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Armenia

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Republic of Armenia

  • Հայաստանի Հանրապետություն (Armenian)
  • Hayastani Hanrapetut’yun
Motto: Մեկ Ազգ, Մեկ Մշակույթ
Mek Azg, Mek Mshakouyt
("One Nation, One Culture")[1]
Anthem: Մեր Հայրենիք
Mer Hayrenik
("Our Fatherland")
Location of Armenia
Capital
and largest city
Yerevan
40°11′N 44°31′E / 40.183°N 44.517°E / 40.183; 44.517
Official languagesArmenian[2]
Ethnic groups
(2011)
Religion
Armenian Orthodoxy[5]
Demonym(s)Armenian
GovernmentUnitary parliamentary republic
• President
Armen Sarkissian
Nikol Pashinyan
Ararat Mirzoyan
LegislatureNational Assembly
Establishment history
6th century BC
190 BC[6]
52–428
885–1045
1198–1375

28 May 1918
• Independence from the Soviet Union
21 September 1991
Area
• Total
29,743 km2 (11,484 sq mi) (138th)
• Water (%)
4.71[8]
Population
• 2018 estimate
2,951,745[9][10]
• 2011 census
Decrease 3,018,854[11][12] (134th)
• Density
101.5/km2 (262.9/sq mi) (99th)
GDP (PPP)2019 estimate
• Total
$32.893 billion[13]
• Per capita
$10,995[13]
GDP (nominal)2019 estimate
• Total
$13.444 billion[13] (127th)
• Per capita
$4,527[13] (104th)
Gini (2018)Negative increase 34.4[14]
medium
HDI (2018)Increase 0.760[15]
high · 81st
CurrencyDram (֏) (AMD)
Time zoneUTC+4 (AMT)
Driving sideright
Calling code+374
ISO 3166 codeAM
Internet TLD

Coordinates: 40°N 45°E / 40°N 45°E / 40; 45

Armenia (/ɑːrˈmniə/ (About this soundlisten);[16] Armenian: Հայաստան, romanizedHayastan, IPA: [hɑjɑsˈtɑn]), officially the Republic of Armenia (Armenian: Հայաստանի Հանրապետություն, romanizedHayastani Hanrapetut'yun, IPA: [hɑjɑstɑˈni hɑnɾɑpɛtutʰˈjun]), is a landlocked country in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia. Located in Western Asia[17][18] on the Armenian Highlands, it is bordered by Turkey to the west, Georgia to the north, the de facto independent Republic of Artsakh and Azerbaijan to the east, and Iran and Azerbaijan's exclave of Nakhchivan to the south.[19]

Armenia is a unitary, multi-party, democratic nation-state with an ancient cultural heritage. Urartu was established in 860 BC and by the 6th century BC it was replaced by the Satrapy of Armenia. The Kingdom of Armenia reached its height under Tigranes the Great in the 1st century BC and became the first state in the world to adopt Christianity as its official religion in the late 3rd or early 4th century AD.[20][21][22] The official date of state adoption of Christianity is 301.[23] The ancient Armenian kingdom was split between the Byzantine and Sasanian Empires around the early 5th century. Under the Bagratuni dynasty, the Bagratid Kingdom of Armenia was restored in the 9th century. Declining due to the wars against the Byzantines, the kingdom fell in 1045 and Armenia was soon after invaded by the Seljuk Turks. An Armenian principality and later a kingdom Cilician Armenia was located on the coast of the Mediterranean Sea between the 11th and 14th centuries.

Between the 16th and 19th centuries, the traditional Armenian homeland composed of Eastern Armenia and Western Armenia came under the rule of the Ottoman and Iranian empires, repeatedly ruled by either of the two over the centuries. By the 19th century, Eastern Armenia had been conquered by the Russian Empire, while most of the western parts of the traditional Armenian homeland remained under Ottoman rule. During World War I, Armenians living in their ancestral lands in the Ottoman Empire were systematically exterminated in the Armenian Genocide. In 1918, following the Russian Revolution, all non-Russian countries declared their independence after the Russian Empire ceased to exist, leading to the establishment of the First Republic of Armenia. By 1920, the state was incorporated into the Transcaucasian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic, and in 1922 became a founding member of the Soviet Union. In 1936, the Transcaucasian state was dissolved, transforming its constituent states, including the Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic, into full Union republics. The modern Republic of Armenia became independent in 1991 during the dissolution of the Soviet Union.

Armenia recognises the Armenian Apostolic Church, the world's oldest national church, as the country's primary religious establishment.[24][5] The unique Armenian alphabet was invented by Mesrop Mashtots in 405 AD.

Armenia is a member of the Eurasian Economic Union, the Council of Europe and the Collective Security Treaty Organization. Armenia supports the de facto independent Artsakh, which was proclaimed in 1991.

Etymology

The original native Armenian name for the country was Հայք (Hayk’); however, it is currently rarely used. The contemporary name Հայաստան (Hayastan) became popular in the Middle Ages by addition of the Persian suffix -stan (place).[citation needed]. However the origins of the name Hayastan trace back to much earlier dates and were first attested in circa 5th century in the works of Agathangelos,[25][26] Faustus of Byzantium,[27][28] Ghazar Parpetsi,[29] Koryun,[30] and Sebeos.[31]

The name has traditionally been derived from Hayk (Հայկ), the legendary patriarch of the Armenians and a great-great-grandson of Noah, who, according to the 5th-century AD author Moses of Chorene (Movsis Khorenatsi), defeated the Babylonian king Bel in 2492 BC and established his nation in the Ararat region.[32] The further origin of the name is uncertain. It is also further postulated[33][34] that the name Hay comes from one of the two confederated, Hittite vassal states—the Ḫayaša-Azzi (1600–1200 BC).

The exonym Armenia is attested in the Old Persian Behistun Inscription (515 BC) as

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