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List of massacres in China

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The following is a list of massacres that have occurred in China. The massacres are grouped for different periods.

Imperial China (before 1912)

Name Date Location Deaths Notes
Guangzhou massacre 878–879 Guangzhou 120,000 Foreign merchants (Muslim Arabs, Muslim Persians, Zoroastrian Persians, Christians, and Jews) were killed.[citation needed]
Sichuan massacre 1645-1646 Sichuan, China 1,000,000 est.[1] There is no reliable figure, but estimated 1 million out of 3 million Sichuanese were massacred mainly by the army of Zhang Xianzhong.[1]
Yangzhou massacre 1645 Yangzhou =?< 300,000 (modern estimate)[2]
Dzungar genocide 1755–1757 Dzungar Khanate 540,000[3] 480,000 to 600,000 deaths. 80% of population killed[citation needed]
Ningpo Massacre 1800s Ningbo 40 Cantonese pirates supported by the Qing massacred 40 Portuguese pirates.
Jindandao incident 1891 Inner Mongolia 150,000 - 500,000 Ethnic tensions led a Chinese secret society, Jindandao, to revolt and kill 150,000 - 500,000 Mongols.
Port Arthur massacre 1894, November 21 Lüshunkou, Liaoning 4500 1000–20,000[citation needed]
Kucheng Massacre 1895, August 1 Gutian, Fujian 11 11 British Missionaries killed by a fasting folk religious group on August 1, 1895
Taiyuan Massacre 1900, July Taiyuan, Shanxi 45

Republic of China (1912–1949)

1912–1937

Name Date Location Deaths Notes
Shanghai massacre of 1927 1927, April 12 Shanghai 1200 300–400 direct deaths. 5000 missing
Kuomintang Anti-Communist massacre 1928 Nationwide in China 300,000[4] Mass executions of both alleged and actual communists by the nationalist Kuomintang.
Communist purge in Jiangxi–Fujian Soviet (Chinese civil war) 1931-1935 Most parts of Ganzhou and every part of Tingzhou 700,000[5] Occurred in the mountainous parts which are almost entirely only populated by Hakkas of Jiangxi and Fujian.
Kizil massacre 1933, June near Kashgar, Xinjiang 800
Kashgar massacre 1934 Kashgar, Xinjiang 2,000-8,000

1937–1945 (Sino-Japanese War)

Name Date Location Deaths Notes
Nanjing Massacre 1937, December 13 Nanjing 110,000[6] 40,000–300,000 deaths by Japanese military.The death toll is disputed, ranging from some Japanese claims of several hundred,[7] to the Chinese claim of a non-combatant death toll of 300,000.[8] Most other nations believe the death toll to be between 150,000–300,000, based on the Nanjing War Crimes Tribunal verdict.
Changjiao massacre 1943, May 9–12 Changjiao, Hunan 30,000 Conducted by Japanese military.

1945–1949 (Civil War)

Name Date Location Deaths Notes
February 28 incident 1947, February 28–May 16 Taiwan 5,000 to 28,000 Beginning of the White Terror campaign. The Chinese Kuomintang-led government imposed martial law until 1987.

People's Republic of China (since 1949)

1949–1966

Name Date Location Deaths Notes
Chinese Land Reform 1948–1951 Nationwide 1,000,000 – 4,500,000 Launched by Mao Zedong and the Communist Party of China (CPC). Liquidation of the landlord class in struggle sessions.
Campaign to Suppress Counterrevolutionaries 1950–1951 Nationwide 712,000 – 2,000,000[9][10] Launched by Mao Zedong and CPC.
Three-anti and Five-anti Campaigns 1951–1952 Nationwide Exact death toll is unknown. In Shanghai alone, from January 25 to April 1, 1952, at least 876 people committed suicides.[11][12][13] Launched by Mao Zedong and CPC.
Sufan movement 1955–1956 Nationwide 53,000[14][15] Launched by Mao Zedong and CPC.
Anti-Rightist Campaign 1957 Nationwide Exact death toll is unknown. Official statistics shows that at least 550,000 people were purged and many died.[16][17][18] Launched by Mao Zedong and CPC.
Socialist Education Movement 1963–1965 Nationwide 77,560[19] Launched by Mao Zedong.

1966–1976 (Cultural Revolution)

Cultural Revolution was launched by Mao Zedong in May 1966, with the help of the Cultural Revolution Group. Some of the massacres occurred during the Violent Struggles (300,000-500,000 deaths), struggle sessions or political purges such as Cleansing the Class Ranks (0.5-1.5 million deaths).

Name Date Location Deaths Notes
Red August August – September 1966 Beijing 1,772[20] Origin of the Red Terror of the Chinese Cultural Revolution, triggering "Daxing Massacre" which killed 325 people in a few days. Statistics from 1985 showed a death toll of over 10,000 during the Red August.[21]
Guangxi Massacre 1966–1976 Guangxi 100,000 – 150,000[22][23] Cultural Revolution. Massive cannibalism occurred.[22][23]
Inner Mongolia incident 1967–1969 Inner Mongolia 16,632 – 100,000[24] Cultural Revolution. Mostly Mongols.
Daoxian massacre August – October

1967

Daoxian, Hunan 9,093[25] Cultural Revolution.
Shaoyang County Massacre July – September

1968

Shaoyang,

Hunan

991[26] Cultural Revolution.
Zhao Jianmin Spy Case 1968–1969 Yunnan 17,000[24] Cultural Revolution.
Shadian Incident July – August

1975

Yunnan 1,600[27] Cultural Revolution. Mostly Hui people.

1976–1999

Name Date Location Deaths Notes
Tiananmen Square protests of 1989 1989, June 4 Tiananmen Square, Beijing 1,000-10,000 Between 241 and 10,000 civilians were killed. The Red Cross states that around 2,600 died and the official Chinese government figure is 241 dead with 7,000 wounded.[28][citation needed]Amnesty International's estimates puts the number of deaths at several hundred to close to 1,000. NATO intelligence reported around 7,000 and the Soviet Union reported around 10,000.[citation needed] As many as 10,000 estimated people were arrested during the protests.[citation needed]
Thousand Island Lake robbery killings 1994, March 31 Zhejiang Province 32 24 Taiwanese tourists, 6 crew members, and 2 mainland Chinese passengers on board the "Hai Rui" sightseeing cruise were robbed and murdered. The incident cast a shadow over cross-strait relations.[29]
Ghulja Incident 1997, February 5 Ghulja, Xinjiang 9 Demonstrations in Ghulja were violently put down by police after two days of protesting. Official reports put the death toll at 9.[30]
Long wins round robbery 1998 November 15 Shanwei 23 Guangdong Province, Shanwei City, the territory of an armed robbery case, the Hong Kong shipping company "Changsheng" million tons of cargo ship on which 23 Chinese expatriate crew were all killed and their corpses dumped into the sea.[31]

2000–

Name Date Location Deaths Notes
Kunming massacre[32] 2014, March 1 Kunming 33 (including four perpetrators)

See also

References

  1. ^ a b James B. Parsons (May 1957). "The Culmination of a Chinese Peasant Rebellion: Chang Hsien-chung in Szechwan, 1644-46". The Journal of Asian Studies. Association for Asian Studies. 16 (3): 387–400. doi:10.2307/2941233. JSTOR 2941233.
  2. ^ Struve (1993) (note at p. 269), following a 1964 article by Zhang Defang, notes that the entire city's population at the time was not likely to be more than 300,000, and that of the entire Yangzhou Prefecture, 800,000.
  3. ^ Geometric mean of 480 and 600 thousand rounded up to nearest ten thousand.
  4. ^ Barnouin, Barbara and Yu Changgen. Zhou Enlai: A Political Life. Hong Kong: Chinese University of Hong Kong, 2006. ISBN 962-996-280-2. Retrieved at <https://books.google.com/books?id=NztlWQeXf2IC&printsec=frontcover&dq=zhou+enlai&hl=en&ei=wBkuTdKyB4H_8AaJucigAQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CCsQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q&f=false> on March 12, 2011. p.38
  5. ^ Mao: The Unknown Story. p. 133.
  6. ^ Geometric mean of 40 and 300 thousand rounded to nearest 10 thousand.
  7. ^ Masaaki Tanaka claims that very few citizens were killed, and that the massacre is in fact a fabrication in his book “Nankin gyakusatsu” no kyokō (The "Nanking Massacre" as Fabrication).
  8. ^ "Why the past still separates China and Japan" Robert Marquand (August 20, 2001) Christian Science Monitor. States an estimate of 300,000 dead.
  9. ^ Yang Kuisong (2008). "Reconsidering the Campaign to Suppress Counterrevolutionaries". The China Quarterly. 193: 102–121. doi:10.1017/S0305741008000064.(subscription required)summary at China Change blog
  10. ^ Changyu, Li. "Mao's "Killing Quotas." Human Rights in China (HRIC). 26 September 2005, at Shandong University" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 July 2009.
  11. ^ Zhang, Ming. "执政的道德困境与突围之道——"三反五反"运动解析" (PDF) (in Chinese). Chinese University of Hong Kong.
  12. ^ "那一年,中国商贾千人跳楼 全家共赴黄泉(图)" (in Chinese). 搜狐. Archived from the original on 2013-08-01. Retrieved 2019-11-22.
  13. ^ "三反五反:资产阶级命运的终结" (in Chinese). 凤凰网. Archived from the original on 2017-10-31. Retrieved 2019-11-22.
  14. ^ Luo), 罗慰年 (William (2018-03-30). 半资本论 (Semi-Capital)(第七版): 半资本主义与中国 (Semi-Capitalism in China) (in Chinese). 世界华语出版社. ISBN 978-1-940266-12-1.
  15. ^ Storm.mg (2018-06-09). "陳昭南專欄:遇到中共就失憶!國民黨還能騙自己多久?-風傳媒". www.storm.mg (in Chinese). Retrieved 2020-04-05.
  16. ^ "Uneasy silences punctuate 60th anniversary coverage". China Media Project. Archived from the original on 2010-06-11. Retrieved 2009-09-30.
  17. ^ Vidal, Christine (2016). "The 1957-1958 Anti-Rightist Campaign in China: History and Memory (1978-2014)". HAL-SHS. Archived from the original on 2019-11-28. Retrieved 2019-11-28.
  18. ^ King, Gilbert. "The Silence that Preceded China's Great Leap into Famine". Smithsonian. Archived from the original on 2019-10-14. Retrieved 2019-11-28.
  19. ^ Yang, Jishen (2017-07-04). 天地翻覆: 中国文化大革命历史 (in Chinese). 天地图书.
  20. ^ Phillips, Tom (2016-05-11). "The Cultural Revolution: all you need to know about China's political convulsion". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 2019-12-23.
  21. ^ Song, Yongyi. "文革中"非正常死亡"了多少人? ---- 读苏扬的《文革中中国农村的集体屠杀》/宋永毅". Boxun. Retrieved 2020-04-05.
  22. ^ a b "Interview: 'People Were Eaten by The Revolutionary Masses'". Radio Free Asia. Retrieved 2020-04-05.
  23. ^ a b Yan, Lebin. "我参与处理广西文革遗留问题". www.yhcqw.com. Retrieved 2020-04-05.
  24. ^ a b "Chronology of Mass Killings during the Chinese Cultural Revolution (1966-1976) | Sciences Po Mass Violence and Resistance - Research Network". www.sciencespo.fr. Retrieved 2019-12-05.
  25. ^ Tan, Hecheng (2017). The Killing Wind: A Chinese County's Descent Into Madness During the Cultural Revolution. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-062252-7.
  26. ^ Lin, Qishan. ""文革"时期湖南省邵阳县"黑杀风"事件始末". Modern China Studies (in Chinese). Retrieved 2020-04-02.
  27. ^ Zhou, Yongming (1999). Anti-drug Crusades in Twentieth-century China: Nationalism, History, and State Building. Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 978-0-8476-9598-0.
  28. ^ Zhang 2001, p. 436.
  29. ^ 第67期:千岛湖事件(组图), (April 25, 2008)
  30. ^ "China Uighurs executed". BBC News. 1998-01-27.
  31. ^ 长胜轮23人惨案一主犯落网 大海盗张军红即将受审, (June 24, 2002)
  32. ^ "Kunming massacre: Has the global jihad reached China?". Telegraph.co.uk. Retrieved 2017-02-21.

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