Wiki.RIP

List of epidemics

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
List of deaths caused by infectious disease
. 1607–1635, Deutsches Historisches Museum Berlin
DurationHuman history

This article is a list of deaths caused by an infectious disease. Widespread non-communicable diseases such as cardiovascular disease and cancer are not included.

15th century and earlier

Death toll (estimate) Location Date Event Disease Ref.
75,000–100,000 Greece 429–426 BC Plague of Athens Unknown, possibly typhus, typhoid fever or viral hemorrhagic fever [1][2][3]
Unknown Greece (Northern Greece, Roman Republic) 412 BC 412 BC epidemic Unknown, possibly influenza [4]
5–10 million Roman Empire 165–180 (possibly up to 190) Antonine Plague Unknown, possibly smallpox [5]
1 million + (Unknown, but at least) Europe 250–266 Plague of Cyprian Unknown, possibly smallpox [6][7]
25–100 million; 40–50% of population of Europe Europe and West Asia 541–542 Plague of Justinian Plague [8][9][10]
British Isles 664–689 Plague of 664 Plague [11]
2 million (Approx. ​13 of entire Japanese population) Japan 735–737 735–737 Japanese smallpox epidemic Smallpox [12][13]
Byzantine Empire, West Asia, Africa 746–747 Plague of 746–747 Plague [14]
75–200 million (10–60% of European population) Europe, Asia and North Africa 1331–1353 Black Death Plague
Y. pestis
[15]
10,000 + Britain (England) and later continental Europe 1485–1551 Sweating sickness (multiple outbreaks) Unknown, possibly an unknown species of hantavirus [16]

16th and 17th centuries

Death toll (estimate) Location Date Event Disease Ref.
5–8 million (40% of population) Mexico 1520 1520 Smallpox Epidemic Smallpox [17]
5–15 million (80% of population) Mexico 1545–1548 Cocoliztli Epidemic of 1545–1548 Possibly Salmonella enterica [18][19][20][21]
> 20,100 in London London 1563–1564 1563 London plague Plague
2–2.5 million (50% of population) Mexico 1576–1580 Cocoliztli epidemic of 1576 Possibly Salmonella enterica [18][19][20][21]
Seneca nation 1592–1596 Measles [22]
3,000 Malta 1592–1593 1592–93 Malta plague epidemic Plague [23]
> 19,900 in London and outer parishes London 1592–1593 1592–93 London plague Plague
Spain 1596–1602 Plague [24]
South America 1600–1650 Malaria [25]
England 1603 Plague [26]
Egypt 1609 Plague
30–90% of population Southern New England, especially the Wampanoag people 1616–1620 1616 New England epidemic Unknown cause. Latest research suggests epidemic(s) of leptospirosis with Weil syndrome. Classic explanations include yellow fever, bubonic plague, influenza, smallpox, chickenpox, typhus, and syndemic infection of hepatitis B and hepatitis D. [27][28]
280,000 Italy 1629–1631 Italian plague of 1629–1631 Plague [29]
15,000-25,000 Wyandot people 1634 Smallpox [30]
Thirteen Colonies 1633 Massachusetts smallpox epidemic Smallpox
England 1636 Plague [31]
China 1641–1644 Plague [32]
Spain 1647–1652 Great Plague of Seville Plague
Central America 1648 Yellow fever [33]
Italy 1656 Naples Plague Plague [34]
Thirteen Colonies 1657 Measles [35]
24,148[36] Netherlands 1663–1664 Plague
100,000[37] England 1665–1666 Great Plague of London Plague [38]
40,000 France 1668 Plague [39]
11,300 Malta 1675–1676 1675–76 Malta plague epidemic Plague [40]
Spain 1676–1685 Plague [41]
76,000 Austria 1679 Great Plague of Vienna Plague
Thirteen Colonies 1687 Measles [42]
Thirteen Colonies 1690 Yellow fever

18th century

Death toll (estimate) Location Date Event Disease Ref.
Canada, New France 1702–1703 Smallpox [43]
> 18,000 (36% of population) Iceland 1707–1709 Great Smallpox Epidemic Smallpox
Denmark, Sweden, Lithuania 1710–1712 Great Northern War plague outbreak Plague
Thirteen Colonies 1713–1715 Measles [44]
Canada, New France 1714–1715 Measles [45]
>100,000 France 1720–1722 Great Plague of Marseille Plague [46]
Thirteen Colonies 1721–1722 Smallpox [47]
Thirteen Colonies 1729 Measles [48]
Spain 1730 Yellow fever
Thirteen Colonies 1732–1733 Influenza [49]
Canada, New France 1733 Smallpox [50]
> 50,000 Balkans 1738 Great Plague of 1738 Plague
Thirteen Colonies 1738 Smallpox [51]
Thirteen Colonies 1739–1740 Measles
Italy 1743 Plague [52]
Thirteen Colonies 1747 Measles
North America 1755–1756 Smallpox
North America 1759 Measles [53]
North America, West Indies 1761 Influenza
North America, present-day Pittsburgh area. 1763 Smallpox [54]
> 50,000 Russia 1770–1772 Russian plague of 1770–1772 Plague
Pacific Northwest natives 1770s Smallpox [55]
North America 1772 Measles
> 2,000,000 Persia 1772 Persian Plague Plague [56]
England 1775–1776 Influenza [57]
Spain 1778 Dengue fever [58]
Plains Indians 1780–1782 North American smallpox epidemic Smallpox [59]
Pueblo Indians 1788 Smallpox [60]
United States 1788 Measles
New South Wales, Australia 1789–1790 Smallpox [61]
United States 1793 Influenza and epidemic typhus
United States 1793–1798 Yellow Fever Epidemic of 1793, resurgences Yellow fever [62]

19th century

Death toll (estimate) Location Date Event Disease Ref.
Spain 1800–1803 Yellow fever [63]
Ottoman Empire, Egypt 1801 Bubonic plague [64]
United States 1803 Yellow fever
Egypt 1812 Plague
Ottoman Empire 1812–19 1812–19 Ottoman plague epidemic Plague [65]
4,500 Malta 1813–1814 1813–14 Malta plague epidemic Plague
60,000 Romania 1813 Caragea's plague Plague
Ireland 1816–1819 Typhus
> 100,000 Asia, Europe 1816–1826 First cholera pandemic Cholera [66]
United States 1820–1823 Yellow fever
Spain 1821 Yellow fever [67]
New South Wales, Australia 1828 Smallpox [68]
Netherlands 1829 Groningen epidemic Malaria
South Australia 1829 Smallpox [69]
Iran 1829–1835 Bubonic plague [70]
> 100,000 Asia, Europe, North America 1829–1851 Second cholera pandemic Cholera [66]
Egypt 1831 Cholera [71][72]
Plains Indians 1831–1834 Smallpox
England, France 1832 Cholera
North America 1832 Cholera [73]
United States 1833 Cholera
United States 1834 Cholera
Egypt 1834–1836 Bubonic plague [71][72]
United States 1837 Typhus
Great Plains 1837–1838 1837–38 smallpox epidemic Smallpox [74]
Dalmatia 1840 Plague
South Africa 1840 Smallpox
United States 1841 Yellow fever
> 20,000 Canada 1847–1848 Typhus epidemic of 1847 Epidemic typhus [75]
United States 1847 Yellow fever
Worldwide 1847–1848 Influenza [76]
Egypt 1848 Cholera [71][72]
North America 1848–1849 Cholera
United States 1850 Yellow fever
North America 1850–1851 Influenza
United States 1851 Cholera [77]
United States 1852 Yellow fever
1,000,000 Russia 1852–1860 Third cholera pandemic Cholera [66]
Ottoman Empire 1853 Plague [78]
4,737 Copenhagen, Denmark 1853 Cholera epidemic of Copenhagen 1853 Cholera [79]
616 England 1854 Broad Street cholera outbreak Cholera [80]
United States 1855 Yellow fever
>12 million in India and China Worldwide 1855–1860 Third plague pandemic Bubonic plague [81][82]
Portugal 1857 Yellow fever
Victoria, Australia 1857 Smallpox [83]
Europe, North America, South America 1857–1859 Influenza [84]
> 3,000 Central Coast, British Columbia 1862–1863 Smallpox [85]
Middle East 1863–1879 Fourth cholera pandemic Cholera [66]
Egypt 1865 Cholera [71][72]
Russia, Germany 1866–1867 Cholera
Australia 1867 Measles
Iraq 1867 Plague [86]
Argentina 1852–1871 Yellow fever [87]
Germany 1870–1871 Smallpox
40,000 Fiji 1875 1875 Fiji Measles outbreak Measles [88]
Russian Empire 1877 Plague [89]
Egypt 1881 Cholera [71][72]
> 9,000 India, Germany 1881–1896 Fifth cholera pandemic Cholera [66]
3,164 Montreal 1885 Smallpox timeline
1,000,000 Worldwide 1889–1890 1889–1890 flu pandemic Influenza [90]
West Africa 1900 Yellow fever

Late 19th and 20th centuries

Death toll (estimate) Location Date Event Disease Ref.
Congo Basin 1896–1906 Trypanosomiasis [91]
> 800,000 Europe, Asia, Africa 1899–1923 Sixth cholera pandemic Cholera [66]
113 San Francisco 1900–1904 Bubonic plague [92]
Uganda 1900–1920 Trypanosomiasis [93]
Egypt 1902 Cholera [71][72]
22 India 1903 Bubonic Plague [94]
4 Fremantle 1903 Bubonic plague [95]
40,000 China 1910–1912 1910 China plague Bubonic plague [96]
1,500,000 Worldwide 1915–1926 1915 Encephalitis lethargica pandemic Encephalitis lethargica [97]
> 7,000 United States of America 1916 Poliomyelitis [98]
17,000,000-100,000,000 Worldwide 1918–1920 Spanish flu (pandemic) Influenza A virus subtype H1N1
Spanish Flu Virus
[99][100][101]
Russia 1918–1922 Typhus
30 Los Angeles 1924 1924 Los Angeles pneumonic plague outbreak Pneumonic plague
43 Croydon, United Kingdom 1937 Croydon epidemic of typhoid fever Typhoid fever [102]
Egypt 1942–1944 Malaria [71][72]
China 1946 Bubonic plague
Egypt 1946 Relapsing fever [71][72]
1,845 United States of America 1946 Poliomyelitis [98]
Egypt 1947 Cholera [71][72]
2,720 United States of America 1949 Poliomyelitis [98]
3,145 United States of America 1952 Poliomyelitis [98]
2,000,000 Worldwide 1957–1958 Asian flu Influenza A virus subtype H2N2 [103]
Worldwide 1961–1975 Seventh cholera pandemic Cholera (El Tor strain) [66]
500,000,000 Worldwide 1877–1977 Smallpox [104][105][106][107]
1,000,000 Worldwide 1968–1969 Hong Kong flu Influenza A virus subtype H3N2 [103]
5 Netherlands 1971 Poliomyelitis [108]
35 Yugoslavia 1972 1972 outbreak of smallpox in Yugoslavia Smallpox
1,027 United States 1972–1973 London flu Influenza A virus subtype H3N2 [109]
15,000 India 1974 1974 smallpox epidemic of India Smallpox [110]
> 32,000,000 Worldwide 1960–present (as of 2010) HIV/AIDS pandemic HIV/AIDS [111]
South America 1990s Cholera
52 India 1994 1994 plague epidemic in Surat Plague [112]
231 Worldwide 1996–2001 vCJD
West Africa 1996 Meningitis
105 Malaysia 1998–1999 1998–99 Malaysia Nipah virus outbreak Nipah virus infection [113]
Central America 2000 Dengue fever [114]

21st century

Death toll (estimate) Location Date Event Disease Ref.
> 400 Nigeria 2001 Cholera [115]
South Africa 2001 Cholera [116]
359 China 2002–2004 2002–2004 SARS outbreak Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) [117]
299 Hong Kong [118]
37 Taiwan [119]
44 Canada [120]
33 Singapore [121]
Algeria 2003 Plague [122]
Afghanistan 2004 Leishmaniasis [123]
Bangladesh 2004 Cholera [124]
Indonesia 2004 Dengue fever [125]
Senegal 2004 Cholera [126]
7 Sudan 2004 Ebola [127]
Mali 2005 Yellow fever [128]
27 Singapore 2005 2005 dengue outbreak in Singapore Dengue fever [129]
Luanda, Angola 2006 Cholera [130]
61 Ituri Province, Democratic Republic of the Congo 2006 Plague [131][132]
17 India 2006 Malaria [133]
> 50 India 2006 2006 dengue outbreak in India Dengue fever [134]
India 2006 Chikungunya outbreaks Chikungunya virus [135]
> 50 Pakistan 2006 2006 dengue outbreak in Pakistan Dengue fever [136]
Philippines 2006 Dengue fever [137]
187 Democratic Republic of the Congo 2007 Mweka ebola epidemic Ebola [138]
Ethiopia 2007 Cholera [139]
49 India 2008 Cholera [140]
10 Iraq 2007 2007 Iraq cholera outbreak Cholera [141]
Nigeria 2007 Poliomyelitis [142]
Puerto Rico; Dominican Republic; Mexico 2007 Dengue fever [143]
Somalia 2007 Cholera [144]
37 Uganda 2007 Ebola [127]
Vietnam 2007 Cholera [145]
Brazil 2008 Dengue fever [146]
Cambodia 2008 Dengue fever [147]
Chad 2008 Cholera [148]
China 2008–2017 Hand, foot and mouth disease [149]
Madagascar 2008 Bubonic plague [150]
Philippines 2008 Dengue fever [151]
Vietnam 2008 Cholera [152]
4,293 Zimbabwe 2008–2009 2008–2009 Zimbabwean cholera outbreak Cholera [153]
18 Bolivia 2009 2009 Bolivian dengue fever epidemic Dengue fever [154]
49 India 2009 2009 Gujarat hepatitis outbreak Hepatitis B [155]
Queensland, Australia 2009 Dengue fever [156]
Worldwide 2009 Mumps outbreaks in the 2000s Mumps
931 West Africa 2009–2010 2009–2010 West African meningitis outbreak Meningitis [157]
150,000-575,000 (estimated) Worldwide 2009-2010 2009 flu pandemic (informally called "swine flu") Pandemic H1N1/09 virus [158]
10,075 (May 2017) Hispaniola 2010–present Haiti cholera outbreak Cholera (strain serogroup O1, serotype Ogawa) [159][160]
> 4,500 (February 2014) Democratic Republic of the Congo 2011–present Measles [161][162]
170 Vietnam 2011–present Hand, foot and mouth disease [163][164]
> 350 Pakistan 2011 2011 dengue outbreak in Pakistan Dengue fever [165]
171 (as of 10 January 2013) Darfur Sudan 2012 2012 yellow fever outbreak in Darfur, Sudan Yellow fever [166]
862 (as of 13 January 2020) Worldwide 2012–present 2012 Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus outbreak Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) [167][168][169]
142 Vietnam 2013–2014 Measles [170]
>> 11,300 Worldwide, primarily concentrated in West Africa 2013–2016 Ebola virus epidemic in West Africa Ebola virus disease
Ebola virus virion
[171][172][173]
183 Americas 2013–2015 2013–14 chikungunya outbreak Chikungunya [174]
40 Madagascar 2014–2017 2014 Madagascar plague outbreak Bubonic plague [175]
36 India 2014–2015 2014 Odisha jaundice outbreak Primarily Hepatitis E, but also Hepatitis A [176]
2,035 India 2015 2015 Indian swine flu outbreak Influenza A virus subtype H1N1 [177][178][179]
~53 Worldwide 2015–2016 2015–16 Zika virus epidemic Zika virus [180]
100s (as of 1 April 2016) Africa 2016 2016 yellow fever outbreak in Angola Yellow fever [181]
3,886 (as of 30 November 2019) Yemen 2016–present 2016–20 Yemen cholera outbreak Cholera [182]
64 (as of 16 August 2017) India 2017 2017 Gorakhpur Japanese encephalitis outbreak Japanese encephalitis [183]
18 (as of February 2020) India 2018 2018 Nipah virus outbreak in Kerala Nipah virus infection [184]
2,253 (as of 20 February 2020) Democratic Republic of the Congo & Uganda August 2018–present 2018–20 Kivu Ebola epidemic Ebola virus disease [185][186]
> 5,000 (as of November 2019) Democratic Republic of the Congo 2019–present 2019 measles outbreak in the Democratic Republic of the Congo Measles [187]
83 Samoa 2019–present 2019 Samoa measles outbreak Measles [188]
> 2,000 Asia-Pacific, Latin America 2019–present 2019-20 dengue fever epidemic Dengue fever [189][190][191]
> 52,863

(as of 3 April 2020)

Worldwide 2019–present 2019–20 coronavirus pandemic[192] COVID-19 / novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 [193][194]

[195]

See also

References

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