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This is a list of the largest daily changes in the Dow Jones Industrial Average from 1896. Compare to the list of largest daily changes in the S&P 500 Index.
The first four tables show only the largest one-day changes between a given day's close and the close of the previous trading day, not the largest changes during the trading day (i.e. intraday changes).
The Dow Jones Industrial Average was first published in 1896, but since the firms listed at that time were in existence before then, the index can be calculated going back to May 2, 1881. A loss of just over 24 percent on May 5, 1893 from 39.90 to 30.02 signaled the apex of the stock effects of the Panic of 1893; the 2008–09 crash was a 61.8 percent retracement thereof that began on October 11, 2007 and lasted until the closing low on March 9, 2009.
The largest point drop in history occurred on March 16, 2020, when concerns over the ongoing 2019–20 coronavirus pandemic engulfed the market, dropping the Dow Jones Industrial Average 2,997 points. The largest point gain (+2,113) occurred on March 24, 2020. As of April 6, 2020, all of the top five and eight of the top ten largest point drops have been amid the 2020 stock market crash. Likewise, eight of the top ten point gains, including all of the top seven, have been during that crash, which has been marked by extreme point swings.
|Largest daily point gains
|Largest daily point losses
Some sources (including the file Highlights/Lowlights of The Dow on the Dow Jones website) show a loss of 24.39% (from 71.42 to 54.00) on December 12, 1914, placing that day atop the list of largest percentage losses. The New York Stock Exchange reopened that day following a nearly four-and-a-half-month closure since July 30, 1914, and the Dow in fact rose several percent that day (from 71.42 to 74.56, or +4.4%). However, the apparent decline was due to a later 1916 revision of the Dow Jones Industrial Average, which retroactively adjusted the values following the closure but not those before, and it represents the only discontinuity in the index's history rather than an actual loss.
|Largest daily percentage gains
|Largest daily percentage losses
A point swing is the difference between the intraday high and the intraday low. (The intraday high may not be the same as the opening price; for instance, in the 2010 Flash Crash, the market reached an intraday high, higher than the opening price.)
This is distinguished from an intraday point drop or gain, which is the difference between the opening price and the intraday low or high.
This table shows the largest intraday point swings since 1987. As the "Net Change" column shows, 12 of these 20 largest intraday swings occurred during days on which the Dow declined, while only 8 occurred during days on which it advanced. None of the top 20 occurred before the year 2015.
During the 2020 stock market crash, nine of the top ten positions occurred during a span of three weeks between March 2, 2020 and March 20, 2020.
|Rank||Date||Close||Day high||Day low||Point swing||Net change|
|Largest intraday point gains
An intraday point gain is defined as the difference between the opening price (which may or may not be the intraday low) and the intraday high. This is distinguished from a point swing, which is defined as the difference between the intraday high and the intraday low. Such records that turned negative are also recorded in a separate list. The opening price is used to calculate the point gain. The previous day close is used to calculate the net change.
|Largest intraday point drops
An intraday point drop is defined as the difference between the opening price (which may or may not be the intraday high) and the intraday low. This is distinguished from a point swing, which is defined as the difference between the intraday high and the intraday low. Such records that turned positive are also recorded in a separate list. The opening price is used to calculate the point drop. The previous day close is used to calculate the net change.
|Largest intraday point gains that turned negative
These are the largest intraday point gains that closed in negative territory at the end of the trading session. In order to be considered an intraday point gain, the intraday high must be above the previous day closing price, while the opening price is used to calculate intraday highs.
|Largest intraday point losses that turned positive
These are the largest intraday point losses that closed in positive territory at the end of the trading session. In order to be considered an intraday point loss, the intraday low must be below the previous day closing price, while the opening price is used to calculate intraday lows.