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List of massacres during the Greco-Turkish War (1919–22)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Name Date Location Deaths Responsible Party Victims Notes
Greek landing at Smyrna 15–16 May 1919 Smyrna 400–500 killed Greeks, Turks Turks, Greeks The orderly landing of the Greek army soon turned into a riot against the local Turkish population by local Greeks and Greek soldiers. Stores and houses were looted, many cases of beatings, rape, killing. Estimates for killed and wounded Greeks are 100, for Turks between 300-400.[1] Further 4000 Turks were killed during Greek occupation in Smyrna, excluding these events and Menemen Massacre[2][3]. McCarthy claims that 640,000 Turks were killed by Greeks in occupation areas between Greek landing at Smyrna and Turkish capture of Smyrna.[3][4][5]
Menemen massacre 16–17 June 1919 Menemen 100–200 Greeks Turks 200 injured
Battle of Aydın 27 June–4 July 1919 Aydın 2,700–3,500 Turks and Greeks Turks and Greeks The Greek army occupied the city which was later taken by Turkish irregulars and then again by the Greeks. These developments resulted in the destruction of most of the city and massacres from both sides. Killed Greeks were estimated as 1,500-2,000, Turks as 1,200-1,500.
İzmit massacres March 1920 –June 1921 Ortaköy, Geyve, Akhisar, İznik, İzmit district 12,000[6] Turkish irregulars and Turkish nationalist army Greeks An Allied report (in June 1921) stated that 12,000 Greeks were massacred and 30 villages destroyed.[7][8]
Yalova Peninsula massacres 1920-21 Gemlik/Yalova Peninsula estimates vary: 35 reported[9] or

5,500[10] - 9,100 (Turkish claim)[11]

Greeks troops, local Greeks, Armenians and Circasians[12] Turks The perpetrators were Greek troops and local Greek and Armenian gangs, who burned down Orhangazi, Yenişehir, Armutlu. In total 27 villages were razed and their population fled. In Armutlu women were methodically raped.[13] Circassians participated also in the events.[12]
Bilecik massacre March–April 1921 Bilecik, Sögüt, Bozüyük 208[14] Greeks troops, local Greeks Turks The town of Bilecik and crops were burned down by the retreating Greek army, local people were massacred.[15] Bilecik, Sögüt, Bozüyük and dozens of neighboring villages were burned or plundered by the hastily retreating Greek army, their haste limited the destruction.[14]
Samsun deportations May–November1921 Samsun 21.000 deported, c. 10.000 dead.[16] Turkish irregulars and Turkish nationalist army Greeks Central Army under Nureddin Pasha[17] and irregulars under Topal Osman[18] forced the Greeks of Samsun to Death Marches.
Izmit massacre 24 June 1921 İzmit 300[19][20] Greek Army Turks Up to 300 people, mostly men, were executed by Greek troops. Their bodies were buried in a mass grave outside the town. Arnold J. Toynbee was a reporter who described these events in the Manchester Guardian.[19]
Karatepe village massacre 14 February 1922 Karatepe 385[21] Greek Army Turks In one of the examples of the Greek atrocities during the retreat, on 14 February 1922, in the Turkish village of Karatepe in Aydin Vilayeti, after being surrounded by the Greeks, all the inhabitants were put into the mosque, then the mosque was burned. The few who escaped fire were shot.[22][verification needed]
Salihli massacre 5 September 1922 Salihli at least 76[23][full citation needed] Greek forces Turks The city was burned by the retreating Greek army, 65% of the buildings were destroyed.[24]
Turgutlu massacre 4–6 September 1922 Turgutlu (former Kasaba) 1,000[24] Greek forces Turks The city was burned by the retreating Greek army, 90% of the buildings were destroyed.[24] Approximately 1,000 died.[24] Park:"Cassaba (present day Turgutlu) was a town of 40,000 souls, 3,000 of whom were non-Muslims. Of these 37,000 Turks only 6,000 could be accounted for among the living, while 1,000 Turks were known to have been shot or burned to death. Of the 2,000 buildings that constituted the city, only 200 remained standing."
Turgutlu massacre[25] September 1922 Turgutlu (former Kasaba) 4,000[25] Turks Greeks From 8,000 Greek civilians gathered in the town, half of them remained after the evacuation of the Greek Army. They were killed by the advancing Turkish soldiers.[25]
Uşak massacre 1 September 1922 Uşak 200[26] Greeks Turks The city was burned by the retreating Greek army, 33% of the buildings were destroyed.[24][dubious ]
Manisa massacre 6–7 September 1922 Manisa 4,355[27] Greeks troops Turks The city was burned by the retreating Greek army.[24] 855 people shootted down by Greek Army and 3,500 people died in flames. Turkish sources are guessing that 300 women were kidnapped to rape.[28] James Loder Park, the U.S. Vice-Consul in Constantinople at the time, who toured much of the devastated area immediately after the Greek evacuation, described the situation, as follows:[24] "Manisa... almost completely wiped out by fire... 10,300 houses, 15 mosques, 2 baths, 2,278 shops, 19 hotels, 26 villas... [destroyed]."
Akhisar massacre 1922 Akhisar 7,000[29] Turkish forces Greeks As a result of the capture of the city by the Turkish nationalist army, all remaining local Greeks were murdered. Since then there is no Christian community in the city.[29]
Alaşehir massacre 3–4 September 1922 Alaşehir 3,000[30] Greeks Turks The city was burned by the retreating Greek army.[24]
Ayvalık massacre After September 19, 1922 Ayvalık 2,977[31] Turkish forces Greeks Most of the male Greek population, some 3,000, who remained in the town were deported to the interior of Anatolia, of those only 23 survived. The rest of the population was deported to Greece.[31]
Cunda Island massacre After September 19, 1922 Cunda Island Hundreds[31] Turkish forces Greeks Several hundreds of Greek civilians were killed on the islet of Cunda Island, only some children were spared. This happened as an act of revenge for the killing one Muslims judge, several years earlier.[32]
Massacres before and during the Turkish recapture of İzmir/Smyrna 8–22 September 1922 İzmir "Every morning scores of newly dead bodies appeared"[33] Turkish gangs and soldiers[33] Greeks, Armenians[33] Further 2,000 to 125,000 Greeks and Armenians died as a result of the Great Fire of Smyrna[33][34][35]

References

  1. ^ Smith, Michael Llewellyn (1999). Ionian vision : Greece in Asia Minor, 1919-1922 (New edition, 2nd impression ed.). London: C. Hurst. p. 90. ISBN 9781850653684. ..., the Turks suffered 300 to 400 casualties, killed and wounded, and the Greeks about 100,
  2. ^ von Voss, Huberta, "The Ashes of Smyrna:", Portraits of Hope, Berghahn Books, pp. 88–92, ISBN 978-1-78238-941-5, retrieved 2020-02-20
  3. ^ a b "Müslüman-Türk katliamları - Vikipedi". tr.m.wikipedia.org (in Turkish). Retrieved 2020-02-20.
  4. ^ "KURTULUŞ SAVAŞI DÖNEMİNDE YUNAN MEZALİMİ". https://www.edirnegazetesi.com.tr (in Turkish). Retrieved 2020-03-07. External link in |website= (help)
  5. ^ "KURTULUŞ SAVAŞI DÖNEMİNDE KOCAELİ - YALOVA – İZNİK ÇEVRESİNDE". www.ait.hacettepe.edu.tr. Retrieved 2020-03-07.
  6. ^ Justin McCarthy (1995). Death and exile: the ethnic cleansing of Ottoman Muslims, 1821-1922. Darwin Press. ISBN 978-0-87850-094-9. Retrieved 1 May 2013.
  7. ^ Shenk, Robert (2012). America's Black Sea fleet the U.S. Navy amidst war and revolution, 1919-1923. Annapolis, Md.: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 9781612513027.
  8. ^ Reports on atrocities in the districts of Yalova and Guemlek and in the Ismid Peninsula. 1921. pp. 1–2–3–4–5–6–7–8–9–10–11. Retrieved 15 June 2014.
  9. ^ Gingeras, Ryan (2009). Sorrowful Shores:Violence, Ethnicity, and the End of the Ottoman Empire 1912-1923. Oxford University Press. p. 28. ISBN 9780191609794. In total only thirty-five were reported to have been killed, wounded, beaten, or missing. This is in line with the observations of Arnold Toynbee, who declared that one to two murders were sufficient to drive away the population of a village.
  10. ^ McNeill, William H. (1989). Arnold J. Toynbee: A Life. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780199923397. To protect their flanks from harassment, Greek military authorities then encouraged irregular bands of armed men to attack and destroy Turkish populations of the region they proposed to abandon. By the time the Red Crescent vessel arrived at Yalova from Constantinople in the last week of May, fourteen out of sixteen villages in that town's immediate hinterland had been destroyed, and there were only 1500 survivors from the 7000 Moslems who had been living in these communities.
  11. ^ https://www.scribd.com/doc/46207420/Ar%C5%9Fiv-Belgelerine-Gore-Balkanlar%E2%80%99da-ve-Anadolu%E2%80%99da-Yunan-Mezalimi-2
  12. ^ a b Smith, Michael Llewellyn (1999). Ionian vision : Greece in Asia Minor, 1919–1922 (New edition, 2nd impression ed.). London: C. Hurst. p. 209. ISBN 9781850653684. At the same time bands of Christian irregulars, Greek Armenian, and Circassian, looted, burned and murdered in the Yalove-Gemlik peninsula.
  13. ^ Sorrowful Shores, Ryan Gingeras, page 111-112, 2009
  14. ^ a b DERGİ (1917-11-06). "Atatürk Araştırma Merkezi | Bilecik ve Çevresinde Yunan Mezalimi". Atam.gov.tr. Archived from the original on 2013-12-03. Retrieved 2013-06-24.
  15. ^ State-Nationalisms in the Ottoman Empire, Greece and Turkey: Benjamin C. Fortna,Stefanos Katsikas,Dimitris Kamouzis,Paraskevas Konortas, page 64, 2012
  16. ^ Shenk, Robert (2017). America's Black Sea Fleet: The U.S. Navy Amidst War and Revolution, 1919 1923. Naval Institute Press, p. 102.Bartrop, Paul R. (2014). Encountering Genocide: Personal Accounts from Victims, Perpetrators, and Witnesses. ABC-CLIO. p. 64. Thomas, Alexiadis (2008). "Η Αμισός του Πόντου [Amisos of Pontus]" (in Greek). University of Thessaloniki, p. 157
  17. ^ Ebubekir Hazım Tepeyran, Belgelerle Kurtuluş Savaşı Anıları, Istanbul 1982, p. 81. Türkiye Büyük Millet Meclisi Gizli Celse Zabitlari, Kültür Yayinlari Türkiye Is Bankasi, v. 2, pp. 240 sq., 252-287, 626-650.
  18. ^ Shenk, R. America's Black Sea Fleet: The U.S. Navy Amidst War and Revolution, 1919-1921". Naval Institute Press 2012. 50-51. Black Book: The Tragedy of Pontus, The Central Council of Pontus, Athens 1922, 20-21
  19. ^ a b Sorrowful Shores, Ryan Gingeras, page 112, 2009
  20. ^ Toynbee, Arnold Joseph (1970). The Western Question in Greece and Turkey:A Study in the Contact of Civilizations (PDF). H. Fertig, originally: University of California. p. 553. ‘ But at 1 P.M. on Friday the 24th June, three and a half days before the Greek evacuation, the male inhabitants of the two Turkish quarters of Baghcheshmé and Tepekhané, in the highest part of the town, away from the sea, had been dragged out to the cemetery and shot in batches. On Wednesday the 29th I was present when two of the graves were opened, and ascertained for myself that the corpses were those of Moslems and that their arms had been pinioned behind their backs. There were thought to be about sixty corpses in that group of graves, and there were several others. In all, over 300 people were missing—a death-roll probably exceeding that at Smyrna on the 15th and 16th May 1919.
  21. ^ Yunan mezalimi: İzmir, Aydın, Manisa, Denizli : 1919-1923, Mustafa Turan, University of Michigan-Atatürk Araştırma Merkezi, 2006|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=iy1pAAAAMAAJ&q=14+%C5%9Eubatta+ku%C5%9Fat%C4%B1ld%C4%B1%C4%9F%C4%B1n%C4%B1,+c%C3%A2milerin+ate%C5%9Fe+verildi%C4%9Fini,+400+ki%C5%9Fiden+yaln%C4%B1z+15+kad%C4%B1n+ve+erke%C4%9Fin+ka%C3%A7t%C4%B1klar%C4%B1n%C4%B1n+kendisine+bildirildi%C4%9Fini%22+yaz%C4%B1yordu425.&dq=14+%C5%9Eubatta+ku%C5%9Fat%C4%B1ld%C4%B1%C4%9F%C4%B1n%C4%B1,+c%C3%A2milerin+ate%C5%9Fe+verildi%C4%9Fini,+400+ki%C5%9Fiden+yaln%C4%B1z+15+kad%C4%B1n+ve+erke%C4%9Fin+ka%C3%A7t%C4%B1klar%C4%B1n%C4%B1n+kendisine+bildirildi%C4%9Fini%22+yaz%C4%B1yordu425.&hl=nl&sa=X&ei=xW3tUYWALYiHswae0oHYDQ&ved=0CDEQ6AEwAA%7Cquote=14 Şubatta kuşatıldığını, câmilerin ateşe verildiğini, 400 kişiden yalnız 15 kadın ve erkeğin kaçtıklarının kendisine bildirildiğini" yazıyordu
  22. ^ Toynbee, Arnold (6 April 1922) [9 March 1922], "Letter", The Times, Turkey.
  23. ^ The Atlantic Monthly, Volume 132. Atlantic Monthly Co. 1923. p. 829. Two thirds of Salihli, with a population of 10,000, only a tenth of whom were Greeks, had been burned over, seventy-six people were known to have burned to death, and a hundred young girls were said to have been taken away by Greek
  24. ^ a b c d e f g h U.S. Vice-Consul James Loder Park to Secretary of State, Smyrna, 11 April 1923. US archives US767.68116/34
  25. ^ a b c Μπουμπουγιατζή, Ευαγγελία (2009). "Οι διωγμοί των Ελλήνων της Ιωνίας 1914-1922". University of Western Macedonia: 384. Retrieved 23 June 2013. Από τους 8.000 Έλληνες οι μισοί δεν είχαν διαφύγει με τα ελληνικά στρατεύματα, με αποτέλεσμα να εξοντωθούν από τα κεμαλικά [From the 8,000, half of them remained in town after the evacuation and were annihilated by the Kemalist forces] Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  26. ^ Adıvar, Halide Edib (1928). The Turkish Ordeal: Being the Further Memoirs of Halidé Edib. Century Company, University of Virginia. p. 363.
  27. ^ Batı Anadolu'da Yunan mezalimi:, Mustafa Tayla, University of Michigan,- Ankara Üniversitesi Basımevi,|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=5T5pAAAAMAAJ&q=ve+(3500)+ki%C5%9Fi+ate%C5%9F+de+yak%C4%B1lmak+ve+(855)+ki%C5%9Fi+kur%C5%9Funa+dizilmek+suretiyle+%C3%B6ld%C3%BCr%C3%BClm%C3%BC%C5%9Ft%C3%BCr&dq=ve+(3500)+ki%C5%9Fi+ate%C5%9F+de+yak%C4%B1lmak+ve+(855)+ki%C5%9Fi+kur%C5%9Funa+dizilmek+suretiyle+%C3%B6ld%C3%BCr%C3%BClm%C3%BC%C5%9Ft%C3%BCr&hl=nl&sa=X&ei=2WntUazSMIOetAbdwoGoCg&ved=0CDMQ6AEwAA
  28. ^ "1922 Manisa yangını - Vikipedi". tr.m.wikipedia.org (in Turkish). Retrieved 2020-02-20.
  29. ^ a b Jonsson, David J. (2005). The clash of ideologies : the making of the Christian and Islamic worlds. [Longwood, Fla.]: Xulon Press. p. 316. ISBN 9781597810395.
  30. ^ Mango, Atatürk, p. 343.
  31. ^ a b c Clark, Bruce (2006). Twice a stranger : the mass expulsion that forged modern Greece and Turkey. Cambridge (Massachusetts): Harvard University Press. p. 25. ISBN 9780674023680. only twenty-three of the 3000 men from Ayvali came back alive..
  32. ^ Clark, Bruce (2006). Twice a stranger : the mass expulsion that forged modern Greece and Turkey. Cambridge, (Massachusetts): Harvard University Press. p. 25. ISBN 9780674023680. On the nearby islet which is known in Greek as Moschonisi and in Turkish as Cunda, several hundred civilians of all ages were taken away and killed, only some of the children were spared and sent to orphanages
  33. ^ a b c d Naimark, Norman M. (2002). Fires of hatred : ethnic cleansing in twentieth-century Europe (1. Harvard Univ. Press paperback ed., 2. print. ed.). Cambridge, Mass. [u.a.]: Harvard Univ. Press. p. 48. ISBN 9780674009943. Turkish gangs roamed the Armenian quarter, breaking into homes, robbing and killing seemingly at will.
  34. ^ Trudy Ring; Noelle Watson; Paul Schellinger (2013). Southern Europe: International Dictionary of Historic Places. Routledge. p. 351. ISBN 9781134259588. Retrieved 23 February 2014. Kemal's triumphant entry into Izmir ... as Greek and Armenian inhabitants were raped, mutilate, and murdered.
  35. ^ Abulafia, David (2011). The great sea : a human history of the Mediterranean. New York: Oxford University Press. p. 287. ISBN 9780195323344. Retrieved 23 February 2014. As the refugees crowded into the city, massacres, rape and looting, mainly but not exclusively by the irregulars, became the unspoken order of the day
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