2020 coronavirus pandemic in Venezuela

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

2020 coronavirus pandemic in Venezuela
COVID-19 Outbreak Cases in Venezuela.svg
States with confirmed (red) cases (as of 2 April 2020)
  1−9 confirmed cases
  10−19 confirmed cases
  20+ confirmed cases
Virus strainSARS-CoV-2
First outbreakChina
United States
Index caseMiranda State
Arrival date13 March 2020
(3 weeks)
Confirmed cases146[1] (as of 2 April 2020)
Recovered43[2] (as of 1 April 2020)
5[1] (as of 2 April 2020)

During the 2019–2020 coronavirus disease pandemic, the first two patients with COVID-19 in Venezuela were confirmed on 13 March 2020.[3][4] On 26 March, the first death was reported.[5] The first record of a patient claiming to have symptoms of coronavirus disease dates back to 29 February 2020.[6] Government officials suspect that the first person carrying of the virus could have entered the country as early as 25 February.[7]

Venezuela is vulnerable to the pandemic because of an ongoing socioeconomic and political crisis causing massive shortages of food staples and basic necessities, including medical supplies. The mass emigration of Venezuelan doctors has caused chronic staff shortages in hospitals.[8] To prevent the spread of the disease, the governments of Brazil and Colombia have temporarily closed their borders with Venezuela.[9][10][11]


COVID-19 cases in Venezuela  ()
     Deaths        Recoveries        Active cases
# of cases
# of deaths
107(+1%) 1(n.a.)
113(+6%) 2(+100%)
119(+5%) 2(=)
129(+8%) 3(+50%)
135(+5%) 3(=)
143(+6%) 3(=)
144(+0.7%) 3(=)
146(+1%) 5(+67%)


  • There was no official report on 20 March 2020, Worldometer and Johns Hopkins University reported 65 cases, numbers coming from an article of El Nacional from undisclosed sources from the Venezuelan Ministry of Health.
  • The recoveries from 21 March to 25 March indicate people without symptoms for at least 5 days, considered as recovered in the official reports


Venezuela's Ministry of Popular Power for Health announced that the Rafael Rangel National Institute of Hygiene (Spanish: Instituto Nacional de Higiene Rafael Rangel) in Caracas would perform the surveillance for other respiratory viruses based on non-influenza types, including coronaviruses in humans. It is the only health institution in the country with the installed capacity for the diagnosis of respiratory viruses and able carry out logistics in the 23 states, the Capital District and the Federal Dependencies.[12]


In February 2020, the Venezuelan government announced that the country had imposed epidemiological surveillance, restrictions and a plan to detect individuals with COVID-19 at the Simón Bolívar International Airport in Maiquetía, Venezuela's main international airport. They said Venezuela would receive diagnostic kits for the virus strain from the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO).[13]


  • On 7 March, Fe y Alegría reported that a suspicious medical case was registered in Maracaibo. It involved a 31-year-old non-Venezuelan, who entered the Dr. Pedro Iturbe Hospital in Zulia and was transferred to the University Hospital of Maracaibo. The patient had apparent symptoms and was discharged days later.[14] The state governor, Omar Prieto [es], asked the Public Ministry to investigate the University of Zulia professor, Freddy Pachano, for bringing attention to the suspected cases in the state. The NGO Espacio Público condemned Prieto for ordering an investigation against the professor.[15]
  • On 13 March, the coronavirus pandemic was confirmed to have spread to Venezuela when the Venezuelan government announced the first two cases in the state of Miranda.[3][4] Colombian president Iván Duque closed the border with Venezuela, effective 14 March.[9][10]
  • On 14 March, Communication Minister Jorge Rodríguez stated that eight new cases were detected in the states of Miranda, Apure, Aragua and Cojedes.[16] He said flights from Panama and the Dominican Republic would be suspended for 30 days, beginning on 15 March.[17]
  • On 15 March, Nicolás Maduro confirmed seven more cases and ordered Venezuelans in six states and in Caracas to remain at home, and all associated businesses to close effective the next day.[18] The "collective quarantine" made exceptions for transportation, health, and delivery of food.[18]
  • On 16 March, Argentina's ambassador in Venezuela, Eduardo Porretti, tested positive for the virus.[19] The same day, Maduro announced that 16 new cases were confirmed, bringing the total to 33. He ordered a "social quarantine" in all national territory.[20]
  • On 17 March, authorities in Brazil partially closed their border with Venezuela. Health Minister Luiz Henrique Mandetta had urged closure of the border due to Venezuela's collapsing health system.[11] Vice-President Delcy Rodríguez announced three more cases the same day.[21] In the afternoon, a patient that afterwards tested positive for coronavirus fled from a hospital in Propatria, in west Caracas, without the authorization of medical personnel.[22][23]
  • On 18 March, Delcy Rodríguez reported that the numbers of cases had not changed in the previous day.[24]
  • On 19 March, Jorge Rodríguez announced an additional 6 cases, bringing the total to 42.[25]
  • On 21 March, the government reported 70 confirmed cases in the country,[26] 2 of which were in critical condition and 15 labeled as recovered (showing no symptoms after five days).[27] Rodríguez said the two critical cases were hospitalized in private centers in Miranda state and treatment was provided free through the Ministry of Health despite them being in private clinics.[27]
  • On 22 March, Maduro announced 77 total cases in the country, and new economic measures to deal with the consequences of the pandemic.[28] Rent and credit payments were suspended for six months, accompanied by compensation in local currency for property owners and medium size businesses.[28] It also extended a 2015 policy that prevents companies from firing employees through December 2020.[28]
  • On 26 March, Delcy Rodríguez announced the first death due to coronavirus disease.[5]
  • On 27 March, Provea denounced and made public that around ninety people coming from Cúcuta, Colombia, were forcefully isolated on 25 March by the National Guard in Barqusimeto, Lara state, without food or proper sanitary conditions.[29][30][31] Communication Minister Jorge Rodríguez announced a second death.[32][33] Delcy Rodríguez met with Prime Minister of Trinidad and Tobago Keith Rowley, where the meeting focused on the strategy being deployed in both countries to combat the pandemic.[34]


Executive response

On 12 March, President Nicolás Maduro had already declared a public health emergency in the country and suspended all inbound flights from Europe and Colombia for 30 days. Maduro also announced that public gatherings were suspended and that the government would be evaluating whether or not to suspend flights from other regions in the coming weeks. According to him, there had been 30 suspected cases in Venezuela, but they were ruled out after tests.[35]

After the first cases in the country were confirmed, vice president Delcy Rodríguez asked all the passengers of the 5 and 8 March Iberia 6673 flight to enter immediately in a mandatory preventive quarantine since the two cases were from this flight.[36]

Rodríguez announced that all classes would be suspended at public and private schools from Monday 16 March until further notice,[37] while Minister Néstor Reverol announced that the government would provide border control authorities with face masks, gloves and thermometers, without mentioning supplies for citizens and hospitals.[4] Reverol also announced that the operational control of all the police forces would be transferred to the Armed Forces in order to coordinate the action and contigency plan.[38]

On 14 March, authorities arrested two people for spreading false information about the virus, recording a video about fake cases in Los Teques.[39] SUDEBAN, the government's intendency related to banks and financial institutions, announced the suspension of banking activities effective from 16 March.[40]

Defense Minister Vladimir Padrino López announced that, effective from 16 March, the Armed Forces would control the access to the six states and the Capital District declared by Nicolás Maduro to be in quarantine.[41]

On 16 March, Maduro reversed the official position against the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and asked the institution for a funding of US$5 billion to combat the pandemic,[42] a first during Maduro's presidency who has been a critic of the institution.[43][44] IMF also has had conflicts with the Bolivarian government in the past, as Maduro's predecessor Hugo Chávez had pledged to cut ties with the fund in 2007, and the IMF suspended US$400 million in special drawing rights during the Venezuelan presidential crisis in 2019.[45] The IMF rejected the deal as it was not clear, among its member states, on who it recognizes as Venezuela's president, Nicolás Maduro or Juan Guaidó.[46] According to a report by Bloomberg, Maduro administration also tried to request aid of $1 billion to the IMF, after the first request was denied.[47]

On 19 March, Vice President Delcy Rodríguez announced that 4,000 diagnosis kits were delivered from China to test for coronavirus. The government said that the Chinese diagnosis kits would benefit 300,000 Venezuelans and thanked the Chinese government and its paramount leader Xi Jinping for its generosity. In a separate measure, Venezuela's INEA maritime authority has prohibited crews aboard ships docking in the country's ports from disembarking.[48] The same day, President Maduro announced that he received a letter from the United Nations (UN) Resident Coordinator and United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) Resident Representative Peter Grohmann, confirming that the organization "is ready to support the Venezuelan government in its fight against COVID-19." Maduro stressed that the UN has taken concrete actions, particularly in the areas of health and water, sanitation and hygiene, and "will support the Ministry of Health in the care and containment of the coronavirus." Likewise, they will offer support in the disclosure of reliable and updated information.[49]

On 20 March, Maduro said that Russia was considering "a significant donation of special humanitarian aid" to the country, such as medical equipment and kits for the diagnosis of COVID-19 and is expected to arrive by next week.[50] On 23 March, Foreign Minister Jorge Arreaza and Russian ambassador Sergei Melik-Bagdasarov announced that 10,000 diagnosis kits were delivered from Russia, with more to be supplied in future shipments.[51] In a tweet, President Maduro thanked the Russian government and President Vladimir Putin for their generosity and for standing in solidarity with the Venezuelan people.[52]

Maduro announced several economic measures on 23 March to deal with labor immobility, the assumption of wage payment by the state, the suspension of rent and credit interests payments, the assignment of new bonds, the flexibility of credits acquisition, the prohibition of the telecommunication services and the guarantee of CLAP supplies (the Local Committees for Supply and Production, in English).[53]

National Assembly response

Disputed National Assembly leader and disputed acting president Juan Guaidó said that the country is experiencing one of the most serious health crises in its history caused by the inactions of the Maduro government and announced a series of measures in order to take "responsible measures against the pandemic."[54][55] These include the postponement of opposition protests and the creation of the Special Health Commission.[10][54] In addition, Guaidó also called for the entry of humanitarian aid from the United Nations while explaining that health services are not impacted by international sanctions.[55]

The Committee of Electoral Candidacies, in charge of appointing a new National Electoral Council (CNE), announced that it would suspend its meetings because of the pandemic.[56]

Julio Castro [es], head of the Special Health Commission appointed by Juan Guaidó, informed that face masks are a prevention measure useful only for at least one day, that once used the mask loses its effectiveness and can become an infection source, and declared that Venezuelans have to take additional measures to deal with the pandemic.[57]

National Assembly deputy Jesús Yánez announced that the government of Taiwan donated 1,000 surgical masks as a measure to prevent the coronavirus pandemic. The masks were distributed in five stations of the Caracas Metro (Plaza Sucre, Pérez Bonalde, Plaza Venezuela, Chacao and Petare). Yánez highlighted that the metro is a means of transportation used by a large part of the population and is a breeding ground for the pandemic due to the crowding of people in closed spaces if any positive case should become known.[58]

Guaidó's Special Health Commission collected 3,500 protection kits for caregivers at five hospitals on 16 March.[59]

On 21 March, Guaidó announced that he delivered medical kits to protect the health sector from the coronavirus pandemic. On his official Twitter account, he shared a video expressing that “We are protecting a sector that today is giving everything: the health sector, our doctors and nurses. To support them is to support us all. We must bring this help to hundreds who need it." and concluded “We can contain this emergency. Venezuela is in our hands. #AuxilioParaVzla."[60][61] Guaidó also announced the creation of the Human Rights Observatory as a response of the increase of human rights violations in the country.[62]

Guaidó called for the creation of a "national emergency government", not lead by Maduro, on 28 March. According to Guaidó, a loan of US$1.2 billion in international loans is ready to support a power-shared coalition between pro-Maduro civilians and military and the opposition in order to fight the coronavirus disease epidemic in Venezuela. If accepted, the money would go to assists families affected by the disease and the economic consequences.[63]

Other responses

Baltazar Porras, Apostolic Administrator of Caracas, announced the suspension of ecclesiastic activities on 15 March, while assuring that temples would remain open and asking Venezuelans to avoid crowded places and to remain calm.[64]

The Health Ministry approved the certification for the microbiology laboratory of the University of the Andes, in the Mérida state, to start cayying out tests to detect the presence of SARS-CoV-2, the coronavirus responsible for the COVID-19 disease. Once the necessary supplies and vials are received, the laboratory would be able to perform up to 20 daily tests, it would be expected to be the second laboratory in the country that performs detection tests after the National Hygiene Institute in Caracas, and it would be expected for the laboratory to carry out tests in the Mérida, Táchira, Trujillo and Barinas states, as well as possibly other states in the west, in order to reduce the time that is needed to send samples to the Hygiene Institute in Caracas.[65]

Three men that were playing dominoes during the quarantine were murdered on 21 March in the 23 de Enero parish, in Caracas, and two more were injured.[66] According to neighbors and relatives, a dozen of members of the colectivo Tres Raíces arrived while they were playing and were responsible of their death; they accused the members of being linked with Iris Varela, Minister of Popular Power for the Prison Service, to a CICPC officer and of wearing FAES and National Police uniforms, announcing that they would protest as a response to the killings, in defiance of the quarantine.[67] The colectivo denied the accusations, saying that the murders were motivated by a reckoning.[66]

On late March, the colectivos Tres Raíces and La Piedrita started imposing a curfew in the 23 de Enero parish, increasing repression and imposing closure times to businesses.[66]


Government reactions

Maduro asked to not politicize the pandemic,[68] while he expressed concern as to how the country would control the pandemic because of the United States sanctions.[3] Maduro called on US President Donald Trump to lift the sanctions so the country could acquire necessary medical supplies.[69]

Juan Guaidó denounced that since the start of the pandemic, human rights violations by Maduro's administration had increased, citing the murder of three people in the 23 de Enero parish, the arrest of Darvinson Rojas, and human rights abuses against political prisoners, who are held in prisons with a high infection risk. Guaidó announced the creation of the Human Rights Observatory as a response.[62]

Other reactions

The Venezuelan Medical Federation condemned that a medic in Zulia had to leave to Colombia after denouncing the situation in Venezuela for the presence of the virus,[70] and asked for the release of the political prisoners in the country, who are vulnerable to the virus, specifically Roberto Marrero, Juan Requesens and other lawmakers.[71]

In the Anzoátegui state, nurses denounced the lack of face masks, gloves and disposable gowns on 16 March.[72]

On 19 March, the Chinese Embassy in Caracas rejected the accusations made by National Assembly deputies against China, by calling the pandemic as "China or Wuhan virus." In a statement, the embassy "strongly rejects the attacks and unfounded and arbitrary accusations of some Venezuelan deputies to China."[73]

Media outlets such as El Nacional denounced the price increase of face masks.[74][75][76] Outlets have also reported the violation of the quarantine for reasons such as buying food, medicines, and both cleaning and hygiene products, as well as the public services crisis, including the lack of drinking water, electric power, cooking gas, telephone signal and waste collection.[77]

International sanctions

The United States Embassy in Venezuela rejected claims from Nicolás Maduro and Jorge Arreaza that sanctions are preventing the government from purchasing medical supplies, saying that “medicines, medical supplies, spare parts and components for medical devices in Venezuela, or to people from third countries who buy specifically for resale from Venezuela are excluded from the sanctions."[78][79] Days later, Foreign Minister Jorge Arreaza rejected the claims, calling the statements "the height of impudence and falsehood." He declared that Venezuelan government assets worth more than US$5 billion were blocked overseas, in addition to "Venezuela's ban on access to the international banking system".[80]

Former Attorney General Luisa Ortega Díaz declared that Maduro "lied" when saying that there were no medicines in the country because of the sanctions, saying that the reasons were incompetence and corruption.[81] The US Acting Assistant Secretary for Western Hemisphere Affairs Michael Kozak also accused Maduro of lying, saying that U.S. sanctions never block food or medicine purchases. He emphasized that shortages in Venezuela resulted from "the regime’s theft of the nation’s wealth."[82][83]

Economist Francisco Rodríguez declared that the sanctions "severely harm the capacity of affected countries" to respond to the pandemic.[84][unreliable source]

On 24 March, UN High Commissioner for Human Rights Michelle Bachelet called for any sanctions imposed on Venezuela and other countries facing the pandemic such as Cuba, Iran, and Zimbabwe to be "urgently reevaluated" in order to avoid pushing strained medical systems into collapse. In a statement, Bachelet said: "At this crucial time, both for global public health reasons, and to support the rights and lives of millions of people in these countries, sectoral sanctions should be eased or suspended."[85][86] Bachelet also accentuated the need to protect health workers in these countries as authorities should not punish professionals that point out the deficiencies in the state response to the crisis.[85]

On 27 March, Russian Foreign Ministry spokeswoman Maria Zakharova called for the lifting of international sanctions against Venezuela at the time when the country is facing a difficult economic situation and the coronavirus pandemic, calling it "an instrument of genocide."[87][unreliable source]

International concern

International concern was raised before the first cases were reported, as Venezuela's health care system has completely collapsed due to the ongoing crisis, meaning its already suffering population is especially vulnerable to the spread of a pandemic.[8]

Per the Global Health Security Index, Venezuela's health system is ranked among the worst in the world in its ability to detect, quickly respond, and mitigate a pandemic.[88] Hospitals are plagued by chronic shortages of supplies, including eye protectors, gloves, masks, and soap.[89] Due to ongoing shortages of resources, hospitals must also constantly deal with chronic lack of staff, thus making the response to treating a large number of infected patients significantly more challenging.[89] Patients are also often turned away at hospitals due to overcrowding, or asked to bring in their own gauze, IV solution, or syringes, while there are often no hygiene facilities like toilets, and power outages are a regular occurrence.[8]

The Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) said that it would be prioritizing Venezuela alongside Haiti and other Central and South American countries because of “challenges to their health systems.”[4]

Associated Press reported that experts are worried that the Venezuelan refugee crisis could worsen the spread of the virus.[10]

Prison system

Reuters reported that Venezuela's notoriously overcrowded and unsanitary prisons could spread the coronavirus "like a fast-moving fire." Venezuelan prisons frequently lack bathrooms, people sleep on floors, and many inmates spend their days without shirts or shoes on, in part to combat the infernal heat of windowless facilities.[90] This has caused US Secretary of State Mike Pompeo to demand the Maduro government release six Citgo executives, held in prison since 2017, on humanitarian grounds.[91][92] Pompeo said that all six men have weakened immune systems and "face a grave health risk if they become infected" with the coronavirus pandemic.[92]

On 18 March, 84 out of 518 inmates escaped from a prison in San Carlos, Zulia, after restrictions against the pandemic were announced, including jail visits. Mayor Bladimir Labrador declared that ten prisoners were killed during the prison break and that two policemen were detained for complicity. According to Carlos Nieto Palma from the NGO Ventana a la Libertad, the suspension of visits directly affects the prisoner's nutrition, given that there was no state-sponsored program to feed them.[93] The NGO Provea denounced "grave human rights violations" after a military spokesperson announced the "neutralization" of 35 escapees. State authorities later declared that the there were eight deaths.[94]

Non-government estimates

On 18 March, four cases were extraofficially reported in El Helicoide, three women and a male officer of the motorized brigade of the National Police.[95][96]

On 19 March, a person self-identified as a member of the Tupamaro colectivo in the 23 de Enero parish of Caracas declared to his community with a megaphone that a case was confirmed, specifically in Block 39, asking his neighbors to stay home and to prevent other blocks from being infected.[97][98]

Venezuelan newspaper El Nacional, reported a total of 65 cases for 20 March, according to undisclosed sources from the Health Ministry.[99] On that day the ministry did not report any official numbers, the toll was officially updated the next day going from 42 to 70.[100] Similarly, before the official report on 23 March, El Nacional reported 84 cases according undisclosed source from the Health Ministry.[101]

Juan Guaidó has questioned the veracity of the official number of cases, stating that there are inconsistencies in the estimates given.[102] In an interview with El Nuevo Herald on 22 March, Guaidó declared that the number of confirmed cases in Venezuela could be more than two hundred, according to opposition estimates, contrary to the 70 cases that Maduro's administration recognized at the moment. El Nuevo Herald reported that internal sources extraofficially confirmed that estimate, that according to said sources there were 181 confirmed cases on the morning of 21 March and a total of 298 in observation.[103]

Authorities actions on reporting

On 13 March, Delta Amacuro indigenous leader and journalist Melquiades Ávila, who has criticized health infrastructure in the country, questioned publicly through Facebook "will our hospital be ready for coronavirus?” and joked Maduro's claim that 46 hospitals were prepared for COVID-19. The Governor of Delta Amacuro Lizeta Hernández and member of the United Socialist Party of Venezuela, sent the state army to detain Ávila. When asked why by Reuters on the matter, she said that it was to “orient” Ávila and ensure he was being “serious and responsible”.[104]

On 14 March, an opposition lawmaker, Tony Geara, was arrested in a roadblock after declaring that there was no running water in one of the hospitals listed as prepared by the Bolivarian government.[104] A court charged Geara with illegal possession of explosives and weapons. Geara denies the charges.[104]

According to twelve medical workers interviewed by Reuters, security forces uses roadblocks and checkpoints to shakedown medical staff.[104]

On 15 March, Julio Molinos, a medical union leader and retired technician, published a video asking the government to be transparent about hospital conditions. Special Action Force (FAES) arrested Molinos, who was sentenced to house arrest on charges of compiracy and inciting hatred.[104]

The National Assembly released a webpage to provide information and health recommendations on COVID-19 but the access to the website was restricted by CANTV, the state internet provider. The censorship was denounced by Guaidó.[105]

On the night of 21 March 2020, journalist Darvinson Rojas was arrested at his home in Caracas by officials of the Bolivarian National Police (PNB) and around fifteen armed personnel from the Special Actions Force (FAES).[106][107] According to the National Union of Press Workers (SNTP), the arrest was related to the coverage of Rojas with his recent publications on the COVID-19 situation in Venezuela.[108] The Committee to Protect Journalists (CPJ) called for the immediate release of Rojas. Nathalie Southwick, CPJ coordinator, stated that "Violently detaining a journalist and interrogating him about his sources on a vital public health issue like the COVID-19 outbreak has an undeniable chilling effect that will only discourage other journalists from reporting on the pandemic."[109] Amnesty International demanded Rojas immediate and unconditional release.[110]

After 12 days incarcerated, Darvinson Rojas was set free on 3 April 2020 under precautionary measures.[111]


Regional distribution

Cases per federal entity as of 1 April 2020,[112][2] according to the Bolivarian Government:

Federal entity Number of reported cases Number of deaths
 Anzoátegui 2 0
 Apure[a] 2 0
 Aragua[a] 20 1
 Barinas 5 0
 Bolívar 2 0
 Capital District[a] 25 1
 Cojedes 1 0
 Falcón 2 0
 Federal Dependencies[b] 4 0
 Guárico 1 0
 Lara 4 0
 Mérida 1 0
 Miranda 56 0
 Monagas 1 0
 Nueva Esparta 2 0
 Sucre 1 0
 Vargas 10 0
 Yaracuy 1 0
 Zulia 4 0
Undisclosed location[a] n.a. 1
Total 144 3

Various Venezuelan newspapers have pointed out that there have been some inconsistencies with the government reports by federal states.[114][115][116][117] For example, 24 March report differs from 23 report, as Táchira and Portuguesa that reported cases before, were no longer included.[117] On 26 March, while the official report indicated 107 total cases, the number of cases per dependency amounted to 108.[114]

Sex ratio

Date (2020) Female-Male ratio Ref
17 March 6:5 [20]
18 March 1:1 [20][118]
22 March 37:40 [119]
24 March 44:47 [120]
27 March 57:56 [32]
31 March 71:72 [112]
1 April 71:73 [2]

Per origin

As of 16 March, there were 33 confirmed cases in Venezuela. According to official estimates, among these, 28 came from Europe and 5 from Cúcuta, Colombia. Two of the cases consisted of foreign citizens, one of a diplomatic official, while the rest consisted of Venezuelan residents.[20]

By 22 March, Maduro announced out of all the 77 cases were imported.[119] According to him, 43 had traveled recently, the distribution was as follows:[119]

Country Number of imported cases
 Brazil 2
 Colombia 10
 Dominican Republic 3
 Italy 3
 Peru 1
 Spain 21
 United States 3
Total 43

On 24 March, Maduro first mentioned the existence of cases transmitted locally in the country.[120]

See also


  1. ^ a b c d The number of cases per region is inconsistent and may differ from source to source. In Aragua, Apure, Capital District and undisclosed locations the number of cases may have a difference of 1 or 2 cases from the one reported in the table.[113]
  2. ^ The only affected federal dependency is Los Roques


  1. ^ a b Maria Souquett Gil (2 April 2020). "Sube a cinco el número de fallecidos por COVID-19 en Venezuela, informa Delcy Rodríguez". Efecto Cocuyo (in Spanish). Retrieved 3 April 2020.
  2. ^ a b c Maria Souquett Gil (1 April 2020). "Jorge Rodríguez confirma un nuevo caso de COVID-19 y repudia declaraciones de Trump". Efecto Cocuyo (in Spanish). Retrieved 2 April 2020.
  3. ^ a b c "Régimen de Maduro confirma dos primeros casos de coronavirus". (in Spanish). 13 March 2020. Retrieved 13 March 2020.
  4. ^ a b c d "Venezuela confirms coronavirus cases amid public health concerns". Reuters. 13 March 2020. Retrieved 13 March 2020.
  5. ^ a b "Venezuela confirms first coronavirus death: official". Reuters. 26 March 2020. Retrieved 27 March 2020.
  6. ^ María Victoria Fermín (29 March 2020). "Tercer fallecido por coronavirus en el país era un taxista de Antímano". Efecto Cocuyo (in Spanish). Retrieved 29 March 2020.
  7. ^ Souquett Gil, Mariana (1 April 2020). "De marzo a febrero: versiones sobre la llegada del coronavirus a Venezuela". Efecto Cocuyo (in Spanish). Retrieved 1 April 2020.
  8. ^ a b c "Venezuela Conducts 'Tens' of Virus Tests and Bans Europe Flights". Bloomberg. 12 March 2020. Retrieved 13 March 2020.
  9. ^ a b "Duque ordena cerrar los pasos fronterizos con Venezuela". El Tiempo (Anzoátegui) (in Spanish). 13 March 2020. Retrieved 13 March 2020.
  10. ^ a b c d Smith, Scott (13 March 2020). "Venezuela, already in crisis, reports 1st coronavirus cases". Associated Press. Retrieved 14 March 2020.
  11. ^ a b "Brazil partially closing Venezuela border, allowing trucks". Reuters. 18 March 2020. Retrieved 18 March 2020.
  12. ^ Souquett Gil, Mariana (31 January 2020). "Venezuela sin kits de diagnóstico ni condiciones para enfrentar el nuevo coronavirus". Efecto Cocuyo (in Spanish). Retrieved 24 March 2020.
  13. ^ "Venezuela imposes entry restrictions over coronavirus". Prensa Latina. 3 February 2020. Retrieved 4 February 2020.
  14. ^ "Detectan un caso sospechoso de Coronavirus en Maracaibo". Fe y Alegría (in Spanish). 7 March 2020. Retrieved 14 March 2020.
  15. ^ "Omar Prieto pide investigar a profesor por denunciar casos sospechosos de coronavirus". Efecto Cocuyo (in Spanish). 9 March 2020. Retrieved 14 March 2020.
  16. ^ "Jorge Rodríguez confirma ocho nuevos casos de coronavirus en Venezuela" (in Spanish). El Caraboreño. 13 March 2020. Retrieved 15 March 2020.
  17. ^ Torrealba, Diego (14 March 2020). "Suben a 10 los casos por coronavirus en Venezuela". El Pitazo (in Spanish). Retrieved 15 March 2020.
  18. ^ a b "Venezuela orders 'collective quarantine' in response to coronavirus". Reuters. 15 March 2020. Retrieved 15 March 2020.
  19. ^ "Embajador de Argentina en Venezuela contrajo coronavirus". El Nacional (in Spanish). 16 March 2020.
  20. ^ a b c d "Maduro confirma 33 casos de coronavirus en Venezuela y ordena "cuarentena total" #16Mar". Runrunes (in Spanish). 17 March 2020.
  21. ^ "Quarantine threatens to deepen Venezuelan crisis as roadblocks snarl food supplies". Reuters. 17 March 2020. Retrieved 18 March 2020.
  22. ^ "Paciente portador de COVID-19 huyó de CDI en Propatria donde permanecía aislado". El Carabobeño (in Spanish). 19 March 2020. Retrieved 27 March 2020.
  23. ^ "Paciente con coronavirus huye del hospital en Caracas". Diario Las Américas (in Spanish). 19 March 2020. Retrieved 27 March 2020.
  24. ^ "Delcy Rodríguez: No se confirmaron nuevos casos de coronavirus en las últimas 24 horas". El Nacional (in Spanish). 18 March 2020. Retrieved 23 March 2020.
  25. ^ "Venezuela's government confirms six new coronavirus cases, for total of 42". Reuters. 19 March 2020. Retrieved 19 March 2020.
  26. ^ "Venezuela usará cuartos de hotel para aislar casos suaves de coronavirus: ministro - Reuters". Reuters (in Spanish). 21 March 2020. Retrieved 22 March 2020.
  27. ^ a b "Venezuela registra 70 casos confirmados de Covid-19 y 15 de ellos se han recuperado satisfactoriamente". Venezolana de Televisión (in Spanish). 21 March 2020.
  28. ^ a b c "Venezuela prohibits company layoffs and suspends credit collections over coronavirus". Reuters. 23 March 2020. Retrieved 23 March 2020.
  29. ^ Sarmiento, Mabel (27 March 2020). "En Lara la GNB somete a cuarentena forzosa a más de 60 personas que regresaron de Cúcuta". Crónica Uno (in Spanish).
  30. ^ "Provea: Aislan a 90 personas de manera forzosa en Barquisimeto". El Carabobeño (in Spanish). 27 March 2020.
  31. ^ "ONG denuncia "confinamiento forzado" de 90 venezolanos por COVID-19". Diario las Américas (in Spanish).
  32. ^ a b Rodríguez Rosas, Ronny (27 March 2020). "Segunda muerte por COVID-19 y suben a 113 los contagiados". Efecto Cocuyo. Retrieved 28 March 2020.
  33. ^ "Venezuela reporta segunda muerte por COVID-19, casos ascienden a 113 en el país". Reuters (in Spanish). 27 March 2020. Retrieved 28 March 2020.
  34. ^ "Prime Minister Meets with Venezuelan Vice President". 27 March 2020.
  35. ^ "Venezuela's Maduro suspends flights from Europe, Colombia over coronavirus concerns". Reuters. 12 March 2020. Retrieved 13 March 2020 – via
  36. ^ "Gobierno convoca a viajeros del vuelo 6673 presentarse para cumplir la cuarentena". El Pitazo (in Spanish). 13 March 2020. Retrieved 14 March 2020.
  37. ^ "Anuncian suspensión de clases tras llegada del Coronavirus a Venezuela". Noticias de Venezuela y el Mundo - Caraota Digital (in Spanish). 13 March 2020. Retrieved 13 March 2020.
  38. ^ "Reverol: "No puede entrar ninguna persona al territorio nacional sin tapabocas"". Panorama (in Spanish). 13 March 2020. Retrieved 15 March 2020.
  39. ^ "Dos detenidos por difundir información falsa sobre el Covid 19". El Universal (Caracas) (in Spanish). 14 March 2020. Retrieved 15 March 2020.
  40. ^ "Sudeban informó que actividades bancarias estarán suspendidas desde el lunes (+Comunicado)". El Tiempo (Anzoátegui) (in Spanish). 15 March 2020. Retrieved 16 March 2020.
  41. ^ "Padrino López: Fuerza Armada controlará acceso a los estados en cuarentena". El Pitazo (in Spanish). 16 March 2020. Retrieved 17 March 2020.
  42. ^ "Maduro le pide al FMI 5 mil millones de dólares para actuar contra el COVID-19". EFE (in Spanish). 17 March 2020.
  43. ^ Berwick, Angus (17 March 2020). "Quarantine threatens to deepen Venezuelan crisis as roadblocks snarl food supplies". Reuters. Retrieved 17 March 2020.
  44. ^ "Venezuela seeks emergency $5 billion IMF loan to fight virus". AP NEWS. 17 March 2020. Retrieved 17 March 2020.
  45. ^ "Venezuela Requests $5 Billion from IMF to Fight Coronavirus". 17 March 2020. Retrieved 17 March 2020.
  46. ^ "IMF rejects Maduro's bid for emergency loan to fight virus". AP NEWS. 17 March 2020. Retrieved 18 March 2020.
  47. ^ Vasquez, Alex (21 March 2020). "Rejected Venezuela Returns to IMF Seeking $1 Billion in Aid". Retrieved 24 March 2020.
  48. ^ "Venezuela lifts coronavirus cases to 42, thanks China for aid". Reuters. 19 March 2020. Retrieved 20 March 2020.
  49. ^ "Maduro confirma que Venezuela recibirá ayuda de la ONU para combatir el coronavirus". RT en Español (in Spanish). 19 March 2020. Retrieved 21 March 2020.
  50. ^ Fermín Kancev, María Victoria (20 March 2020). "Maduro: Rusia enviará ayuda humanitaria a Venezuela por el coronavirus". Efecto Cocuyo (in Spanish). Retrieved 22 March 2020.
  51. ^ Ariza, Joselyn (23 March 2020). "Rusia envía insumos médicos a Venezuela para detectar Covid-19" (in Spanish). Venezuelan Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 24 March 2020.
  52. ^ @NicolasMaduro (23 March 2020). "Llegaron a Venezuela 10 mil kits de pruebas diagnðsticas procedentes de la Federaciðn de Rusia para el despistaje del COVID-19. En nombre de nuestro pueblo, agradezco la solidaridad y la cooperaciðn del hermano Presidente Vladímir Putin y del pueblo ruso. ¡Un Abrazo!" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
  53. ^ Hernández, Erika (23 March 2020). "Medidas económicas populistas anunciadas por Maduro podrían enterrar al sector privado". El Nacional (in Spanish). Retrieved 28 March 2020.
  54. ^ a b "Guaidó anunció una redefinición de la agenda de protestas por el coronavirus: "Es momento de que el régimen deje entrar la ayuda humanitaria"". Infobae (in Spanish). 13 March 2020. Retrieved 13 March 2020.
  55. ^ a b Rodríguez Rosas, Ronny (13 March 2020). "Guaidó anuncia redefinición de las convocatorias de calle por el coronavirus". Efecto Cocuyo (in Spanish). Retrieved 13 March 2020.
  56. ^ Murillo, Yuskerli (16 March 2020). "Comité para designar nuevo CNE suspenderá reuniones". El Universal (Caracas) (in Spanish). Retrieved 17 March 2020.
  57. ^ Escalona, José (16 March 2020). "Julio Castro: La mascarilla solo sirve para un día, puede ser un foco de infección si se usa varias veces #16Mar". El Impulso (in Spanish). Retrieved 17 March 2020.
  58. ^ "Mil venezolanos recibieron donación de Taiwán para prevenir el coronavirus". La Patilla (in Spanish). 13 March 2020. Retrieved 13 March 2020.
  59. ^ Berwick, Angus (17 March 2020). "Venezuela expands quarantine as number of coronavirus cases climbs to 33". Reuters. Retrieved 17 March 2020.
  60. ^ "EN VIDEO: Guaidó entrega kits para proteger al sector salud del brote de coronavirus". La Patilla (in Spanish). 21 March 2020. Retrieved 21 March 2020.
  61. ^ Juan Guaidó [@jguaido] (21 March 2020). "Estamos protegiendo a un sector que hoy está dándolo todo: el sector salud, nuestros médicos y enfermeras. Apoyarlos es apoyarnos todos. Esta ayuda debemos llevarla a cientos que la necesitan. Podemos contener esta emergencia. Venezuela está en nuestras manos. #AuxilioParaVzla" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
  62. ^ a b "Guaidó denuncia un aumento de las violaciones de los DDHH en Venezuela desde el estallido de la pandemia". Europa Press (in Spanish). 23 March 2020. Retrieved 28 March 2020.
  63. ^ Goodman, Joshua (29 March 2020). "Guaido urges unity government backed by loans to fight virus". Associated Press. Retrieved 30 March 2020.
  64. ^ "Suspendieron actividades eclesiásticas en Venezuela tras brote de coronavirus". VPItv (in Spanish). 15 March 2020. Retrieved 16 March 2020.
  65. ^ Fern Rodríguez, María (18 March 2020). "Laboratorio de microbiología de la ULA hará pruebas para detectar coronavirus". El Pitazo (in Spanish). Retrieved 27 March 2020.
  66. ^ a b c Galaviz, Daisy (23 March 2020). "Colectivos imponen toque de queda en el 23 de Enero por el coronavirus". El Pitazo (in Spanish). Retrieved 25 March 2020.
  67. ^ "Familiares señalan colectivos por asesinato tres vecinos del 23 de Enero". El Pitazo (in Spanish). 22 March 2020. Retrieved 25 March 2020.
  68. ^ "Maduro pide no politizar el tema del coronavirus mientras apunta el dedo a los EEUU y la oposición (VIDEOS)". Entorno Inteligente (in Spanish). 13 March 2020. Retrieved 17 March 2020.
  69. ^ Laya, Patricia (12 March 2020). "Venezuela Conducts 'Tens' of Virus Tests and Bans Europe Flights". Bloomberg. Retrieved 23 March 2020.
  70. ^ "FMV denunció amedrentamiento a médicos tras estado de alarma por coronavirus". La Patilla (in Spanish). 14 March 2020. Retrieved 15 March 2020.
  71. ^ "Presidente de la FMV exhorta a que se liberen a presos políticos por coronavirus". La Patilla (in Spanish). 14 March 2020. Retrieved 15 March 2020.
  72. ^ Pellicani, Giovanna (16 March 2020). "Enfermeras denuncian falta de mascarillas, guantes y bata desechable en Anzoátegui". El Pitazo (in Spanish). Retrieved 17 March 2020.
  73. ^ "Embajada china rechaza acusaciones de parlamentarios venezolanos". [[El Universal (Caracas) (Venezuela)]] (in Spanish). 19 March 2020. Retrieved 20 March 2020.
  74. ^ Villarreal, Karina (13 March 2020). "Coronavirus en Venezuela: encarecimiento de las mascarillas". El Nacional (in Spanish). Retrieved 27 March 2020.
  75. ^ "Coronavirus en Venezuela: $ 140 mil por caja de tapabocas". El Tiempo (in Spanish). 13 March 2020. Retrieved 27 March 2020.
  76. ^ "Tapabocas desechables se elevan de 7.000 a 80.000 bolívares tras confirmación de coronavirus". Diario Versión Final (in Spanish). 13 March 2020. Retrieved 27 March 2020.
  77. ^ Brito, Estefani (26 March 2020). "La necesidad obliga: el pueblo en la calle a pesar de la cuarentena". El Nacional (in Spanish). Retrieved 27 March 2020.
  78. ^ "Embajada virtual de EEUU en Venezuela se las cantó clarito a Maduro tras llorantina por sanciones". La Patilla (in Spanish). 14 March 2020. Retrieved 15 March 2020.
  79. ^ Embajada Virtual de los EE.UU., Venezuela [@usembassyve] (13 March 2020). "Medicinas, insumos médicos, piezas de repuesto y componentes para productos sanitarios en Venezuela, o a personas de terceros países que compran específicamente para reventa a Venezuela quedan excluidos de las sanciones estadounidenses. Para que sepan @NicolasMaduro @jaarreaza" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
  80. ^ "Jorge Arreaza: bloqueo económico contra Venezuela afecta adquisición de insumos". Diario 2001 (in Spanish). Agencia Venezolana de Noticias. 21 March 2020. Retrieved 22 March 2020.
  81. ^ Pitazo, Redacción El (16 March 2020). "Ortega Díaz: Maduro miente al decir que no hay medicinas por las sanciones". El Pitazo (in Spanish). Retrieved 17 March 2020.
  82. ^ Michael G. Kozak [@WHAAsstSecty] (19 March 2020). "More lies from #Maduro, author of the #MaduroCrisis, about #Venezuela's tragedy. U.S. sanctions NEVER block food or medicine. Shortages in Venezuela result from the regime's theft of the nation's wealth. #EstamosUnidosVE" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
  83. ^ "Kozak reiteró que las sanciones de EEUU al régimen de Maduro 'no bloquean comida o medicinas'". AlbertoNews (in Spanish). 20 March 2020. Retrieved 23 March 2020.
  84. ^ "US Government Should Immediately Lift Economic Sanctions to Avoid Causing More Deaths From Pandemic, Economists Say". Center for Economic and Policy Research. 18 March 2020. Retrieved 21 March 2020.
  85. ^ a b "Ease sanctions against countries fighting COVID-19: UN human rights chief". UN News. 24 March 2020. Retrieved 25 March 2020.
  86. ^ "Bachelet calls for easing of sanctions to enable medical systems to fight COVID-19 and limit global contagion". ReliefWeb. Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights. 24 March 2020. Retrieved 24 March 2020.
  87. ^ "Russia to Continue Supporting Venezuela Amid Sanctions, Coronavirus - Foreign Ministry". Sputnik. 27 March 2020. Retrieved 27 March 2020.
  88. ^ "2019 Global Health Security Index" (PDF). 22 October 2019. Retrieved 13 March 2020.
  89. ^ a b "Buckets for toilets, recycled gloves: Venezuelan hospitals await coronavirus unprepared". Reuters. 10 March 2020. Retrieved 11 March 2020.
  90. ^ Ellsworth, Brian; Sequera, Vivian (18 March 2020). "Overcrowded and unsanitary, Venezuela's prisons brace for coronavirus". Reuters. Retrieved 18 March 2020.
  91. ^ Secretary Pompeo [@SecPompeo] (19 March 2020). "It is past time for the Maduro regime to release the #Citgo6 who are currently languishing in the notorious Helicoide prison in #Venezuela. 2+ years in prison with no evidence brought against them; 18 hearings cancelled. Unacceptable" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
  92. ^ a b "US demands Venezuela free Citgo executives as virus hits". France 24. Agence France-Presse. 19 March 2020. Retrieved 20 March 2020.
  93. ^ "Las restricciones por el coronavirus provocan una fuga de presos que deja 10 muertos en Venezuela". El Mundo (in Spanish). AFP. 19 March 2020. Retrieved 27 March 2020.
  94. ^ "Provea denuncia asesinato de 35 presos fugados de retén en Zulia". Tal Cual (in Spanish). 18 March 2020. Retrieved 27 March 2020.
  95. ^ "Detectaron cuatro casos de coronavirus en El Helicoide". El Nacional (in Spanish). 18 March 2020. Retrieved 23 March 2020.
  96. ^ "Los presos políticos de Venezuela están en riesgo por el coronavirus: se detectaron cuatro casos en la cárcel de El Helicoide". Infobae (in Spanish). 19 March 2020. Retrieved 23 March 2020.
  97. ^ "Coronavirus Colectivos del 23 de Enero aseguran un caso en el bloque 39". El Pitazo (in Spanish). 20 March 2020. Retrieved 25 March 2020.
  98. ^ "[VIDEO] Tupamaros aseguran que el coronavirus ya llegó al 23 de Enero". El Nacional (in Spanish). 20 March 2020. Retrieved 25 March 2020.
  99. ^ "Venezuela registró otros 19 casos de coronavirus este viernes". El Nacional (in Spanish). 23 March 2020.
  100. ^ "Cifras de coronavirus presentadas por el gobierno de Maduro revelan incongruencias". Runrunes (in Spanish). 20 March 2020. Retrieved 23 March 2020.
  101. ^ "Venezuela registró otros siete casos por coronavirus y la cifra de contagios se elevó a 84". El Nacional (in Spanish). 23 March 2020. Retrieved 23 March 2020.
  102. ^ "Guaidó asegura que hay "incongruencias" en cifras del régimen sobre COVID-19". Diario Las Americas (in Spanish). 23 March 2020. Retrieved 28 March 2020.
  103. ^ Delgado, Antonio María (22 March 2020). "Exclusiva: Maduro oculta gravedad del coronavirus. Hay más de 200 casos en Venezuela, dice Guaidó". El Nuevo Herald. Retrieved 27 March 2020.
  104. ^ a b c d e Angus Berwick; Sarah Kinosian; Maria Ramirez (25 March 2020). "As coronavirus hits Venezuela, Maduro further quashes dissent". Reuters. Retrieved 23 March 2020.
  105. ^ Fermín, María Victoria (18 March 2020). "Cantv bloquea web informativa sobre el COVID-19, denuncia Venezuela Sin Filtro". Efecto Cocuyo (in Spanish). Retrieved 3 April 2020.
  106. ^ Avendaño, Shari (21 March 2020). "Faes detiene a periodista Darvinson Rojas y su familia, denuncia Sntp" (in Spanish). Efecto Cocuyo. Retrieved 22 March 2020.
  107. ^ "Denuncian la detención del periodista venezolano Darvinson Rojas en Caracas" (in Spanish). EFE. 22 March 2020.
  108. ^ "Denuncian la detención del periodista venezolano Darvinson Rojas en Caracas" (in Spanish). La Vanguardia. 21 March 2020. Retrieved 22 March 2020.
  109. ^ "Venezuelan journalist arrested by special forces following coronavirus coverage". Committee to Protect Journalists. 22 March 2020. Retrieved 25 March 2020.
  110. ^ "Venezuela: Journalist reporting on COVID-19 jailed". Amnesty International. 23 March 2020. Retrieved 25 March 2020.
  111. ^ "Venezuela libera a periodista detenido por publicaciones en Twitter sobre COVID-19". Deutsche Welle (in Spanish). 3 April 2020. Retrieved 3 April 2020.
  112. ^ a b Ronny Rodríguez Rosas (31 March 2020). "Hay ocho casos más de COVID-19 y el país tiene 143 contagiados, dice Maduro". Efecto Cocuyo (in Spanish). Retrieved 31 March 2020.
  113. ^ "Jorge Rodríguez informa de 1 nuevo caso de coronavirus este #1Abr". Runrunes (in Spanish). 1 April 2020. Retrieved 2 April 2020.
  114. ^ a b "Delcy Rodríguez confirma primer fallecido por Covid-19". Runrun (in Spanish). 26 March 2020. Retrieved 27 March 2020.
  115. ^ "Cronología de incongruencias y opacidad en cifras oficiales de Covid-19 en Venezuela". Runrunes (in Spanish). 26 March 2020. Retrieved 27 March 2020.
  116. ^ Avendaño, Shari (19 March 2020). "¿"Importados" o locales?, contradicciones del chavismo en torno a los casos de COVID-19". Efecto Cocuyo (in Spanish). Retrieved 27 March 2020.
  117. ^ a b Rodríguez Rosas, Ronny (25 March 2020). "Maduro informa que se elevan a 91 contagios de COVID-19 y dice que "hay casos comunitarios"". Efecto Cocuyo (in Spanish). Retrieved 25 March 2020.
  118. ^ "Vicepresidenta Rodríguez confirma 3 nuevos casos de Covid-19 en el país". Venezolana de Televisión (in Spanish). 17 March 2020. Retrieved 18 March 2020.
  119. ^ a b c "Maduro anunció que cifra de contagiados por Covid-19 aumentó a 77". (in Spanish). 23 March 2020. Retrieved 23 March 2020.
  120. ^ a b "Maduro anunció que hay 7 nuevos casos de coronavirus para este #24Mar". Runrunes (in Spanish). 24 March 2020. Retrieved 25 March 2020.

External links

What is Wiki.RIP There is a free information resource on the Internet. It is open to any user. Wiki is a library that is public and multilingual.

The basis of this page is on Wikipedia. Text licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0 Unported License..

Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. is an independent company that is not affiliated with the Wikimedia Foundation (Wikimedia Foundation).

Privacy Policy      Terms of Use      Disclaimer