With the decline of the Armed Islamic Group of Algeria (GIA), the GSPC was left as the most active rebel group, with about 300 fighters in 2003. It continued an assassination campaign of police and army personnel in its area, and also managed to expand into the Sahara, where its southern division, led by Amari Saifi (nicknamed "Abderrezak el-Para", the "paratrooper"), kidnapped a number of German tourists in 2003, before being forced to flee to sparsely populated areas of Mali, and later Niger and Chad, where he was captured.
Some believe that el-Para actually works for the Algerian government. By late 2003, the group's founder had been supplanted by the even more radical Nabil Sahraoui, who announced his open support for al-Qaeda, thus strengthening government ties between the U.S. and Algeria. He was reportedly killed shortly afterwards, and was succeeded by Abu Musab Abdel Wadoud in 2004.
The conflict with the GSPC continued to result in a significant number of casualties in Algeria, with over 1,100 killed in clashes with Islamist rebels in 2002. In 2003, a total 1,162 were killed in clashes in Algeria, followed by 429 killed in 2004, 488 killed in 2005, and 323 killed in 2006. In early 2006, the head of the Algerian national police claimed that terrorism had nearly been eliminated in the country, but significant attacks continued, and 2007 would eventually mark a height of suicide bombings and terrorist attacks in Algeria.
Broadening of conflict
In order to improve recruiting and funding, the GSPC aligned itself with al-Qaeda, and on 11 September 2006, al-Qaeda leader Ayman al-Zawahiri announced a union between the groups. The GSPC rebranded itself as al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM) in January 2007, signaling the broadened aspirations of the group.
The group now aimed to overthrow all North African governments deemed apostate, including those of Algeria, Libya, Mali, Mauritania, Morocco and Tunisia. Operations were shifted into two broader "sectors", Northern Algeria and Tunisia allocated a "central emirate", and northern Mali, Niger, Mauritania and Libya a "Sahara emirate" led by Djamel Okacha. The strategic leadership of AQIM continued to be headquartered in the mountainous region of Kabylie east of the Algerian capital Algiers, headed by a 14-member Shura council leadership.
As the Algerian counterterrorism campaign became largely successful in pushing AQIM out of the country, the group established new bases in Sahel countries such as Niger, Mauritania, Chad and Mali. Attacks against government and military installations were frequently underreported by Western media. In 2007, the United States and United Kingdom launched the Operation Enduring Freedom – Trans Sahara in support of governments in the region.
In the earliest major attack as direct spillover of the Algerian conflict, the Mauritanian army base Lemgheity was attacked by the GSPC in June 2005, killing 17 soldiers (and nine jihadists), and wounding another 17. The attack in part led to a coup d'état in October 2005 by Mohamed Ould Abdel Aziz, who made a campaign against jihadists a major part of his rule. Attacks continued in Mauritania until it was largely successful in thwarting attacks since 2011 following a major military boost and political openings for Islamists. AQIM has however continued to remain active in the eastern border-regions with Mali, with active support systems for logistics and information. A lack of military resources, often due to turmoil and having little population in a very large country, caused Mauritania to rely on support from France, Morocco, and Algeria in order to defeat the AQIM.
Small pockets of armed Islamists have remained active in northern Mali, and attacks have continued against the UN peacekeeping mission MINUSMA, which has become one of the UN's deadliest international missions.
Boko Haram spillover
Having cooperated and trained alongside AQIM in the Sahel since 2006, the Nigerian Islamist group Boko Haram began expanding into Chad and Niger in 2014 after successfully seizing territory in the insurgency in Nigeria. By then controlling a significant area around Lake Chad, a coalition of Western African countries launched an offensive against the group in January 2015. The group eventually departed its alliance with al-Qaeda, pledging allegiance to ISIL in March 2015. By the end of 2015 Boko Haram had been largely pushed to retreat into the Sambisa Forest in Nigeria, although attacks have continued including in Niger.
Timeline of events
Algerian Civil War with the GIA is considered to have ended in February 2002, GSPC continues insurgency.
May 5, 2002 - 15 government soldiers are killed in an ambush near Tizi Ouzou, in the Kabylie region of northern Algeria. About 50 members of the Salafist Group for Preaching and Combat (GSPC) were blamed for the assault.
July 17, 2002 - Militants killed 7 civilians in Ouled Allal, Bouira Province. Bringing the death toll of the previous three days to 22.
September 13, 2002 - Militants killed 11 civilians on a road in Ain Defla Province, northern Algeria. The previous month, according to a toll compiled from press reports and official accounts, an estimated 140 people were killed in extremist violence, bringing the number of people who had been killed since the beginning of the year to 1,070.
September 19, 2002 - 15 people are reported to have been arrested in Kabylie under suspicion of providing money and logistical help to the GSPC.
October 2, 2002 - Militants killed 13 civilians in a remote village in Ain Defla Province, western Algeria.
January 6, 2003 - Militants ambushed a military convoy in north-east Algeria killing 43 soldiers and wounding 19 others. Also militants attacked families near the capital, Algiers, killing 13 people.
On May 13, 2003, 17 hostages are released and 2 militants are killed in a gun battle in the Algerian desert. The remaining fighters, with 15 hostages, flee to northern Mali. After receiving a purported €5 million ransom paid by the German government, the GSL/GSPC releases the 14 remaining hostages on August 19, 2003. The fifteenth hostage, a German, died of heat exhaustion.
September 2003 - Nabil Sahraoui was reported to have replaced Hassan Hattab as leader of the GSPC but other media reports have denied that any change has taken place.
November 27, 2003 - In Messad, Djelfa Province, Algeria, a well-known poet and member of the extended Royal Saudi family was killed and 4 others were injured in an apparent terrorist attack, according to press reports.
May 2, 2004 - It was reported that in the previous two days 7 members of the security forces, 6 civilians and 2 militants were killed in several locations: near Algiers and in the provinces of Medea, Bouira and Relizane.
May 18, 2004 - 2 bombs exploded, killing 2 soldiers and wounding 13 people, including 4 soldiers, in Setif in eastern Algeria.
June 2, 2004 - Fighters ambushed an Algerian military convoy in Béjaïa in eastern Algeria, killing 10 soldiers and wounding 45 others.
June 28, 2004 - The army killed three Islamic extremists in a raid near the capital, Algiers.
September 20, 2004 - Militants killed 4 people at a roadblock they set up near Kalous in Bouira Province.
September 29, 2004 - Militants attacked a civil defense post near the city of Ain Defla, killing 6 members of the civil defense force.
October 22, 2004 - Militants attacked a vehicle near Medea carrying fans to a football match in the capital Algiers killing 16 people.
April 9, 2005 - Militants killed 14 people at a mock roadblock near Algier. In addition another 36 people, including 15 security force members have been killed since the start of March.
May 15, 2005 - Fighters ambushed an army convoy in the region of Khenchela killing 12 soldiers.
June 13, 2005 - An explosive device kills 3 soldiers and 3 civilians west of Tipaza.
June 18, 2005 - An explosive device killed a policeman during a police raid in El-Djer.
June 23, 2005 - An explosive device kills 11 policeman on the road linking Azzefoune and Aghrib in the province of Tizi Ouzou.
July 18, 2005 - Islamist militants killed 5 policemen in an ambush in Ain Defla in western Algeria.
September 25, 2005 - Militants killed 5 members of the security forces. Three days before, 7 soldiers and 3 civilians were killed in two other attacks. Since the beginning of the month, another 16 soldiers, 12 civilians and 1 policeman were killed. The attacks took place in Boumerdes Province and close to Saida.
February 1, 2006 - The Algerian daily Liberté reports that spiritual leader Ahmed Abou al-Baraa (real name Ahmed Zarabib) has been killed by Algerian government forces in the mountains near Toudja on January 17.
March 30, 2006 -Hassan Hattab, a founder of the group, is reported to have called on its remaining members to accept an amnesty offered by the Algerian government.
April 7, 2006 - Fighters ambushed a government convoy in the desert region of Ghardaïa in Algeria carrying customs agents killing 31 people.
April 26, 2006 - A suicide bomber attacked the base of the Multinational Forces and Observers at al-Jura wounding two members of the force.
June 21, 2006 - The Algerian army killed 10 Islamists in Ghzerwal, near Boumerdes.
June 26, 2006 - The Algerian army killed 19 Islamists in the eastern region of Khenchela, bring the number of people killed since the start of the latest unrest in Algeria to 53, including 36 suspected Islamists. Among the dead were also 7 soldiers killed on June 21 and 5 civilians killed on June 20.
July 20, 2006 - Fighters killed 4 government municipal guards near Ain Defla. The attack followed a similar one on July 12 when 5 guards were killed near Tipaza.
August 29, 2006 - Fighters attacked a checkpoint in El-Kseur in Béjaïa Province, killing 2 policemen and 1 civilian.
September 14, 2006 -al-Qaeda announced it will join the GSPC in their fight against France. They plan to attack France, the United States, and their allies.
September 2, 2006 - In separate clashes 6 soldiers were killed in the regions of Béjaïa and Medea.
October 2006 - A series of truck bombs exploded in Algiers killing 3 and wounding 24.
November 3, 2006 - 15 militants ambushed an army patrol in the Ain Defla region killing 8 soldiers.
November 9, 2006 - Militants ambushed an army patrol in the Bouira region killing 7 soldiers and wounding 13.
November 28, 2006 - 10 militants were killed in clashes in remote mountainous regions and also a week before a military helicopter was shot down by the Islamists killing 3 soldiers and 2 local guards.
December 10, 2006 - A bomb tore apart a bus carrying foreign oil workers in Algiers, killing 4 and wounding 18.
May 14, 2007 - 20 militants were killed in clashes near the capital.
July 11, 2007 - A suicide truck bomber attacked a military barracks near Bouira, killing 10 soldiers and wounding 45.
September 3, 2007 - During clashes in the Tebessa region 5 security forces members and a civilian were killed.
September 5, 2007 - 7 militants were killed when the army bombed a suspected militant hideout in the Tebessa region.
September 12, 2007 - A US C-130 plane was attacked by a machine gun emplacement. The plane reached its destination in Mali and nobody was injured. Since the beginning of OEF-TS, 100 AQIM members have been killed by security forces with 261 noncombat fatalities.
September 15, 2007 - A bomb exploded in front of a police compound in Zemmouri, near Boumerdes, killing 3 people and wounding 5 others.
September 22, 2007 - A suicide bomber wounded 9 people, including 2 Frenchmen and an Italian, in an attack in Lakhdaria, in the Bouira Province.
October 9, 2007 - In clashes in Kabylie 3 militants, including the GSPC deputy leader, were killed.
October 15, 2007 - In fighting in the Tizi Ouzou province 3 militants were killed.
November 16, 2007 - Algerian forces killed the treasurer of al-Qaeda in Algeria, Abdelhamid Sadaoui, also known as Abou el Haythem, near Tizi Ouzou.
Al Qaeda's wing in north Africa claimed to have killed 120 Algerian soldiers and wounded 530 in clashes in its eastern stronghold, where the army has launched a campaign against the rebels. In an Internet statement posted on March 8, 2008, the group denied a newspaper report that 25 of its fighters had been killed and played down reports its leader had been surrounded.
June 6, 2008 - A roadside bomb killed six soldiers and wounded four in Cap Djenat. The bombing came a day after a suicide bomber targeted a military barracks in an eastern Algiers suburb but killed only himself.
June 8, 2008 -2 bombs in quick succession rocked a train station in Beni Amrane, about 60 miles east of Algiers. The first bomb killed a Frenchman working on a renovation project at the station along with his driver. The second bomb came about five minutes later hitting the first responders and killing 8 soldiers and 3 firefighters.
June 11, 2008 - A Moroccan court convicted a cell of 29 recruiters and sentenced them to prison.
July 2, 2008 - Moroccan forces arrested 35 Al Qaeda recruiters.
July 14, 2008 - A leader of Al-Qaida in Algeria was killed in a security forces raid.
August 20, 2008 - 2 car bombs exploded at a hotel in Bouira killing 11 civilians a day after the car bomb attack in Les Issers.
September 15, 2008 - 12 Mauritanians were captured and later beheaded in northern Mauritania.
January 19, 2009 - The bubonic plague infected and killed at least 40 members of AQIM in a training camp.
January 22, 2009 - Gunmen abducted a Swiss couple, a German woman, and a British man in Niger. In February, Al-Qaeda in the Maghreb claimed to have abducted the four tourists as well as Canadian diplomat Robert Fowler in December. Fowler and three others were released in April while the British man, Edwin Dyer, was executed in June.
February 22, 2009 - Militants attack a gas installation at the Ziama Mansouriah commune in the coastal province of Jijel, killing 9 security guards in the deadliest strike since August.
June 17, 2009 - 18 gendarmerie troops and a civilian were killed in an attack on a military convoy near Bordj Bou Arréridj, about 125 miles southeast of Algiers. Local sources said that the soldiers were returning after escorting to base a group of Chinese workers building the future motorway intended to cross the whole of the north African country from east to west.
July 30, 2009 - At least 14 Algerian security guards were killed in an ambush by alleged Islamic fighters.
October 8, 2009 - 2 brothers suspected of links to AQIM were arrested in France. One of the two was a CERN researcher.
November 26, 2009 - Frenchman Pierre Camatte was kidnapped in Ménaka, Mali by al-Qaeda.
November 29, 2009 - Spanish aid workers Roque Pascual, Albert Vilalta, and Alicia Gamez were kidnapped on a coastal road in Mauritania. Gamez was released in March 2010, while Pascual and Vilalta was released in August 2010.
December 19, 2009 - An Italian and his wife from Burkina Faso were kidnapped in eastern Mauritania. They were released on April 19, 2010.
December 28, 2009 - 3 Saudi tourists were killed and 3 others injured in an attack near Djambala, Niger. A fourth Saudi died two days later.
January 29, 2010 - A bomb exploded at the passage of a freight train loan Timezrit. Nobody was injured.
March 8, 2010 - At least 5 soldiers were killed close to Niger's border with Mali, in a sunrise ambush in which rebels attacked a convoy with rockets and machine gun fire at an isolated border post.
March 21, 2010 - 3 militants were killed by security forces near El Ma Labiod, 35 km from Tebessa.
March 25, 2010 - 2 soldiers were killed and five others wounded in an attack in the city of Kadiria.
March 26, 2010 - 3 militants were killed while another was captured by security forces in Ait Yahia Moussa, 30 km from Tizi Ouzou.
April 1, 2010 - A bomb attack against a taxi killed 2 people in Tizi-Ouzou. Another attack against a police patrol resulted in no injuries.
April 3, 2010 - 7 security officers and a soldier were killed in a double bomb attack in the region of Béjaïa. 2 other soldiers were wounded in the second explosion.
April 14, 2010 - According to Algerian officials, at least 10 militants were killed since a counter-terrorist operation started in Bordj Bou Arreridj raion. The operation is ongoing. Top militant Abdelmalek Droukdel could be surrounded with other militants, a military spokesman said.
April 23, 2010 - At least 9 policemen were killed and another was slightly wounded when a bomb exploded in Irraguern (between Béjaïa and Jijel) while they were passing by. No other details have been reported.
April 28, 2010 - A fierce gunbattle between Algerian army and a group of militants occurred near Tidjellabine (2 km from Boumerdes). It is known that one soldier was killed, but the counter-terrorist operation was still going on according to Algerian officials.
May 2, 2010 - One militant was killed in a clash with Algerian forces in a forest between Akfadou and Adekar. "He was wearing an old military jacket (...) he was killed on the spot" a military spokesman said. "The counter-terrorist operation is still going on" he added. This heavily forested area is often the scene of clashes between militants from Al Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM, former GSPC) and Algerian army.
May 4, 2010 - 3 militants, including the emir of "Takhoukht Jamaat" Zakaria Abdelkahar, were killed by security forces in Draa El Mizen (45 km from Tizi-Ouzou). It was reported that the authorities demanded them to stop their car and to surrender, but they refused and were killed. Several weapons and a large amount of ammunition were discovered in the car. No other details have been reported.
May 9, 2010 - 2 people including a child were killed in an ambush in Kabylie. Another person is missing.
June 7, 2010 - 2 people were killed and a third critically injured in a bomb attack near Derguina.
June 11, 2010 - A suicide car bomb directed by a suicide bomber against a fixed barrier of the gendarmerie in Ammal resulted in 8 dead, including 3 policemen, four civilians and a Chinese national. Thus a score of wounded including 10 policemen and 10 civilians. At least three terrorists were killed during the violent clash that occurred after the blast.
June 24, 2010 - 5 people were killed and one wounded by gunfire during a wedding at douar Ghrab near Tébessa.
July 1, 2010 - 11 policemen were killed in an ambush in the city of Tinzaouatine. This attack was claimed by AQIM.
July 4, 2010 - 3 policemen killed by a bomb on a road near Jijel by suspected Islamists.
July 14, 2010 - 4 soldiers were killed and 13 others wounded in several bomb attacks.
July 25, 2010 - Six militants were killed in a Franco-Mauritanian raid against a camp of Al-qaeda in Mali to try to free the hostage Michel Germaneau. At the same time one person was killed and 10 wounded in a suicide attack against a police brigade in Tizi-Ouzou, Algeria.
July 26, 2010 - A few days after AQIM claimed he was executed in reprisal against the French-Mauritanian raid, the French president confirms the death of 78-year-old French volunteer aid worker Michel Germaneau, who had been kidnapped on April 21. It cannot be ruled out that he died as a result of running out of heart drugs.
August 7, 2010 - The mayor of the town of Baghlia, Mohammed Idir, was murdered when he went to the mosque.
August 20, 2010 - An attack against a military convoy near Baghlia killed 13 people and injured at least two.
August 22, 2010 - a former terrorist was assassinated by bullets in the town of Baghlia in Algeria.
August 24, 2010 - An attempted suicide attack wounded 7 in Mauritania. The bomber's vehicle exploded before reaching its target, a military barracks in Néma.
August 30, 2010 - A suicide car bomb against a military convoy left 3 dead and at least 20 wounded in the town of Zemmouri in Kabylie.
September 16, 2010 - Gunmen abduct five Frenchmen, a Togolese, and a Malagasy from a uranium mine in northern Niger.
September 18, 2010 - A battle between Mauritanian army and members of Al-Qaeda killed at least 6 members of the army and 12 militants.
October 3, 2010 - Five soldiers were killed and ten others injured in a bomb attack against their convoy in Zekri, a town of Kabylie, during a search operation.
October 12, 2010 - A departmental head in public works, his two collaborators and two contractors were killed in a bomb attack in Tlidjene.
October 25, 2010 - 1 soldier was killed and four others wounded by a bomb explosion in the passage their patrol in the Boumerdes region.
January 4, 2011 - An attack against the embassy of France in Mali's capital Bamako resulting in 1 injuries. This is the first such attack on Malian territory.
January 7, 2011 - Two French citizens were kidnapped in Niamey, Niger and died in Mali while French troops were attempting to rescue them.AQIM declared on 15 January that it had executed one of them while the other one was killed by the French military. A post-mortem examination established that one of them received a direct shot, while the other one was killed by the "thermal effects of fire".
January 29, 2011 - A member of the municipal guard was killed and three others wounded in an attack against the headquarters of the communal guard in the southwest of Tizi Ouzou.
February 3, 2011 - The Mauritanian army has detonated a vehicle filled with explosives 12 km south of Nouakchott killing its three passengers and wounding eight soldiers. The attack was to assassinate the President of Mauritania Mohamed Ould Abdel Aziz. That attack was claimed by AQIM.
March 9, 2011 - An attack near Djelfa left 5 dead, in what appeared to be a response to the death of Abou Tourab, a leader of AQIM.
April 17, 2011 - 20 Algerian soldiers were killed and twenty-two injured in three attacks claimed by Al Qaeda. Eleven militants were also killed.
April 28, 2011 -2011 Marrakech bombing. A remote controlled bomb explode in Argana café, on Jemaa el-Fnaa square. Amongst the dead are 7 French national, 2 Canadians and a Dutch.
April 29, 2011 - The explosion of a bomb in the town of Oued Djemaa has killed five communal guards who went to their place of work.
May 6, 2011 - A bomb that exploded at the passage of a military convoy killed five soldiers and wounded five other in a region of Jijel. Since April 15 and the address to the nation of Abdelaziz Bouteflika there were fifty deaths in Islamist attacks.
May' 4, 2011 - Four policemen were killed in a bomb attack on the road between Tizi-Ouzou, the main town of Kabylie, in Algiers the capital of the country.
May 6, 2011 - Three soldiers were killed and two others wounded by gunmen in the region of Jijel. One was initially killed by firing a gun, the others were killed by a bomb attack.
May 12, 2011 - Seven soldiers were killed and three terrorists killed in an attack against a military outpost in the region of Jijel, Algeria. An eighth member is missing and two were wounded in the attack with machine guns and Assault rifles, perpetrated in Tizrarane.
July 5, 2011 - Al-Qaida claims to have attacked a Mauritanian army base in Mali claiming to have killed 20 soldiers and destroyed 12 vehicles. they also say he lost two of their men. The Mauritanian army for its part says it killed 15 militants and lost two men.
July 16, 2011 - Four people were killed and twenty injured in attacks, including two attacks by suicide bombers in the east of Algiers. In addition near the Tunisian border, two gunmen were killed.
August 14, 2011 - A suicide bombing against a police station injured more than 30 in the city of Tizi Ouzou, Similarly, two people were killed in a double bomb attack targeting a police station in Bordj Menaiel.
August 17, 2011 - A soldier was killed and five injured in a bomb attack in the town of Thenia.
August 22, 2011 - A soldier was killed and two others wounded in the explosion of a roadside bomb in Taourga. In addition, two officers from the Hasnaoui were murdered and a young civilian was hit by bullets.
August 24, 2011 - One militant was wounded and policemen recovered two Kalashnikovs in a clash near Tizi-Ouzou.
August 27, 2011 - A suicide attack against the Military Academy Cherchell, a hundred kilometers west of Algiers, killed 18 people, 16 officers and two civilians and wounded 20 others. The attack occurred less than ten minutes after breaking the fast of Ramadan.
September 27, 2011 - 5 men suspected of funding AQIM were arrested by Spanish police. Since 2004, over 400 suspected AQIM members have been arrested by Spain.
October 23, 2011 - Two Spaniards and an Italian were abducted near Tindouf in western Algeria. The Spaniards were identified as Ainhoa Fernandez de Rincon, a pro-Sahrawi activist, and Enric Gonyalons, a member of the Basque non-profit group Mundubat. The Italian was named as Rossella Urru from Rome-based Comitato Italiano Sviluppo dei Popoli. The three were freed on July 18, 2012.
November 23, 2011 - Gunmen kidnapped two French workers in Hombori, Mali.
November 25, 2011 - Gunmen killed a German tourist and kidnapped a Swede, a Dutchman and a British/South African in Timbuktu, Mali.
September 22, 2014 -Jund al-Khilafah releases a video showing Hervé Gourdel being held captive. The group stated that the kidnapping was in response to France conducting Airstrikes against "Islamic State" and threatened to behead him if France continued to carry out airstrikes against ISIL.
September 24, 2014 - The group releases a video purporting to show the beheading of Hervé Gourdel. The militants shown stated that the beheading was in response to the order of ISIL spokesman Abu Mohammed al-Adnani, in which he called on followers to attack citizens of member nations of the anti-ISIL coalition.
October, 2014 - One of the Jund al-Khilafah militants responsible for the beheading of Hervé Gourdel was killed in an Algerian military operation in October.
December 11, 2014 - The Algerian justice ministry states that Algerian soldiers had killed two Jund al-Khilafah members believed to have been involved in the murder of Hervé Gourdel.
December 11, 2014 - French troops in Mali killed top Islamist commander Ahmed al Tilemsi. Tilemsi was a founding member of Movement for Unity and Jihad in West Africa (MUJWA) and held a $5 million bounty. 2014: Jund al-Khilafah Ambushes Algerian army convoy, killing 11 Algerian soldiers.
December 20, 2014 - Algerian soldiers kill three Jund al-Khilafah members in the mountains near Sidi Daoud.
December 22, 2014 - Jund al-Khilafah leader Abdelmalek Gouri and two other militants were killed by the Algerian army in a military operation in Issers. Afterwards, troops recovered two automatic rifles, explosive belts, and a large amount of ammunition and mobile phones.
January 4, 2016 - 7 Libyan guardans were killed and 25 wounded at the oil port of Es Sider.
January 7, 2016 - 47 - 70 People are killed and dozens more injured when explosions were set off at a Libyan Coast Guard training camp in the city of Zliten.
January 15, 2016 - Gunmen armed with heavy weapons attacked the Cappuccino restaurant and the Splendid Hotel in the heart of Ouagadougou, the capital of Burkina Faso. The number of fatalities reached 30, while at least 56 were wounded; a total of 176 hostages were released after a government counter-attack into the next morning as the siege ended. Three perpetrators were also killed. The nearby YIBI hotel was then under siege, where another attacker was killed. Notably, former Swiss MPs Jean-Noël Rey and Georgie Lamon were killed. Responsibility for the attack was claimed by Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM) and Al-Mourabitoun.
February 5, 2016 - UN base in Mali attacked by unknown Islamists.
February 11, 2016 - Suspected Islamist militants killed two civilians and a customs officer and burned a car in an attack on a customs post in Mopti, central Mali.
February 12, 2016 - Five UN peacekeepers killed in Kidal, Mali and over at least 30 wounded, from an insurgent attack.
February 20, 2016 - Jund al-Khilafah claimed to have killed three Algerian soldiers in Mount Shakshut in Bouira in late February. This claim was denied by the Algerian government.
February 23, 2016 - Gunmen attacked a checkpoint southwest of the Malian town of Timbuktu overnight killing three soldiers and wounding two others.
March 1, 2016 - Its reported that France special forces conducted two separated raids killing a Spanish AQIM commander, Abu al Nour al Andalusi, and two fighters of Al-Mourabitoun.
March 6, 2016 -Ansar Dine claims four attacks across Mali, detonating three UN vehicles in Kidal, Tesslitnear, Aguelhok and an attack on a UN camp in Kidal with rockets, meanwhile defense ministers from West Africa's arid Sahel region have agreed to work together to establish special rapid reaction forces to counter the growing threat from al Qaeda and Islamic State-linked militants.
March 7, 2016 - Morocco's Interior Ministry says it has dismantled a five-member ISIS group cell planning to detonate explosives in crowded public spaces. Also 43 militants, one soldier and four citizens they killed and six militants arrested after ISIL in Libya Jihadists attacked a border town in Libya-Tunisia border.
March 9, 2016 - 10 militants and 1 soldier killed in the ongoing raid of Libyan-Tunisian border. Also, the African Union confirmed that will send a mission to northern Mali in the next of the months to look into setting up a counter-terrorism force to support vulnerable U.N. peacekeepers.
March 10, 2016 - Warring Tuareg clans in northern Mali have agreed to cease hostilities after tit-for-tat violence killed dozens of people from the start of the year. Also three ISIL fighters are killed in Libya-Tunisia border during ongoing classes.
March 15, 2016 - AQIM branch said its attack in the Ivory Coast on March 13 that killed 18 people was revenge for the France Operation Barkhane against Islamist militants in the Sahel region and called for its forces to withdraw. Also, Ivory Coast has raised its security alert to the highest level and President Alassane Ouattara has pledged that the country would not be "intimidated by terrorists" following the attack of March 13 that killed 18 people.
March 16, 2016 - France government said it will deploy a paramilitary police force in the capital of Burkina Faso to react quickly in the event of new attacks by Islamist militants in West Africa, after the Ivory Coast attack by AQIM.
March 18, 2016 - A gas facility in the Algerian desert has been attacked by AQIM, though no one was hurt, Norwegian oil giant Statoil has said.
March 19, 2016 - Three policemen were shot dead by AQIM soldiers in a Niger village near the border with Burkina Faso. One soldier was killed and two others wounded when a military convoy was attacked close to Nigeria's border by Boko Haram fighters.
March 22, 2016 - AQIM attacked a European union military training mission's headquarters in the Malian capital, Bamako, with left an insurgent dead. On the same day, the Ivory Coast arrested the suspected leader and other 15 militants of the AQIM group that conducted the beach attacks of March 13. The man is named Kounta Dallah.
March 23, 2016 - 21 AQIM suspects captured by the Mali police, in respond fir their attack in an EU base in Bamako.
March 24, 2016 - Morocco captured 9 ISIL in Libya operatives inside the Moroccan territory.
March 27, 2016 - Two AQIM fighters arrested in Mali over Ivory Coast resort attack.
March 28, 2016 - 18 Algerian soldiers killed in an airplane crush in the Tamanrasset region. Is unknown if the crush was because of terrorist attack or of technical mistake.
March 31, 2016 - AQIM in Tunisia, has claimed an attack on Tunisian border guards near the town of Bouchebka on the Algerian border, wounding some soldiers. A Mali intelligence spokesman says special forces have arrested a jihadi leader close to Islamic extremist group Ansar Dine in southern Mali.
April 5, 2016 - 4 AQIM soldiers killed in Algeria near the Tunisian border.
April 9, 2016 - Ansar Dine claimed two bombings on the Aguelhok-Tessalit axis just north of the city of Kidal.
April 10, 2016 - gunmen ambushed a Malian military patrol outside of Timbuktu near the town of Gourma injuring three soldiers.
April 12, 2016 - Three France soldiers killed by an IED in northern Mali. Also 2 another Malian soldiers, and one Chadian killed by land mines.
April 18, 2016 - Spanish police said they had detained a Moroccan man in the Mediterranean island resort of Palma de Mallorca suspected of recruiting militants for ISIS.
April 22, 2016 - Mali police captured the AQIM mastermind of the terrorist attacks of November 2015 in Radisson blu hotel in Bamako. The man identified as a Mauritanian by the name of Fawaz Ould Ahmeida.
April 29, 2016 - Algerian government said that it killed five AQIM fighters in two separate raid in eastern Algeria.
May 6, 2016 - Tunisian forces capture 9 AQIM militants in the Tunisian countryside.
May 11, 2016 - Two suspected ISIL members killed along with four Tunisian soldiers after a raid on Tunisian capital.
July 31, 2016 - In Timbuktu, northern Mali, a captain of the Malian army was killed by four AQIM members
August 29, 2016 - In Atlas Mountains nearby Algeria 3 Tunisian soldiers were killed and 7 others wounded by AQIM militants
September 2, 2016 - In Markoye, Burkina Faso killed ISIS members 1 border guard and a civilian.
September 9, 2016 - 3 Malian troops were killed after suspected AQIM fighters ambushed them in the centre of the country.
September 26, 2016 - In Timbuktu, Mali a Mali Military gard and his cousin were killed in their house by terrorists.
October 3, 2016 - One Blue helmets was killed and several others wounded in an attack on their base in Aguelhok, Mali.
October 6, 2016 - The Malian refugee camp Tazalit in the Tasara region was attack by forty assailants, presumably AQIM,.Twenty people were killed (all site security forces). One refugee was injured.
October 9, 2016 - One of the main Tuareg leaders of Mali, Cheikh Ag Awssa, military head of the High Council of Azawad (HCUA, French acronym), died Saturday when the vehicle he was traveling with his son stepped on a mine, reported today the Coordinator movements of Azawad (CMA).
October 9, 2016 - In Tamalous, AlgeriaISIS militants detonated an explosive device adjacent to the army convoy as it passed near Tamalous town in northeastern Algeria. It was not immediately clear whether the explosion caused any casualties.
October 12, 2016 - Burkina Faso's defense ministry says heavily armed assailants have attacked a military position in the north near the Mali border, killing three soldiers and wounding another.ISIS claims responsibility for the attack.
October 14, 2016 - An American aid worker has been kidnapped in a town northeast of Niger's capital Niamey, before being taken by his abductors to Mali, according to a security source.Armed men raided the house of the aid worker on Friday, killing his two guards before driving him off across the desert, the mayor of the town of Abalak said on Saturday.
October 28, 2016 - A police officer was killed by three assailants while eating in a restaurant in the Constantine District in Constantine Province, around 240 miles east of Algiers. Islamic State claims responsibility for the attack.
November 3, 2016 - A peacekeeper was killed and five others were injured when militants attacked a military base. After the shooting, a bomb exploded, killing one soldier and injuring dozens more. AQIM claims the attack.
November 4, 2016 -
A Chadian peacekeeper was killed and eight others were injured, in a terrorist attack AQIM claims the attack
A French soldier was killed and four others injured after that their truck exploded because of a land mine in the north of Kidal Ansar Dine claims the attack.
An Al-Qaeda-linked group has released a video showing the purported execution of two Malians accused of collaborating with French counter-terrorism forces in Mali.
November 6, 2016 -
A convoy of MINUSMA was attacked in the center of the country, about 25 kilometers north of the town of Douentza. The convoy hit a mine or an IED and the assailants are then out of hiding by opening fire. One peacekeeper died, seven others were wounded. Ansar Dine claims the attack
A Togolese peacekeeper was killed along with two civilians when the convoy was attacked in Gourma, Mali. AQIM claims the attack.
Militants raided in a prison and freeing 21 prisoners. They also kidnapped a guard in Banamba, Mali. Ansar Dine claims the attack
November 11–12, 2016 - In Gao, Mali have one of the positions of the Malian army was targeted by terrorists on motorcycle. Two soldiers were injured. Al-Mourabitoun claims the attack.
November 13, 2016 -
Militants attacked a military checkpoint, in Gao, Mali killing one soldier and injuring other two.
Two people were killed in two attacks in Djibo.
December 2, 2016 - Several women committed suicide bombings that killed four Libyan soldiers and two other women. The victims had previously granted them safe passage to leave buildings under the control of Islamic State militants in Sirte, Libya.
December 5, 2016 - Terrorists launched two suicide vehicles towards army lines. 9 soldiers were killed in Benghazi, Libya .
December 6, 2016 -Al-Qaeda militants attacked a prison in Niono, Mali. Two guards were injured. Dozens of prisoners have escaped.
December 7, 2016 - Terrorists launched a "double-tap" car bombing outside the Benghazi headquarters of Saiqa Special Force. The two blasts appear to have killed nobody outright but left 22 people injured.
December 16, 2016 -2016 Nassoumbou attack: Several dozen heavily armed gunmen attacked an army outpost near the border with Mali, leaving at least 12 soldiers dead and 2 others missing.
December 18, 2016 - At least seven people were killed and eight wounded when a suicide bomber targeted forces loyal to Libya's eastern government in Benghazi.
December 22, 2016 - Six gunmen on motorcycles attacked Saye's military soldier and shot the gendarmes on the scene, one soldier was killed and several were wounded.
December 24, 2016 - A Frenchwoman was abducted in the city of Gao.
January 20, 2017 - A car bomb exploded on Friday near a mosque in Libya's second city of Benghazi, killing one person and wounding 13 people including a former interior minister, medical and security sources said.
January 21, 2017 - A car bomb exploded in Tripoli. The blast, which left at least two people dead, struck near the recently re-opened Italian embassy.
January 24, 2017 - A peacekeeper in Mali was killed and two other peacekeepers were injured in mortar fire in Aguelhok. Al-Qaeda is suspected for the attack.
January 30, 2017 - Two civilians were injured in a terrorist attack in Madougou, Mali.
February 4, 2017 - Four soldiers were killed and eight others were injured in a terrorist attack.
February 5, 2017- Four Chadian soldiers were killed in a bomb attack.
February 26, 2017 - Police killed a suicide bomber heading for their commissariat. The explosion of the explosive belt caused two wounded.
February 27, 2017 - Two police stations in Tongomayel and Baraboulé were attacked overnight by suspected jihadists. The Ansar ul Islam militant group, which has links to the Ansar Dine extremist movement in Mali, said it staged the attacks.
March 3, 2017 - Ansar ul Islam militants on motorbikes killed two people including a school director.
March 5, 2017 - Eleven soldiers were killed and four others were injured in an attack on a position of the Malian Army close to the border with Burkina Faso.
March 6, 2017 - At least five Nigerian gendarmes were killed in the night during a likely terrorist attack in the Tillabéri Region.
March 11, 2017 - The muezzin of a mosque was found butchered by a suspected jihadist.
March 12, 2017- A police officer and two militants were killed in a shootout at a checkpoint in southern Tunisia that left three other officers injured.
March 13, 2017 - Two Malian soldiers and two Malian civilians were killed in a shooting attack.
April 6, 2017 - A French soldier was killed in the Sahel region, Mali after a clash with armed militants.
April 9, 2017- Five people were killed in an attack carried out by militants in Gargando, Mali.
April 18, 2017 -
Two soldiers and one civilian were injured during an attack against their UN convoy.
Four Malian soldiers were killed when terrorists attacked their base. Sixteen other soldiers were also injured.
May 3, 2017 - 3 rockets struck the MINUSMA Super Camp at Timbuktu Airport around leaving 1 peacekeeper dead and 9 wounded.
May 7, 2017 - Two fighters from Third Force were killed and three others were wounded in an IS attack.
May 14, 2017 - In Mali four members of the Red Cross have been abducted. The local helpers were on the road in Ténenkou in the central region of Mopti on Sunday to assess the humanitarian situation there.
May 19, 2017 - The head of eastern Libya's largest tribe and other man were killed on Friday when a car bomb exploded outside a mosque on the outskirts of Benghazi, according to a Libyan security official.
May 23, 2017 - Two peacekeepers of the United Nations Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in Mali (MINUSMA) were killed and another injured on Tuesday morning in an ambush in the northern Kidal region.
December 6, 2017 - US and Nigerian forces kill 11 ISGS militants in a firefight.
January 20, 2018 - A Tunisian special operations unit ambushed and killed two commanders of Okba Ibn Nafaa, AQIM's Tunisia branch, in the mountains outside Sbeitla, near the Algerian border. Tunisian authorities identified the men as Bilel Kobbi and Bechir Ben Neji.
January 26, 2018- Algerian special forces killed eight AQIM commanders in the rugged mountainous area of Chechar in the eastern region of Khenchela. The men were said to have been en route to meet other jihadist leaders, including AQIM leader Abdelmalek Droukdel.
January 27, 2018 - At least 14 Malian soldiers have been killed and 18 others wounded in an AQIM attack during which fighters briefly took control of a military camp in Soumpi, Timbuktu region. They retreated later. Two terrorists were also killed.
May 16, 2019 - 28 Nigerian soldiers are ambushed and killed while patrolling near the Mali border.
July 1, 2019 - At least 18 soldiers were killed and another four were missing in action when two suicide car bombers attacked a Nigerien army outpost around the town of Inates before attempting to storm the camp. The Islamic State in the Greater Sahara is suspected of responsibility. Niger's capital Niamey is expected to host the African Union summit on July 7 and 8.
July 11, 2019 - Ten UN peacekeepers were wounded by a roadside mine near Kidal, northern Mali.
July 22, 2019 - Six Estonians and "around the same number" of French soldiers were wounded when suicide bombers struck a French military base in Gao.
August 21, 2019 - Twenty-four soldiers of Burkina Faso's army were killed in an attack on a military base in the country's north. Five soldiers were ambushed and killed by militants in central Mali, near the towns of Hombori and Boni.
August 29, 2019 - Three soldiers were killed and another seven wounded in Koro, Mali, after being attacked by militants. At least one attacker was killed.
September 3, 2019 - A bomb planted in a bus exploded in Mopti, Mali, killing 20 civilians and wounding 15 more.
September 8, 2019 - A food convoy and a transport truck were attacked by militants in two different incidents in northern Burkina Faso, killing at least 29 people in total.
September 9, 2019 - Six Burkinabe police officers were ambushed and killed by suspected jihadists in Soum Province.
September 19, 2019 - Five soldiers were killed and two were wounded in an overnight attack by unknown gunmen against a military patrol.
September 23, 2019 - Nine people were killed after terrorists opened fire on a group of people in two locations near Bourzanga.
September 25, 2019 - Six civilians were shot dead after armed militants stormed three villages in the city of Zimtenga.
September 28, 2019 - Nine people were killed after terrorists stormed the village of Komsilga, while seven others were killed during another attack in Deneon. Later, a soldier was shot dead.
September 30, 2019 - Attacks on two military posts in Mopti Region, Mali, left 38 soldiers dead and more than 60 others missing, while the posts themselves were destroyed. The attack was one of the worst to hit Mali's military in years. At least 15 militants were reportedly killed in the attack.
October 1, 2019 - Six civilians were killed by militants in a camp for displaced people in Kangro, Burkina Faso.
October 4, 2019 - Dolmane gold mine attack - About 20 people were killed in Soum, Burkina Faso, when militants attacked a gold mining site. Meanwhile, it was estimated that the surge of Islamist violence in Burkina Faso forced more than 300,000 people to flee the north of the country, while 2,000 schools were closed.
October 6, 2019 - A roadside bomb exploded as a vehicle containing UN peacekeepers passed by, killing one of the peacekeepers and inuring four others. The bombing occurred in Aguelhok in northern Mali. A soldier was shot and wounded in a related incident.
October 7, 2019 - Militants clashed with the Nigerien military in a valley in Dogondoutchi, leaving two soldiers dead and five more wounded.
October 11, 2019 - Burkina Faso mosque attack - Armed men assaulted the Grand Mosque in Salmossi, northern Burkina Faso, killing 16 people and critically injuring two more.
October 14, 2019 - An Islamist stabbed to death a French tourist while wounding a Tunisian soldier in Bizerte, Tunisia.
October 19, 2019 - Simultaneous attacks in northern Burkina Faso (in Loroum Province and Yatenga Province) left four soldiers and a police officer dead while another 11 soldiers were wounded.
October 20, 2019 - A leader of AQIM's Tunisian branch Okba Ibn Nafa'a was killed in the Kasserine region of Tunisia, on the border with Algeria.
October 28, 2019 - Pobé Mengao shooting - Militants killed 16 civilians in Pobe Mengao, Burkina Faso, when the civilians refused to supply the armed Islamists with ammunition.
November 1, 2019 - 2019 Indelimane attack - An attack on a Malian army base in Indelimane, in the country's north and near the border with Niger, left 53 soldiers and a civilian dead. The Islamic State in the Greater Sahara claimed responsibility for the attack, the worst in years.
November 2, 2019 - The Islamic State in the Greater Sahara claimed responsibility for the death in Mali of a French soldier whose vehicle passed by an IED, which exploded. France confirmed the death.
November 4, 2019 - An MP and deputy mayor was killed in Burkina Faso's Sahel Region by a roadside IED. Two others in his vehicle also died, while a fourth survived.
November 6, 2019 - At least 37 people were killed and 60 more injured when militants attacked a gold mining convoy in Burkina Faso's Est Region. Although previous attacks in Burkina Faso were blamed on Al Qaeda groups, this attack bore the hallmarks of the Islamic State.
November 18, 2019 - At least 30 Malian soldiers were killed and 23 more wounded when they were attacked by militants in the Gao region. The Malian military claimed at least 17 militants were also killed.
November 22, 2019 - The bodies of 13 more Malian soldiers were found after the November 18 attack, which was claimed by the Islamic State in the Greater Sahara. The bodies were found in Tabankort and Infokaritene.
November 25, 2019 - Thirteen French soldiers were killed when two helicopters collided with each other in the middle of an operation against militants in northern Mali. The accident was the worst loss for a European country in the Sahel since the beginning of anti-terrorism operations in 2013.
December 9, 2019 - Three soldiers and 14 militants were killed when insurgents attacked an army post in Agando, in western Tahoua, Niger.
December 10, 2019 - At least 71 soldiers were killed, 30 more were missing, and at least 12 were wounded when militants staged a massive attack on a military base in Inates, near the border with Mali. The attack was the deadliest single incident Niger's military has ever experienced.
December 21, 2019 - French President Emmanuel Macron announced that 33 militants were "neutralized" in a French military operation in central Mali, while also releasing two Malian gendarmes held hostage in Mopti. A militant was also arrested by the French soldiers.
December 23, 2019 - France said it killed seven insurgents in Mopti, Mali, in its first-ever drone strike.
December 24, 2019 - Insurgents killed seven soldiers and 35 people, mostly women, during a raid on a military outpost in Soum Province, Burkina Faso. The authorities claimed at least 80 militants were killed in the raid. Prior to the attack, Burkina security forces said they had killed about 100 fighters in several operations since November.
December 25, 2019 - Eleven soldiers were killed when they were ambushed by militants in Hallele, Soum Province, Burkina Faso. At least five of the insurgents were also killed. Meanwhile, in southwest Niger, 14 security personnel were killed and another was missing after their convoy was attacked by gunmen in Sanam.
January 4, 2020 - Fourteen civilians were killed and four more were seriously injured when a roadside bomb exploded near their bus in Sourou Province, Burkina Faso. Many of the casualties were children returning from holidays.
January 6, 2020 - Five soldiers were killed in a roadside bomb attack in the Alatona region of Mali.
January 9, 2020 - At least 25 soldiers were killed when a large group of militants stormed a military base in Chinegodrar, Tillaberi, Niger. The Defense Ministry of Niger said more than 63 "terrorists" were killed during the battle. Meanwhile, a rocket attack on a base in Kidal region, Mali, wounded 20 people, including 18 UN peacekeepers.
January 11, 2020 - The number of soldiers killed in the Chinegodrar attack in Niger two days ago rose to 89 from 25. The number of militants killed also rose to 77 from 63.
January 20, 2020 - Insurgents killed 36 civilians during an attack on villages in Sanmatenga Province, northern Burkina Faso.
January 21, 2020 - Two soldiers were killed by an IED in Mopti, Mali.
January 23, 2020 - At least six soldiers were killed by militants in Dioungani, Mali.
January 25, 2020 - Insurgents killed 39 civilians in Soum Province, northern Burkina Faso.
January 26, 2020 - At least 20 soldiers were killed by militants during an attack on a military outpost in Segou Region, Mali. Five more were wounded. Residents reported that the fighting lasted only two hours, and that the well-armed insurgents had quickly surrounded and raided the base before withdrawing, taking captured supplies and dead comrades with them.
February 2, 2020 - France announced it would deploy 600 more soldiers to the Sahel to fight the deteriorating security situation in the region, bringing the total up to 5,100 troops from 4,500.
February 3, 2020 - Insurgents killed at least 18 civilians in Bani Department, northern Burkina Faso.
February 6, 2020 - In Tillaberi, Niger, four gunmen on motorbikes opened fire on workers in a village, killing four people
February 7, 2020 - French forces killed 30 insurgents in the Gourma and Liptako regions of Mali in the past two days.
February 9, 2020 - A suicide car bomb attack in Timiaouine, Algeria, left one Algerian soldier dead.
February 13, 2020 - Troops returned to Kidal, northern Mali, following a six-year absence, after former Taureg rebels allowed them into the city.
February 14, 2020 - At least 31 people were killed when armed men stormed the central Mali village of Ogossagou. Several members of a quick reaction force sent by MINUSMA to the village during the attack were wounded. On the same day, eight soldiers were killed and four more injured in an ambush in central Gao region, while a soldier was killed in an attack on a military camp in Mondoro.
February 16, 2020 - Gunmen killed 24 people and wounded 18 more in an attack on a church in Yagha province, northern Burkina Faso. Last week, a pastor was killed and another abducted in the same province.
February 17, 2020 - A French soldier died in unspecified circumstances in Burkina Faso.
February 27, 2020 - The African Union announced the deployment of an anti-terrorism force of 3,000 soldiers in the Sahel to combat the rising insecurity there.
March 6, 2020 - Two militants on a motorbike blew themselves up outside the US embassy in Tunisia, killing a policeman and injuring five more.
March 9, 2020 - At least 43 people were killed during an attack on two Fulani villages in Yatenga Province, northern Burkina Faso. The perpetrators were likely militiamen that blame the Fulani people for harboring extremist groups in the country.
March 13, 2020 - An Italian man and a Canadian woman were released in Kidal, Mali, after being kidnapped by a militant group Burkina Faso in December 2018.