 2010 Kushchyovsky District 12 The stabbing of 12 people (including four children) in the village of Kushchyovskaya, Krasnodar Krai, Russia.

See also


  1. ^ Rinke, Stefan; Wildt, Michael (2017). Revolutions and Counter-Revolutions: 1917 and Its Aftermath from a Global Perspective. Campus Verlag. p. 58. ISBN 978-3593507057.
  2. ^ Эрлихман, Вадим (2004). Потери народонаселения в XX веке. Издательский дом «Русская панорама». ISBN 5931651071.
  3. ^ Lincoln, W. Bruce (1989). Red Victory: A History of the Russian Civil War. Simon & Schuster. p. 384. ISBN 0671631667. ...the best estimates set the probable number of executions at about a hundred thousand.
  4. ^ Rinke, Stefan; Wildt, Michael (2017). Revolutions and Counter-Revolutions: 1917 and Its Aftermath from a Global Perspective. Campus Verlag. pp. 57–58. ISBN 978-3593507057.
  5. ^ Sennikov, B.V. (2004). Tambov rebellion and liquidation of peasants in Russia. Moscow: Posev. In Russian. ISBN 5-85824-152-2
  6. ^ Moscow, Maria Eismont Amelia Gentleman in (October 23, 1999). "Russians in disarray over Grozny strike" – via
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