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2020 coronavirus pandemic in Mexico

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2020 coronavirus pandemic in Mexico
COVID-19 Outbreak Cases in Mexico.svg
Map of the outbreak in Mexico (as of 29 March)
  Confirmed 1~5
  Confirmed 6~10
  Confirmed 11~20
  Confirmed 21~50
  Confirmed 51~200
  Confirmed 201~500
DiseaseCOVID-19
Virus strainSARS-CoV-2
LocationMexico
First outbreakWuhan, Hubei, China
(via Italy and the United States)[1]
Index caseMexico City and Los Mochis[2]
Arrival date28 February 2020
(1 month and 1 week)
Confirmed cases1510
Suspected cases4653
Recovered634[3]
Deaths
50
Official website
https://coronavirus.gob.mx/
Suspected cases have not been confirmed as being due to this strain by laboratory tests, although some other strains may have been ruled out.

The 2019–20 coronavirus pandemic was confirmed to have reached Mexico in February 2020. As of 2 April, there had been 1510 cases of COVID-19 in Mexico and 50 reported deaths.[4]

Timeline

COVID-19 cases in Mexico  ()
     Deaths        Recoveries        Active cases
Date
# of cases
# of deaths
2020-02-28
3(--) --
2020-02-29
4(+33%) --
2020-03-01
5(+25%) --
5(=)
2020-03-06
6(+20%) --
2020-03-07
7(+16%) --
7(=)
2020-03-11
11(+57%) --
2020-03-12
15(+36%) --
2020-03-13
26(+73%) --
2020-03-14
41(+58%) --
2020-03-15
53(+29%) --
2020-03-16
82(+55%) --
2020-03-17
93(+13%) --
2020-03-18
118(+27%) --
2020-03-19
164(+39%) 1
2020-03-20
203(+24%) 2(+1)
2020-03-21
251(+24%) 2
2020-03-22
316(+26%) 2
2020-03-23
367(+16%) 4(+2)
2020-03-24
405(+10%) 5(+1)
2020-03-25
475(+17%) 6(+1)
2020-03-26
585(+23%) 8(+2)
2020-03-27
717(+22%) 12(+4)
2020-03-28
848(+18%) 16(+4)
2020-03-29
993(+17%) 20(+4)
2020-03-30
1094(+10%) 28(+8)
2020-03-31
1215(+11%) 29(+1)
2020-04-01
1378(+13%) 37(+8)
2020-04-02
1510(+9%) 50(+13)
Sources:

January 2020

On 22 January 2020, the Secretariat of Health issued a statement saying that the novel coronavirus COVID-19 did not present a danger to Mexico. 441 cases have been confirmed in China, Thailand, South Korea, and the United States, and a travel advisory was issued on 9 January.[5]

On January 30, 2020 before the declaration of a pandemic by the World Health Organization the Government of Mexico designed a Preparation and Response Plan that was made by the National Committee for Health Safety, a working group led by Secretariat of Health composed by different health entities aiming to act upon the imminent arrival of the pandemic. This group carried out a series of alert measures, rehabilitation and updating of epidemiological regulations based on the International Health Regulations, being the first Latam country that deployed a mathematical modelling of infectious disease.[6]

February 2020

The cruise ship Grand Princess docked in Puerto Vallarta (15 February), Manzanillo (16 February), Mazatlán (17 February) and Cabo San Lucas(18 February), spending 9 to 12 hours in each port. The first COVID-19 death in California was a man who had been on this ship on an earlier cruise. This ship was later quarantined off San Francisco and docked in Oakland 11 March with 21 onboard who tested positive for the coronavirus.[7]

The cruise ship MSC Meraviglia, which was not allowed to dock in the Cayman Islands or Jamaica, docked in Cozumel, Quintana Roo, on 27 February. Three passengers were diagnosed with influenza A virus, but no cases of coronavirus were found.[8]

On 28 February, Mexico confirmed its first three cases. A 35-year-old man and a 59-year-old man in Mexico City and a 41-year-old man in the northern state of Sinaloa tested positive and were held in isolation at a hospital and a hotel, respectively. They had travelled to Bergamo and stayed in Italy for a week in mid-February.[9][10][2][11]

On 29 February, a fourth case was detected and confirmed in the city of Torreón, in the state of Coahuila, from a 20-year-old woman who traveled to Italy.[12]

March 2020

March 1 to 15

On 1 March, a fifth case was announced in Chiapas in a student who had just returned from Italy.[13] On 6 March, a sixth case was confirmed in the State of Mexico in a 71-year-old man who had returned from Italy on 21 February.[14]

COVID-19 was the topic of conversation at the meeting of the National Governors' Conference (Conago) held on 5 March 2020. In addition to governors from different states (or state health representatives), the directors of Instituto de Salud para el Bienestar (INSABI), IMSS, and ISSSTE participated.[15]

On March 6 during the first session of National Council of Health, Hugo López-Gatell Ramírez, one of the main strategists and spokespersons of Mexican Government on pandemics, led the first daily press conference on Covid-19.[16]

On 7 March, a seventh case was also confirmed in Mexico City in a 46-year-old male who had previously had contact with another confirmed case in the United States.[17]

On 10 March, an eighth case was reported in Puebla, a 47-year-old German man who had returned from a business trip to Italy.[18] On the same date, 40 members of a dance company in Puebla, returning from a tour in Italy, were quarantined.[19] The Mexican Stock Exchange fell to a record low on 10 March due to fears of the coronavirus and because of falling oil prices. The Bank of Mexico (Banxico) stepped in to prop up the value of the peso, which fell 14% to 22.929 per US dollar.[20]

On 11 March, a ninth case was confirmed in the city of Monterrey, Nuevo León. A 57-year-old man, who had recently come back from a trip all across Europe, was placed under quarantine. The man, who has remained anonymous, came back from his trip a week before and had contact with eight other people who have also been placed under quarantine in their houses. The man has been confirmed to reside in the city of San Pedro Garza García.[21]

On 12 March, Mexico announced it had a total of 15 confirmed cases, with new cases in Puebla and Durango.[22] A day later, senator Samuel García Sepúlveda [es] accused the federal government of hiding the true number of confirmed cases.[23] After that, the government of Nuevo León declared Phase 2. Mexico on 13 March had confirmed a total of 16 cases.[citation needed]

On 13 March, it was confirmed that the Mexican Stock Exchange Chairman, Jaime Ruiz Sacristan, tested positive as an asymptomatic case.[24] Later, the Secretariat of Health announced in press conference that the number of confirmed cases had risen to 26.[25] Several universities, including the UNAM and Tec de Monterrey, switched to virtual classes. Authorities announced to be considering the cancellation of the Festival Internacional de Cine de Guadalajara. In Mérida, the Tianguis Turístico was postponed to September. Several major sporting events were also canceled.[26]

On 14 March, Fernando Petersen, the secretary of health of the state of Jalisco, confirmed the first two cases of COVID-19 were detected in Hospital Civil de Guadalajara.[27] Two new cases were confirmed in Nuevo León, and the Secretariat of Public Education (SEP) announced that all sporting and civic events in schools would be canceled.[28] The same day, the Secretariat of Education announced that Easter break, originally planned from 6 to 17 April, would be extended from 20 March to 20 April as a preventive measure.[29] The Secretariat of Finance and Public Credit (SCHP) announced it was taking measures to prevent a 0.5% fall in gross domestic product (GDP).[30] Drugstores in Cuernavaca report shortages of masks, antibacterial gel, and other items.[31] On the same day the Autonomous University of Nuevo Leon, (UANL) (the country's third largest university in terms of student population) suspended classes for its more than 206,000 students starting on March 17 and ending on April 20.[32][33]

On 14 March 2020 sport events such as female football matches were open to public. At Estadio Olímpico Universitario, authorities were pouring hand sanitizer at the entrance.

Businessman José Kuri was reported in critical condition on 14 March after a trip to Vail, Colorado, United States, although early reports of his death were false.[34] As of 14 March, there have been 41 confirmed cases of COVID-19 in Mexico.[35]

The 14 and 15 March Festival Vive Latino (rock and Latin music) in Mexico City opened according to schedule, in spite of fears of contagion. Temperatures of the 70,000 people who attend each day were taken at the door and anti-bacterial gel was widely distributed.[36] Organizers said that the Passion Play of Iztapalapa would continue as scheduled in Holy Week. Tito Domínguez, vice president of the organizing committee, noted that a miracle had saved Iztapalapa during the cholera outbreak in 1833.[37]

On 15 March, Head of Government Claudia Sheinbaum stated that Mexico City expects to spend an extra MXN $100 million (US$4.4 million) to prevent the spread of COVID-19.[38] The first confirmed case of coronavirus in Acapulco, Guerrero, was reported.[39] Querétaro reported two new cases, bringing the total to six.[40] Nuevo Leon reported its fifth case.[41] The Norteño group Los Tres Tristes Tigres released a song on 15 March titled "El corrido del coronavirus".[42]

March 16 to 22

Panic buying of toilet paper at a Soriana supermarket in Ensenada, Baja California due to the COVID-19 pandemic.

As of 16 March, President López Obrador continued to downplay the impact of coronavirus. "Pandemics ... won't do anything to us," and accused the press and the opposition for its reportage.[43] On 16 March, lawyer Marco Antonio del Toro petitioned the federal courts to cease all but essential activities for a period of 30 to 40 days because of the coronavirus outbreak.[44] The total of confirmed cases reached 82.[45] The Autonomous University of the State of Morelos, (UAEM) suspended classes for its 22,000 students.[46] A diplomatic incident arose between the governments of Mexico and El Salvador, concerning 12 Salvadorean citizens wearing face masks on a plane departing from Mexico City to San Salvador. Nayib Bukele, president of El Salvador denounced as "irresponsible" that they were allowed to board the plane along with other passengers and offered to send a plane to transport them without contact with other people. The claim was supported by Avianca airline[47] while the Mexican government said that there were no reasons to assume that they were positive for COVID-19. Eventually, the flight was cancelled. Marcelo Ebrard, head of Foreign Affairs announced after negative results of COVID tests of that Salvadorean passengers.[48]

On 17 March, 11 new cases were confirmed, raising the national total to 93, with Campeche being the only state with no confirmed cases.[49] Mexico's limited response, including allowing a large concert and the women's soccer championship, as well as a lack of testing, have been criticized. Critics note that president López Obrador does not practice social distancing but continues to greet large crowds, and the borders have not been closed. Of particular concern is the health of thousands of migrants in temporary camps along the border with the United States. The former national commissioner for influenza in Mexico during the 2009 flu pandemic, Alejandro Macías, said the problem is compounded by the fact that Mexico lacks sufficient intensive care unit beds, medical care workers and ventilators.[50]

On 18 March, 25 more cases were confirmed raising the total to 118 cases and 314 suspected cases.[51][52] Authorities in Jalisco are concerned about a group of 400 people who recently returned from Vail, Colorado; 40 people have symptoms of COVID-19.[53][54] The same day, the Mexican government announced that they will allocate 3.5 billion pesos (approx. 146 million US dollars[55]) to buy medical and laboratory equipment, washing and disinfection material, and ventilators.[56] During the night the first COVID-19 related death in the country was confirmed, a 41-year-old man without a travel history outside the country who was hospitalized at the National Institute of Respiratory Diseases (INER).[57] Colima Governor José Ignacio Peralta declared a state of emergency after the state's first case, a man who had recently returned from Germany, was reported on 17 March.[58] Ford, Honda, and Audi closed their manufacturing plants in Mexico.[59] Hundreds of hotel employees in Cancún were fired.[60]

Authorities announced on 18 March that they were looking for hundreds of citizens who may be carriers of the coronavirus, especially in the states of Puebla, Jalisco, Aguascalientes, and Guerrero. A four-member family in Puebla who had traveled to the United States kept their symptoms secret as they visited neighbors in La Vista and visited a gym. Authorities were still trying to track down the 400 people in Jalisco and Nayarit who recently traveled to Vail, Colorado. In Aguascalientes they were looking to track down passengers of Fight 2638 who traveled with a sick man from New York. The Autonomous University of Guerrero (UAGRO) in Chilpancingo closed after a female student tested positive for the virus. The Technical Institute of Guerrero and the state Supreme Court also closed.[61]

Morelos had its first two confirmed cases on 19 March—a 54-year-old woman from Cuautla and a 37-year-old man from Cuernavaca.[62] Sinaloa announced its third case, a 20-year-old woman from Culiacán.[63]

U.S Secretary of State Mike Pompeo announced on 20 March there would be restrictions on travel across the Mexico–United States border. Said restrictions would not apply to cargo.[64] The National Institute of Anthropology and History (INAH) announced that the archaeological zones Teotihuacán, Xochicalco, and El Tepozteco will be closed on 21–22 March. Chichén Itzá will close indefinitely starting 21 March. Guachimontones will close 21, 22, and 23 March. Palenque, Tula and Tingambato will close 21 March.[65] Alsea, which operates restaurants such as Starbucks, VIPS, and Domino's Pizza offered its employees unpaid leave.[66] Mayor Juanita Romero (PAN) of Nacozari de García Municipality, Sonora, declares a curfew, in effect until 20 April. Only the President of Mexico has the legal authority to declare such a declaration.[67] During the night, 38 more cases and one more death were confirmed raising the total to 203 cases, 2 deaths, and 606 suspected cases.[68]

On March 21 the total confirmed cases were 251.[69] One day later 65 more cases were confirmed and the total of suspected cases grew to 793.[70]

On 22 March, bars, nightclubs, movie theaters, and museums were closed in Mexico City.[71] Governor Enrique Alfaro Ramírez of Jalisco announced that beginning Thursday, 26 March, Jalisco and seven other states in the Bajío and western Mexico will block flights from areas such as California that have a high rate of coronavirus. He also said that they will purchase 25,000 testing kits.[72]

March 23 to 31

People entering to a specially respiratory illness symptom assessment area at the Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, Mexico City, Mexico. The hospital was converted into a special care area for COVID patients.

Mexico entered Phase 2 of the coronavirus pandemic on 23 March 2020, according to the World Health Organization, with 367 confirmed cases. Phase 2 includes cases where the sick individuals did not have direct contact with someone who had recently been in another country.[73] On the same day it was confirmed that two more people died from COVID-19, raising the total to 4 reported deaths.[74] That day was announced on President López Obrador's daily press conference the realization of the National Campaign of Healthy Distancing (Jornada Nacional de Sana Distancia [es]) a national program of non-pharmaceutical measures based on social distancing among the behavioral changes suggested by WHO as hand washing, covering one's mouth when coughing, maintaining distance from other people, and monitoring and self-isolation for people who suspect they are infected.[75] On that same day in the daily press conference was announced also a media campaign led by "Susana Distancia" (wordplay of a healthy distance) a fictional female superhero aiming to promote social distancing into the people.[76]

Meanwhile, a Mitofsky poll showed that 63% of Mexicans feared contracting Covid-19 and 25.5% feared dying from it. 28% said they were not willing to stay in their homes. 38.6% believed President López Obrador was handling the situation well, and 37% disapproved.[77] Access to supermarkets in Coahuila was limited to one person per family, and the temperature of that person was taken before entering. The same rule applies to drugstores and convenience stores in the state, which has 12 confirmed cases of Covid-19.[78]

At his morning news conference on 24 March, President López Obrador announced that Mexico entered Phase 2 of the coronavirus pandemic, in effect until April 30. Gatherings of more than 100 people are prohibited, and both the army and the navy will participate. The armed forces have 1,738 doctors, 1,727 nurses, 100 intensive therapy ambulances, and 400 ambulances for transportation. The military also has 5 high specialty hospitals, 36 second-level hospitals, and 272 first-level hospitals with 262 health brigades across the country. 4 deaths, 367 confirmed cases, and 826 suspected cases of COVID-19 have been reported.[79] A Mexican citizen died in Peru from COVID-19. This was announced by the Foreign Ministry, which also notified that the body will be repatriated as a humanitarian operation.[80] The first Mexican woman died from COVID-19 on March 24, raising the total to 5 reported deaths in the country.[81] On the same day 405 total cases of COVID-19 were confirmed.[82] A 31-year-old male Mexican national in custody by U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) in Hackensack, New Jersey is being held in isolation after being tested positive for Covid-19. He is the first migrant to test positive, and ICE is suspending the intake of new migrants.[83]

On 25 March, Dr. Abelardo Ávila, researcher at the Salvador Zubirán National Institute of Health Sciences and Nutrition warned that Mexico was particularly vulnerable to the COVID-19 pandemic because of underlying chronic illnesses such as obesity, diabetes, and hypertension.[84] Also on 25 March President López Obrador ordered the Mexican Air Force to rescue Mexicans trapped in Argentina.[85] In Baja California, PROFECO closed two businesses in Tijuana for price-gouging.[86] In Mexico City, Head of Government Claudia Sheinbaum announced financial support for families and micro industries affected by the pandemic. She also announced that automobile verification would be suspended through April 19. Movie theaters, bars, nightclubs, gyms, and other entertainment centers will remain closed.[87] The same day it was reported that one man died from COVID-19 in San Luis Potosí, raising the total to 6 reported deaths in Mexico and 475 confirmed cases.[88][89] Governor Miguel Barbosa Huerta (Morena) claimed that only the wealthy were at risk, since the poor are immune to COVID-19.[90]

On 26 March, President López Obrador revealed he asked the G20 to ensure that wealthy countries cannot take control of the world's medical supplies. He also called for assurances that borders would not be closed to commerce and that tariffs would not be unilaterally increased. Lastly, he called for an end to racism and discrimination.[91] The Mexican government announced it would suspend most sectors' activities starting 26 March until 19 April, with the exception of health and energy sectors, the oil industry; and public services such as water supply, waste management and public safety.[92] The Secretary of Health estimated that Phase 3 of the pandemic, when the number of cases reaches its peak, will be about 19 April.[93] Protesters in Sonora insisted that the government limit border crossings with the United States.[94] Chihuahua announced that “in the next few days” it will start to quarantine migrants who are returned to the Ciudad Juárez border crossing. About 65 migrants are deported from El Paso, Texas daily, about 5,200 this year.[95] Two more deaths were reported on this day; 585 cases were confirmed, and there were 2,156 suspected cases.[96] Human Rights Watch accused AMLO of endangering lives by not providing accurate information about the pandemic.[97] The government of San Luis Potosi reported the death of a 57-year-old man on March 26, bringing the total number of deaths in the country to nine. He had hypertension and diabetes.[98] Citizens of Nogales, Sonora block border crossing from Nogales, Arizona in order to prevent the entrance of individuals with the virus infection and to prevent shortages of food, bottled water, toilet paper and cleaning supplies in local stores.[99]

According to the Secretary of Health, a plurality of the 585 people infected in Mexico, 70, are between 30 and 34 years old. People over 65 are second, followed by those 25 to 29 and 45 to 49. The states with the most incidents are Mexico City (83), Jalisco (64) and Nuevo Leon (57).[100]

On March 27 the federal government bought 5,000 ventilators from China as the government prepares for Phase 3 of the pandemic.[101] The total confirmed cases rose to 717; twelve deaths were reported, and there were 2,475 suspected cases.[102] PROFECO (Office of the Federal Prosecutor for the Consumer) said it will fine merchants who unfairly raise the prices on household goods.[103] The governors of Nuevo León, Tamaulipas and Coahuila asked the federal government to close the border with the United States.[104]

On March 28, Governor Omar Fayad of Hidalgo announced in a tweet that he tested positive for the virus and said that he was in self-quarantine.[105] The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Mexico said services should be held indoors with no more than twenty people present. They may cancel all Holy Week celebrations if things do not improve.[106] In the evening the Secretariat of Health reported 131 new confirmed cases and four more deaths, raising the total to 848 confirmed cases and 16 deaths.[107] Governor Cuauhtémoc Blanco of Morelos announced the seventh case and first death due to COVID-19 in the state, a 37-year-old man who had recently traveled to the United States.[108][109] San Luis Potosi suspended wakes and funerals; the dead should be taken directly from the hospital to the crematorium.[110]

Tabasco Governor Adán Augusto López Hernández tested positive for COVID-19 on 29 March.[111] Two tunnels with disinfectant spray were installed in the subways system of Escobedo, Nuevo León.[112] The government of Yucatán threatens fines of $86,000 pesos and up to three years in prison for individuals who have tested positive for coronavirus and do not self-quarantine.[113] The state of Querétaro registered its first death from COVID-19, a 56-year old man.[114] The same day 993 cases of COVID-19 and 20 deaths from the disease were confirmed.[115] Between 27 and 29 March, 566 Mexicans were brought home from other countries: 62 from Colombia, 53 from Eucador, 299 from Peru, 28 from Guatemala (via land), and 134 from Cuba. In turn, the Mexican government helped 86 people return to Ecuador, 99 to Peru, and 49 to Cuba.[116]

On 30 March, the total number of cases of COVID-19 surpassed one thousand with 1,094 confirmed cases and 28 reported deaths in the country. In the evening, a national health emergency was declared in Mexico by Secretary Marcelo Ebrard; all sectors in the country are urged to stop most of their activities.[117]

In the early morning of 31 March, 50,000 test kits, 100,000 masks and five ventilators (donated by Jack Ma and the Alibaba Foundation of China) arrived at the Mexico City International Airport.[118] The same day the total confirmed cases of COVID-19 reached 1215 and one more death was reported. The government of Mexico City announced that 90% of the businesses in Mexico City would have to close because of the national health emergency declaration of the day before.[119] In Austin, Texas, Public Health officials started investigating an apparent cluster of COVID-19 after 28 of 70 “spring breakers” (students at the University of Texas at Austin) tested positive following their trip to Cabo San Lucas, Baja California Sur in early March.[120] The Mexican Social Security Institute (IMSS) in Monclova, Coahuila, reported that 29 medical and nursing staff tested positive for COVID-19. No patients have been infected.[121]

April 2020

April 1 to 15

People wearing face masks at the Monterrey International Airport due to the COVID-19 pandemic.

It was reported on 1 April that seven migrants from Puebla residing in New York have died of COVID-19. [122] Authorities reported 46% of cases as recoveries, which represents approximately 634 recoveries. [3] In Coahuila, 21 health workers contracted the virus and one doctor died from it, bringing the number of deaths among doctors employed by IMSS to four. Nineteen of the 21 cases in Coahuila are mild and the individuals are ambulatory.[123] Later the same day, 1378 cases and 37 deaths of COVID-19 were reported in Mexico.[124]

On April 2, 1510 cases of COVID-19 and 13 more deaths related to the disease were confirmed by Mexican authorities.[4] In Mexico City, as hotels are forced to close, hotel guests are evicted from their rooms.[125]

Statistics

SALUD reported Mexico totals

As of April 2
State Cases Deaths Recoveries
1510 50 634
 Mexico City 327 13 196
 State of Mexico 171 1 102
 Jalisco 104 4 87
 Puebla 100 1 46
 Nuevo León 84 0 99
 Coahuila 62 2 38
 Tabasco 62 3 36
 Quintana Roo 56 1 38
 Yucatán 53 0 5
 Guanajuato 50 0 26
 Aguascalientes 47 0 30
 Sinaloa 42 4 12
 Baja California 40 3 31
 San Luis Potosí 33 2 23
 Querétaro 32 1 15
 Veracruz 29 1 10
 Hidalgo 26 3 11
 Michoacán 24 1 8
 Guerrero 22 1 4
 Oaxaca 22 1 9
 Sonora 21 0 4
 Baja California Sur 19 2 6
 Chiapas 15 0 2
 Tamaulipas 13 0 2
 Chihuahua 11 0 3
 Morelos 9 3 4
 Durango 8 1 3
 Nayarit 8 1 2
 Zacatecas 7 1 1
 Campeche 5 0 1
 Tlaxcala 5 0 1
 Colima 3 0 1
Source:

Secretaría de Salud (2020).[126]
Geological and Atmospheric Research Institute [127]

Cases per 100,000 inhabitants

Map of the COVID-19 outbreak in Mexico per 100,000 inhabitants as of 2 April 2020.
  <0.1 per 100,000
  ≥0.1 per 100,000
  ≥0.5 per 100,000
  ≥1.0 per 100,000
  ≥1.5 per 100,000
  ≥2.0 per 100,000
  ≥3.0 per 100,000
  ≥5.0 per 100,000
  ≥7.0 per 100,000
As of April 2
State Cases Population[a] Cases per 100,000 inhabitants[b]
1510 119,530,753 1.3
 Mexico City 327 8,918,653 3.7
 Quintana Roo 56 1,501,562 3.7
 Aguascalientes 47 1,312,544 3.6
 Baja California Sur 19 712,029 2.7
 Tabasco 62 2,395,272 2.6
 Yucatán 52 2,097,175 2.5
 Coahuila 62 2,954,915 2.1
 Puebla 100 6,168,883 1.6
 Nuevo León 84 5,119,504 1.6
 Querétaro 32 2,038,372 1.6
 Sinaloa 42 2,966,321 1.4
 Jalisco 104 7,844,830 1.3
 Baja California 40 3,315,766 1.2
 San Luis Potosí 33 2,717,820 1.2
 State of Mexico 171 16,187,608 1.1
 Guanajuato 50 5,853,677 0.9
 Hidalgo 26 2,858,359 0.9
 Nayarit 8 1,181,050 0.7
 Sonora 21 2,850,330 0.7
 Campeche 5 899,931 0.6
 Guerrero 22 3,533,251 0.6
 Oaxaca 22 3,967,889 0.6
 Durango 8 1,754,754 0.5
 Michoacán 24 4,584,471 0.5
 Morelos 9 1,903,811 0.5
 Colima 3 711,235 0.4
 Tamaulipas 13 3,441,698 0.4
 Tlaxcala 5 1,272,847 0.4
 Veracruz 29 8,112,505 0.4
 Zacatecas 7 1,579,209 0.4
 Chiapas 15 5,217,908 0.3
 Chihuahua 11 3,556,574 0.3
Source:

Secretariat of Health (2020).[126]
Geological and Atmospheric Research Institute [127]
National Institute of Statistics and Geography [128]

Curve of infection

Phases

According to the Secretariat of Health, there are three phases before the disease (COVID-19) can be considered as an epidemic in the country:[129]

Phase Time period Description Ref
Start End
Viral Import February 28, 2020 March 23, 2020[130]
  • People with the virus caught the disease outside Mexico and there are no cases of local transmission.
  • There is a limited number of people infected with the virus.
  • There are no strict restrictions for greeting people.
  • Public events in closed or open spaces are still allowed.
[129]
Community Transmission March 24, 2020[130] TBA
  • Community transmission cases are reported between people who have not had contact with foreigners.
  • The number of confirmed cases increases rapidly.
  • Massive public events are canceled both in open and closed spaces.
  • School classes are suspended and people are encouraged to work from home.
Epidemic TBA TBA
  • Thousands of cases are reported in multiple locations across the country.
  • Schools and workplaces with active outbreaks would have no activities.
  • It requires the implementation of stricter health protocols.
  • In the worst case scenario it would be required a general quarantine of the population.

Economic effects

The INEGI says the unemployment rate increased from 3.6% in January 2020 to 3.7% in February 2020. The informal sector increased to 56.3% in February compared to 56.0% in February 2019.[131]

The Mexican Stock Exchange fell to a record low on 10 March due to fears of the coronavirus and because of falling oil prices. The Bank of Mexico (Banxico) stepped in to prop up the value of the peso, which fell 14% to 22.929 per US dollar.[20] World markets are seeing falls similar to those of 1987.[132] Moody's Investors Service predicted that the economy will contract 5.2% during the first trimester of the year and 3.7% by the end of the year.[133] Banxico announced on 1 April that foreign investors have withdrawn MXN $150 billion (US $,6.3 billion) from Mexico, mostly in Certificados de la Tesorería ((Treasury Certificates, Cetes) since February 27 when the first COVID-19 case in Mexico was diagnosed. The problem is compounded by the low oil price, only US $10.37 per barrel, a 20.29% drop since the beginning of the 2020 Russia–Saudi Arabia oil price war.[134]

On 24 March, Grupo Modelo, makers of Corona beer, promised to donate 300,000 bottles of antibacterial gel to the Mexican Social Security Institute (IMSS).[135] The Conacintra (National Chamber of the Processing Industry) announced on 2 April they were suspending all beer production in the country, as breweries are not an essential industry and there was sufficient supply in the country for a month.[136]

The Consejo Nacional Empresarial Turístico (National Tourism Business Council, CNET) sent two letters in March to Alfonso Romo, Chief of Staff to the President, outlining the importance of tourism to the economy and asking for government support for the sector. Tourism provides 4 million jobs in Mexico, and 93% of the companies have ten or fewer employees. COVID-19 has forced the closure of 4,000 hotels (52,400 rooms) and 2,000 restaurants, while the airline industry has lost MXN $30 billion (US $1.3 billion).[137] Tourism accounts for 10% of Gross domestic product (GDP) in the world.[138]

The association of car dealers, ADMA, predicts a decrease in sales in Mexico between 16% and 25% this year.[139] J.D. Power estimated a 20% decrease, 264,000 vehicles, in Mexico and a 15% drop across the world.[140] The Employers Confederation of the Mexican Republic (COPARMEX) criticized the government on 29 March for not suspending the payment of taxes, saying the government does not care about unemployment. Fernando Treviño Núñez, president of the organization, explained that businesses cannot afford to pay salaries for more than three months without receiving income.[141]

Panic buying in mid-March is causing shortages in Mexico of Hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin, which U.S. President Donald Trump, with no backing from the scientific or medical communities, says is helpful in preventing COVID-19. The Comisión Federal para la Protección de Riesgos Sanitarios (Federal Commission for the Protection of Health Risks, Cofepris) has put controls on the sale of both products. Hidroxicloroquina is used in the treatment of malaria, lupus and rheumatoid arthritis. Plaquenil tablets are produced in Mexico by the French company Sanofi; the raw material comes from Hungary. Shortages of medicine for these diseases can be expected soon.[142]

Gasoline and diesel fuel importers have not noted a decrease in demand since the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, and they fear that health precautions could cause fuel delays at ports of entry. Watco Companies said that cargo on the Houston Ship Channel for delivery to San Luis Potosí increased 25% in March compared to January. Mexico imports 65% of its gasoline.[143]

Some financial analysts say there has been too little, too late. Carlos Serrano of BBVA México predicts a 4.5% economic contraction in 2020, while analysts at Capital Economics in London argue that the government has to do more to support the economy. They forecast a 6% contraction this year. HR Ratings, Latin America’s first credit rating agency, said that the performance of the economy this year will depend on the government’s response to the COVID-19 crisis.[144]

Authorities are concerned about supermarket robberies. A gang of 70 people robbed a grocery store in Tecámac, State of Mexico, on March 23, and a gang of 30 looted a supermarket in Oaxaca City on March 24. Calls for supermarket looting, warning of food shortages, are making the rounds of social media.[145] Four such social media groups in Tijuana were broken up in Baja California on 29 March.[146]

Government response

  • 9 January 9, 2020 – A travel advisory for people traveling to or from China was issued.[5]
  • 22 January – The Secretariat of Health issued a statement saying that the novel coronavirus COVID-19 did not present a danger to Mexico.[5]
  • 30 January – The Government of Mexico designed a Preparation and Response Plan that was made by the National Committee for Health Safety, a working group led by Secretariat of Health composed by different health entities aiming to act upon the imminent arrival of the pandemic. This group carried out a series of alert measures, rehabilitation and updating of epidemiological regulations based on the International Health Regulations.[6]
  • 5 March – The National Governors' Conference (Conago) met to discuss the coronavirus outbreak. The directors of INSABI, IMSS and ISSSTE also participated.[15]
  • 6 March – Hugo López-Gatell Ramírez led the first daily press conference on COVID-19.[16]
  • 10 March – As the stock market and the price of oil fell, ‘‘Banxico’’ stepped in to prop up the value of the peso, which had fallen 14%.[20]
  • 13 March – The National Autonomous University of Mexico suspended in-person classes. Authorities canceled or postponed major tourist events in Guadalajara and Merida.[26]
  • 14 March
    • The SEP announced that all sporting and civic events in schools would be canceled[28] and that Easter break, originally planned from 6 to 17 April, would be extended from 20 March to 20 April.[29] On 31 March the school closings were extended through 30 April.[147]
    • The SCHP announced it was taking measures to prevent a 0.5% fall in GDP.[30]
    • The ‘‘Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León’’ (UANL) suspended classes for its more than 206,000 students starting on March 17.[32]
  • 15 March – Mexico City mayor Claudia Sheinbaum declared that Mexico City expected to spend an extra MXN $100 million to prevent the spread of COVID-19.[38]
  • 18 March – Authorities announced that they were looking for hundreds of citizens who might be carriers of the coronavirus, especially in the states of Puebla, Jalisco, Aguascalientes and Guerrero. The Autonomous University of Guerrero (UAGRO) in Chilpancingo closed after a female student tested positive for the virus.[61]
  • 22 March
    • Bars, nightclubs, movie theaters and museums were closed in Mexico City.[71]
    • Governor Alfaro Ramírez announces that Jalisco and seven other states would block flights from areas such as that had a high rate of coronavirus. He also said that they would purchase 25,000 testing kits.[72]
    • Governor Jaime Rodríguez Calderón of Nuevo León said he will not rule out the use of force to get people to stay at home.[148]
  • 23 March
    • The WHO announced that Mexico had entered into the community contact phase of infection.[73]
    • The National Campaign of Healthy Distancing, a national program of non-pharmaceutical measures based on social distancing, began.[75] A media campaign led by "Susana Distancia", who is a fictional female superhero aiming to promote social distancing, was launched.[76] "Susana Distancia" is in fact a wordplay roughly meaning "(maintaining) a healthy distance".
    • Access to supermarkets, drugstores and convenience stores in Coahuila was limited to one person per family, and the temperature of that person was taken before entering.[78]
  • 24 March – President López Obrador announced that Mexico had entered Phase 2 of the coronavirus pandemic, in effect until April 30. Gatherings of more than 100 people were prohibited, and both the Mexican Army and the Mexican Navy would participate.[79]
  • 25 March
    • President López Obrador ordered the Mexican Air Force to rescue Mexicans trapped in Argentina.[85]
    • Office of the Federal Prosecutor for the Consumer (Profeco) closed two businesses in Tijuana, Baja California, for price-gouging.[86]
    • In Mexico City, Claudia Sheinbaum announced financial support for families and micro industries affected by the pandemic, and she suspended automobile smog checks through April 19. She closed movie theaters, bars, nightclubs, gyms and other entertainment centers.[87]
    • The government announced that it would continue receiving cruise ships “for humanitarian reasons,” but that passengers would be individually "fumigated" before being taken directly to airports to be returned to their home countries. The protocol will apply to the MS Europa, currently docked in Puerta Vallarta.[149]
  • 26 March
    • President López Obrador addressed the Group of Twenty regarding medical supplies and trade and tariffs.[91] The federal government announced it would suspend most sectors' activities from 26 March to 19 April.[92]
    • The Secretary of Health estimated that Phase 3 of the pandemic, when the number of cases reaches its peak, will be about 19 April.[93]
    • Authorities in Chihuahua announced that it would start to quarantine migrants who were returned to the Ciudad Juárez border crossing.[95]
    • The Comisión Federal para la Protección de Riesgos Sanitarios (Federal Commission for the Protection of Health Risks, Cofepris) put controls on the sale of hidroxicloroquina and azithromycin, used in the treatment of malaria, lupus]] and rheumatoid arthritis, but not shown to be effective against COVID-19. Nonetheless, panic buying of these medicines is likely to soon lead to a shortage.[142]
  • 27 March
  • March 28
    • Hugo López-Gatell Ramírez, Deputy Secretary of Health, said that with 16 deaths and 848 cases of infection, this is the last opportunity to prevent accelerated growth of COVID-19. He called on the population to act responsibly to prevent its spread.[152] Milenio reported that López-Gatell said there is a legal basis for the use of force to enforce stay-at-home orders during the COVID-19 pandemic.[153]
    • Health officials, accompanied by a representative of the military and Foreign Secretary Marcelo Ebrard made a video urging the populace to stay home. AMLO did not appear in that video, but he made a separate one with the same message.[154]
  • 30 March – A national health emergency was declared in Mexico and stricter measures aimed at containing the spread of the virus were introduced.[117]
  • 1 April
    • Beaches throughout the country are closed.[155]
    • INEGI asked everyone who has not taken part of the 2020 census to contact them via their webpage or by calling them before 15 April.[156]
    • The Governor of Nuevo León ordered a halt to production and distribution of beer in the state, beginning April 3.[157]

Cancellations, suspensions, and closings

Archaeological sites

Teotihuacán, Xochicalco, El Tepozteco closed 21–22 March. Chichén Itzá closed indefinitely starting 21 March.[65]

Educational institutions
Basic educationThe SEP announced on 14 March that all sporting and civic events in schools would be cancelled[28] and that Easter break would be from 20 March to 20 April.[29]
Higher education: The UNAM and Tec de Monterrey, switched to virtual classes on 13 March.[26] Autonomous University of the State of Morelos, (UAEM) suspended classes on 16 March.[46] Autonomous University of Nuevo Leon, (UANL) suspended classes from 17 March to 20 April.[32] Autonomous University of Guerrero (UAGRO) and Technical Institute of Guerrero (Chilpancingo) closed 18 March.[61]
Entertainment

OCESA cancelled all its events until April 19.[158]

Fairs: Authorities announced on 14 March they were considering the cancellation of the Festival Internacional de Cine de Guadalajara. In Mérida, the Tianguis Turístico was postponed to September.[26]
Musical: Chicago suspended until 17 April[158]
Concerts: The Magic Numbers, Los Tigres del Norte, Red Orange County [sic], Mercury Rev, María León, Sasha Sloan[158] and Ricky Martin[159]
Conference: Michelle Obama[158]
Other: Bars, nightclubs, movie theaters, and museums were closed in Mexico City on 22 March.[71]
Government

President López Obrador suspended non-essential activities from 26 March to 19 April. The health and energy sectors, the oil industry, and public services such as water supply, waste management and public safety continued to function.[92]

Industry

Ford Motor Company, Honda and Audi closed their manufacturing plants in Mexico on 18 March.[59] Hundreds of hotel employees in Cancún were fired.[60] Alsea (Starbucks, VIPS, Domino's Pizza, Burger King, Italianni's, Chili's, California Pizza Kitchen, P. F. Chang's China Bistro and The Cheesecake Factory) offered its employees unpaid leave.[66] PROFECO closed two businesses in Tijuana Baja California, for price-gouging on 25 March.[86] Cinépolis announced that they will temporaily close all of their theaters starting March 25.[160]

Ports of entry
Air: Governor Alfaro Ramírez of Jalisco announced that beginning Thursday, 26 March, eight states in the Bajío and western Mexico woud block flights from areas that had a high rate of coronavirus. The restrictions would apply at the Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla Guadalajara International Airport and the Licenciado Gustavo Díaz Ordaz International Airport in Puerto Vallarta.[72]
Land: The United States Department of State announced on 20 March there would be restrictions on travel across the Mexico–United States border. The restrictions would not apply to cargo.[64] On 26 March, protesters in Sonora insisted that the government limit border crossings with the United States.[94] Chihuahua (state) announced that it would start to quarantine migrants who are returned to the Ciudad Juárez border crossing.[95] Citizens of Nogales, Sonora, blocked border crossing from Nogales, Arizona, in order to prevent the entrance of individuals with the virus infection and to prevent shortages of food, bottled water, toilet paper and cleaning supplies in local stores.[99]
Sea: The government announced on 25 March it would continue receiving cruise ships but that passengers would be individually "fumigated" before being taken directly to airports to be returned to their home countries.[149]
Sports

Jalisco Open (tennis tournament) and CONCACAF Champions League (soccer) cancelled 13 March[26]

Religious events

On 17 March, Passion Play of Iztapalapa in Mexico City moved to an undisclosed location indoors and televised on April 10[161]

San Luis Potosi suspended wakes and funerals on March 29.[110]

Curfew established

Mayor Juanita Romero (PAN) of Nacozari de García, Sonora, declared a curfew in effect until 20 April.[67]

Notable Mexicans with COVID-19

See also

Notes

  1. ^ In 2015.
  2. ^ Calculated by dividing the number of cases by the total population of the state and multiplying the result by 100,000.

References

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  113. ^ Multas de 86 mil pesos a personas con coronavirus que no se aíslen en Yucatán (in Spanish) Noticieros Televisa, 29 Mar 2020
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  134. ^ Coronavirus in Mexico: foreigners withdraw 150 mmdp from the country for COVID-19 (in Spanish) Infoabe Mexico, 1 April 2020
  135. ^ Grupo Modelo donará 300 mil botellas de gel antibacterial al IMSS para combatir al COVID-19(in Spanish) Sin Embargo, 24 Mar 2020
  136. ^ Beer will not be produced for a month; Not an essential activity: Canacintra (in Spanish) El Universal, 2 Apr 2020
  137. ^ The CNET asks for support while their companies save jobs (in English) by Carlos Velazquez, Dinero en Imagen, 26 Mar 2020
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  139. ^ Despair of industries (in English) by José Yuste, Dinero en Imagen, 25 Mar 2020
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  151. ^ Sader delimita acciones para garantizar abasto de alimentos (in Spanish) by Carolina Gómez Mena, La Jornada, 27 Mar 2020
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