An ongoing worldwide pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), a novel infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), was first confirmed to have spread to Italy on 31 January 2020, when two Chinese tourists in Rome tested positive for the virus. One week later an Italian man repatriated back to Italy from the city of Wuhan, China, was hospitalised and confirmed as the third case in Italy. A cluster of cases was later detected, starting with 16 confirmed cases in Lombardy on 21 February, and 60 additional cases and the first deaths on 22 February. By the beginning of March, the virus had spread to all regions of Italy.
On 31 January, the Italian government suspended all flights to and from China and declared a state of emergency. In February, eleven municipalities in northern Italy were identified as the centres of the two main Italian clusters and placed under quarantine. The majority of positive cases in other regions traced back to these two clusters. On 8 March 2020, Prime MinisterGiuseppe Conte expanded the quarantine to all of Lombardy and 14 other northern provinces, and on the following day to all of Italy, placing more than 60 million people in quarantine. On 11 March 2020, Conte prohibited nearly all commercial activity except for supermarkets and pharmacies. On 21 March, the Italian government closed all non-essential businesses and industries, with additional restrictions to movement of people.
On 6 March 2020, the Italian College of Anesthesia, Analgesia, Resuscitation and Intensive Care (SIAARTI) published medical ethics recommendations regarding triage protocols that might be employed.
As of 2 April 2020[update], Italy is one of the world's centres of active coronavirus cases with 83,049 active cases. The total of confirmed cases is 115,242, with 13,915 deaths, and 18,278 recoveries or dismissals. By 2 April, Italy had conducted about 581,200 tests for the virus. Due to the finite number of tests performed, the real number of infected people in Italy, as in other countries, is estimated to be higher than the official count. On 19 March, Italy became the country with the highest number of confirmed deaths in the world.
^The data on 2020-03-10 does not include cases from the Lombardy region (approx. 600 cases). This brings the geometric average growth for 2020-03-10 and 2020-03-11 to +17%.
^The data on 2020-03-11 does not include cases from Abruzzo.
^The data on 2020-03-16 does not include cases from Apulia and the autonomous province of Trento (approx. 150 cases).
^The data on 2020-03-17 does not include cases from the province of Rimini.
^The data on 2020-03-18 does not include cases from Campania and the province of Parma.
^The data on 2020-03-26 on the number of deaths in Piedmont was transcribed with a typo, and afterwards corrected by Piedmont authorities.
First confirmed cases
On 31 January, the first two cases of COVID-19 were confirmed in Rome. A Chinese couple, originally from Wuhan, who had arrived in Italy on 23 January via Milan Malpensa Airport, travelled from the airport to Verona, then to Parma, arriving in Rome on 28 January. The next afternoon, they developed a cough, and by evening the man had a fever; the couple were taken to Lazzaro Spallanzani National Institute for Infectious Diseases where they tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 and were hospitalised. On 31 January, the Italian government suspended all flights to and from China and declared a state of emergency with the duration of six months. Prime Minister Giuseppe Conte said Italy was the first EU country to take this kind of precautionary measure. The government also introduced thermal scanners and temperature checks on international passengers arriving at Italian airports.
On 6 February, an Italian repatriated from Wuhan tested positive for COVID-19, bringing the total number of cases in Italy to three.
On 22 February, the repatriated Italian recovered and was discharged from the hospital. On 22 and 26 February, the two previously infected Chinese tourists tested negative for COVID-19 at Lazzaro Spallanzani National Institute in Rome.
The Lombardy outbreak came to light when a 38-year-old Italian tested positive in Codogno, a comune in the province of Lodi. On 14 February, he felt unwell and went to a doctor in Castiglione d'Adda. He was prescribed treatments for influenza. On 16 February, as the man's condition worsened, he went to Codogno Hospital, reporting respiratory problems. Initially there was no suspicion of COVID-19, so no additional precautionary measures were taken, and the virus was able to infect other patients and health workers. On 19 February, the wife of the patient revealed he had met an Italian friend who had returned from China on 21 January, who subsequently tested negative. Later, the patient, his pregnant wife and a friend tested positive. On 20 February, three more cases were confirmed after the patients reported symptoms of pneumonia. Thereafter, extensive screenings and checks were performed on everyone that had possibly been in contact with or near the infected subjects. It has been subsequently reported that the origin of these cases has a possible connection to the first European local transmission that occurred in Munich, Germany, on 19 January 2020, consistent with phylogenetic analysis of viral genome. The 38-year-old man was asymptomatic for weeks, reportedly led an active social life and potentially interacted with dozens of people before spreading the virus at Codogno Hospital. Afterward, he was transferred to Policlinico San Matteo in Pavia, and his wife to Sacco Hospital in Milan.
On 21 February 16 more cases were confirmed – 14 in Lombardy, including the doctor who prescribed treatments to the 38-year-old Codogno man, and two in Veneto. On 22 February, a 77-year-old woman from Casalpusterlengo, who suffered from pneumonia and visited the same emergency room as the 38-year-old from Codogno, died in Lombardy. Including the 78-year-old man who died in Veneto, the number of cases in Italy rose to 79. Of the 76 newly discovered cases, 54 were found in Lombardy, including one patient in San Raffaele Hospital in Milan and eight patients in Policlinico San Matteo in Pavia, 17 in Veneto, two in Emilia-Romagna, two in Lazio and one in Piedmont.
On 23 February, a 68-year-old woman with cancer from Trescore Cremasco died in Crema. The number of cases in Italy rose to 152, including fourteen patients being treated at Policlinico San Matteo in Pavia. On 24 February, an 84-year-old man with pre-existing medical conditions from Villa di Serio died in Bergamo while hospitalised in the Papa Giovanni XXIII Hospital. An 88-year-old man from Caselle Landi, who resided in Codogno, died on the same day. An 80-year-old man from Castiglione d’Adda died at the Luigi Sacco Hospital in Milan. He was previously hospitalised in Lodi because of a heart attack, and then transferred to Milan when confirmed as positive. A 62-year-old man with pre-existing medical conditions from Castiglione d'Adda died in Sant'Anna Hospital in Como. Lombardy governor Attilio Fontana announced that the number of cases in Lombardy had risen to 172, with a total of 229 confirmed in Italy. On 25 February, an 84-year-old man from Nembro, a 91-year-old man from San Fiorano and an 83-year-old woman from Codogno died from complications caused by the infections.
The number of cases in Emilia-Romagna rose to 23, spreading through the provinces of Piacenza, Parma, Modena and Rimini. These were all linked to the Lombardy cluster. A new case linked to the outbreak in Lombardy appeared in Palermo, Sicily, when a 60-year-old woman from Bergamo tested positive and was admitted to Cervello Hospital. A 49-year-old man who previously visited Codogno tested positive in Pescia, Tuscany. Officials in Liguria confirmed that a 72-year-old female tourist from Castiglione d'Adda tested positive in Alassio while she was staying in a hotel. The woman was treated at a hospital in Genoa. Later in the day, a second case in Liguria was confirmed, a 54-year-old man who had visited Codogno for work and tested positive in La Spezia. On 26 February, a 69-year-old man from Lodi with pre-existing medical conditions died in Emilia-Romagna. The mayor of Borgonovo Val Tidone, Pietro Mazzocchi, tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 and underwent a voluntary isolation at home.
Additional cases involving six minors were identified in Lombardy. A 4-year-old girl from Castiglione d'Adda was admitted to Policlinico San Matteo in Pavia, and a 15-year-old was hospitalised in Seriate Hospital in Bergamo. Two 10-year-olds from Cremona and Lodi tested positive and were discharged. A 17-year-old from Valtellina who attended a school in Codogno, and a school friend from Sondrio, also tested positive. Officials in Apulia confirmed that a 33-year-old man from Taranto, who returned from Codogno on 24 February, tested positive and was admitted to San Giuseppe Moscati Hospital. A close advisor to Lombardy governor Attilio Fontana tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. Although Fontana tested negative, he decided to put himself in preventive isolation as well. Officials in Campania confirmed two new cases. A 24-year-old woman from Caserta, who had visited Milan, tested positive. A 25-year-old Ukrainian woman from Cremona, who previously visited Lombardy, tested positive at a hospital in Vallo della Lucania. Both were transferred to Hospital Domenico Cotugno in Naples, where they underwent isolation.
On 26 February, a woman who had returned from Milan in the days before the emergency in Lombardy had started tested positive for the virus in Catania, Sicily. On 27 February, two 88-year-olds and an 80-year-old died in Lombardy. Officials in Abruzzo confirmed that a 50-year-old man from Brianza, Lombardy tested positive and was admitted to the intensive-care unit at Giuseppe Mazzini Hospital at Teramo. He and his family were staying in his holiday home at Roseto degli Abruzzi. On 28 February, four people died, including an 85-year-old Lombardy resident in one of the quarantine zones at a hospital in Piacenza, a 77-year-old and two others over the age of 80. As of 1 March 2020[update], there were 984 confirmed cases and 73 recoveries in Lombardy. On 4 March, Emilia-Romagna's regional minister of health, Raffaele Donini, and minister for territories, Barbara Lori, were declared positive for COVID-19. Governor Stefano Bonaccini and the other members of the regional government tested negative.
On 8 March, Prime Minister Giuseppe Conte extended the quarantine lockdown to cover all the region of Lombardy and 14 other northern provinces. On 10 March, Prime Minister Conte increased the quarantine lockdown to cover all of Italy, including travel restrictions and a ban on public gatherings.
A secondary cluster of infections occurred in the region of Veneto, initially thought to be the result of a farmer being infected when visiting the primary source in Codogno. The farmer was tested, and the following day, the test was confirmed negative.
On 21 February 2020, two people tested positive in Veneto. The next day, one of them, a 78-year-old man, died at the Schiavonia Hospital in Monselice, making him the first fatality in Italy. The man lived in the municipality of Vò, which was put under quarantine.
On 25 February, a 76-year-old woman with pre-existing medical conditions died in Treviso.
On 26 February, an additional case involving a minor was identified. An 8-year-old girl who lived in Codevigo tested positive.
On 28 February, Veneto governor Luca Zaia mentioned that after the first two cases, he ordered all 3,300 Vò residents to be tested. Of 6,800 swabs, 1.7% were confirmed positive. This epidemiological study would be used for outbreak investigation by the University of Padua.
As of 28 February, there were 151 confirmed cases in Veneto, with 70 cases in the municipality of Vò, including the two fatalities.
By 14 March, no new cases were detected in the municipality of Vò.
This section needs to be updated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information.(March 2020)
A number of cases have emerged in multiple regions that might be isolated and not associated with the Northern Italy clusters.
On 25 February, the first case in Florence, Tuscany involved a 63-year-old entrepreneur with companies in Asia who had returned from the Philippines and Singapore on 6 January. He tested positive and was admitted to Santa Maria Annunziata Hospital.
The first case in Rimini involved a 71-year-old man from Cattolica who returned from Romania on 22 February. He tested positive and was admitted to Infermi Hospital. A 51-year-old man from Piandimeleto who went to Romania with the man also tested positive and underwent self-quarantine at home. On 26 February, one of people with whom he had interacted in Romania tested positive.
On 26 February, the Norwegian Institute of Public Health confirmed that a 26-year-old Norwegian man living in Florence tested positive and was admitted to Santa Maria Annunziata Hospital. He had stayed in Norway for 14 days and returned to Florence five days before.
The passenger ferry GNV Rhapsody was placed under isolation in the port of Genoa with 58 crew members on board after a passenger tested positive for the virus after having sailed to Tunisia on the ship.
A US Navy sailor stationed in Naples tested positive on 6 March. Health officials in the US military began "a thorough contact investigation" to determine if any other personnel may have been exposed to the virus.
GIMBE (Italy's Group for Evidence-based Medicine), in a report from 18 March, analysed data from the Istituto Superiore di Sanità and found that healthcare workers represented over 8% of all detected coronavirus cases.
On 26 March 2020, Italica Grondona became the world's oldest person to recover successfully from the coronavirus at the age of 102. She was successfully recovered from the coronavirus after being tested positive with mild symptoms and was hospitalized in Genoa on 9 March for 20 days.
On 22 February, the government announced a new decree imposing the quarantine of more than 50,000 people from 11 different municipalities in Northern Italy. The quarantine zones are called the Red Zones and the areas in Lombardy and Veneto outside of them are called the Yellow Zones. Penalties for violations range from a €206 fine to three months of imprisonment. The Italian military and law enforcement agencies were instructed to secure and implement the lockdown.
Schools were closed in ten municipalities in Lombardy, one in Veneto and one in Emilia Romagna. All public events were cancelled and some commercial activities[which?] were halted or were allowed to resume only until 6 p.m. All religious services were cancelled. Regional train services to the most affected areas were suspended, with trains skipping stops at Codogno, Maleo and Casalpusterlengo stations.
People with symptoms were advised to call the 112 emergency number, instead of going directly to hospitals, in an effort to limit the disease's spread. The Ministry of Health provided a website and a direct line (1500) from which people could obtain the latest updates and information, as well as report suspected cases.
In addition to the emergency phone numbers 112 and 118, new dedicated numbers were added for the different regions — Lombardy 800894545, Campania 800909699, Veneto 800462340, Piedmont 800333444 and Emilia-Romagna 800033033. The Ocean Viking, a rescue ship operated by MSF and SOS Mediteranee that was carrying almost 300 migrants, was quarantined for 14 days in Pozzallo, Sicily.Trenitalia and Italo, the major providers for Italy's high-speed trains, ordered the installation of hand-sanitiser dispensers on all trains as well as the distribution of masks, disposable gloves and disinfectants to all onboard staff members.
Supermarkets in Lombardy and Emilia-Romagna were emptied by customers as residents stockpiled food and supplies. Streets, parks and train stations in multiple cities in Lombardy were left deserted.
Multiple regions in Italy such as Liguria, Trentino Alto Adige, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Abruzzo and Marche decided to close all schools and universities for two days to a week. Court proceedings were postponed until further notice.
Starting from the 9th week of the year, ICU cases related to COVID-19 started to appear in the hospitals. Their spike showed a different behaviour than the cases of seasonal flu.
The FTSE MIB Index fell by 6% and other stock market indices across Europe were also affected. Over 300,000 calls per day were logged on Lombardy's toll-free line as well as the emergency number 112. Some of the residents inside the Red Zone managed to leave the quarantined areas daily, bypassing the checkpoints by going through back roads.
On 25 February, Aviano Air Base closed all schools until 28 February. General Tod D. Walters issued a travel ban covering the areas of Italy affected by the outbreak for US service members and their families. Driver's license exams were suspended in Lombardy and Veneto. The number of checkpoints in the Red Zones was increased from 15 to 35, and army personnel were sent to help staff the checkpoints.
Istituto Tecnico Economico Enrico Tosi in Varese, Istituto Comprensivo di Pianoro in Bologna and Liceo Attilio Bertolucci in Parma conducted lessons for students online while waiting for the schools to reopen. The University of Palermo suspended all activities until 9 March.
Multiple fairs and exhibitions were rescheduled. Salone del Mobile, a furniture fair in Milan, was postponed to 16 to 21 June. Bologna Children's Book Fair was rescheduled to 4 to 7 May. Cosmoprof Worldwide Bologna, a cosmetic fair, was rescheduled to 11 to 15 June. Expocasa, a furniture fair in Turin, was rescheduled initially to 28 March to 5 April but later to future date to be announced later. Roma Motodays was postponed to 17 to 19 April.
Italy opened a probe into skyrocketing online prices for masks and sanitising gels. Police issued warnings that criminals were using false identities and posing as health inspectors to gain access to people's homes to steal money, jewellery and other valuables.
On 26 February, Director of the Italian National Institute of Health Franco Locatelli announced that swabbing would only be performed on symptomatic patients, as 95% of the swabs previously tested were negative.
On 27 February, Taranto, Apulia closed all schools until 29 February. Multiple schools were closed in Roseto degli Abruzzi.D'Annunzio University suspended all activities until 29 February. Cartoocomics Fair in Milan was rescheduled to 2 to 4 October. The Winter Rescue Race in Piedmont was cancelled.University of Bologna planned to set up a remote teaching project in which exams and lessons would be delivered to students online, to be partially completed on 2 March.Messina closed all schools from 29 February to 3 March.
On 28 February, during an interview with Rai News24, Professor Massimo Galli from the Luigi Sacco Hospital in Milan suggested that the majority of newly recorded cases were pre-existing cases that were finally detected during the extensive tests performed on people (and their relatives) who had come in contact with confirmed patients. The rapid increase of positive cases was the result of the blanket testing approach that was deployed following the first confirmed case in Codogno.
The Ministry of Health announced new guidelines for reporting cases. It would no longer report asymptomatic cases (positive swabs taken from patients who were not showing symptoms), which had counted as 40 to 50% of all reported cases at the time. These people would undergo isolation at home and would be followed up with new tests until they were negative. Universities in Lombardy extended their closure until 7 March.
On 1 March, the Council of Ministers approved a decree to organise the containment of the outbreak. In the decree, the Italian national territory was divided into three areas:
A red zone (composed of the municipalities of Bertonico, Casalpusterlengo, Castelgerundo, Castiglione D'Adda, Codogno, Fombio, Maleo, San Fiorano, Somaglia and Terranova dei Passerini in Lombardy, and the municipality of Vò in Veneto), where the whole population is in quarantine.
A yellow zone (composed of the regions of Lombardy, Veneto and Emilia-Romagna), where social and sport events are suspended and schools, theatres, clubs and cinemas are closed.
The rest of the national territory, where safety and prevention measures are advertised in public places and special sanitisations are performed on means of public transport.
Montage of notices on shops in Bologna declaring their temporary closure, or requiring people to stay at least one metre apart
On 4 March, the Italian government imposed the shutdown of all schools and universities nationwide for two weeks as the country reached 100 deaths from the outbreak. The same day, the government ruled that all sporting events in Italy would be played behind closed doors until 3 April.
On 5 March, when the newly appointed Emilia-Romagna regional minister of health, Raffale Donini, tested positive for COVID-19, Governor Stefano Bonaccini appointed Sergio Venturi as commissioner for the emergency. Venturi was the regional minister of health until February 2020.
In the night between 7 and 8 March, the government approved a decree to lock down Lombardy and 14 other provinces in Veneto, Emilia-Romagna, Piedmont and Marche, involving more than 16 million people. The decree "absolutely avoided any movement into and out of the areas" and, like the previous one, it provided sanctions of up to three months in prison for those who violated the lockdown. It was possible to move into and out of the areas only for emergencies or "proven working needs", which must be authorised by the prefect. The decree also established the closure of all gyms, swimming pools, spas and wellness centres. Shopping centres had to be closed on weekends, while other commercial activities could remain open if a distance of one metre between customers could be guaranteed. The decree imposed the closure of museums, cultural centres and ski resorts in the lockdown areas and the closure of cinemas, theatres, pubs, dance schools, game rooms, betting rooms and bingo halls, discos and similar places in the entire country. Civil and religious ceremonies, including funeral ceremonies, were suspended. All organised events were also suspended, as well as events in public or private places, including those of a cultural, recreational, sporting and religious nature, even if held in closed places. This measure was described as the largest lockdown in the history of Europe, as well as the most aggressive response taken in any region beyond China, and paralysed the wealthiest parts of the country as Italy attempted to constrain the rapid spread of the disease.
Riots broke out in many penitentiaries throughout Italy after restrictions on conjugal visits were imposed by the government in the 8 March decree. Nine prisoners died in Modena and three in Rieti, while 76 detainees escaped from Foggia's penitentiary. Two prison agents were assaulted and kidnapped in Pavia. On 9 March in Bologna, detainees took control of the Dozza penitentiary, forcing personnel to exit the building. On 11 March, two prisoners were found dead in Bologna's penitentiary.
On 9 March, the government announced that all sporting events in Italy would be cancelled until at least 3 April, but the ban does not include Italian clubs or national teams participating in international competitions. In the evening, Conte announced in a press conference that all measures previously applied only in the so-called "red zones" had been extended to the whole country, putting approximately 60 million people in lockdown. Conte later proceeded to officially sign the new executive decree.
On 11 March, the government allocated 25 billion euros for the emergency. In the evening, Conte announced a tightening of the lockdown, with all commercial and retail businesses except those providing essential services, like grocery shops and pharmacies, closed down. He also appointed Domenico Arcuri as Delegated Commissioner for the Emergency. Arcuri will cooperate with Commissioner Angelo Borrelli with the aim of strengthening the distribution of intensive care equipment.
On 19 March, the Army was deployed to the city of Bergamo, the worst hit Italian city by the coronavirus, as the local authorities can no longer process the number of dead residents. The city's mayor Giorgio Gori said the true number of dead could be much higher than reported. Army trucks transported bodies to crematoriums in several other cities, as cemeteries in the city were full. On the following day, the Army was called in to assist the police forces in enforcing the lockdown.
On 20 March, the Ministry of Health ordered tighter regulations on free movement. The new measures banned open-air sports and running, except individually and in close proximity of one's residence. Parks, playgrounds and public green were closed down. Furthermore, movement across the country was further restricted, by banning "any movement towards a residence different from the main one", including holiday homes, during weekends and holidays.
On 21 March, Conte announced further restrictions within the nationwide lockdown, by halting all non-essential production, industries and businesses in Italy, following the rise in the number of new cases and deaths in the previous days. This measure had also been strongly asked for by multiple institutions, including trade unions, mayors, and regional presidents, as well as medical professionals, but was initially opposed by the industrialists.
On 24 March, in a live-streamed press conference, Conte announced a new decree approved by the Council of Ministers. The decree imposed higher fines for the violation of the restrictive measures, and a regulation of the relationship between government and Parliament during the emergency. It included also the possibility of reducing or suspending public and private transport, and gave the regional governments power to impose additional restrictive regulations in their Regions for a maximum of seven days before being confirmed by national decree.
On 1 April, the government extended the period of lockdown until 13 April, with health minister Speranza saying that the restrictive measures had begun to yield the first positive results.
On 16 March, the government of Emilia-Romagna imposed a strengthened quarantine on the municipality of Medicina, near Bologna, since it had developed an intense outbreak. People were not allowed to enter or exit the town for any reason.
Screening and testing policies
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On 7 March, the government prepared to extend until 3 April the restricted zone to all of Lombardy, plus fourteen other provinces in Veneto (3), Emilia-Romagna (5), Marche (1) and Piedmont (5). The lockdown affects over 16 million people, roughly a quarter of Italy's total population, and prevents people from entering or leaving the zone, except "for proven occupational needs or situations of need or for health reasons", under threat of fines. The enclave nation of San Marino, which is nestled between two of the provinces, has been effectively locked down as well.
This section needs to be updated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information.(March 2020)
Restrictions to travel from Italy, as of 31 March 2020
Entrance refused to people from Italy
Imposed quarantine on people arriving from Italy
On 23 February 2020, Austria suspended all trains to and from Italy for a few hours because of suspected cases.Romania instituted a quarantine for people arriving from Lombardy and Veneto.
Brazil added Italy to its COVID-19 alert list, meaning that passengers entering Brazil from Italy showing flu symptoms would undergo medical checkups.Argentina, France, Croatia, Egypt, Greece, Ireland, Israel, Latvia, Lithuania, Ukraine, Serbia and South Africa issued multiple recommendations that included postponement of school trips to Italy, a 14-day quarantine for people arriving from Lombardy and Veneto and a warning for all citizens to not to travel to regions of Italy affected by the outbreak. A joint WHO and ECDC mission arrived in Italy to support COVID-19 control and prevention efforts. Following the discovery of a case involving an Italian citizen, the H10 Costa Adeje Palace in Tenerife was put on lockdown.
The European Parliament's Director General for Personnel, Kristian Knudsen, requested that staff who had travelled to areas affected by the COVID-19 outbreak, including parts of Italy, China, Singapore and South Korea, to self-quarantine and work from home for 14 days.
Two intercity buses operated by Flixbus, one travelling from Lyon to Rijeka via Turin, the other travelling from Turin to Zagreb, were stopped at the Croatian border for a few hours as the passengers underwent health checks.
Russia, Spain and Turkey issued a recommendation for all citizens not to travel to regions of Italy affected by the outbreak.El Salvador barred the entry of travellers arriving from Italy.
On 28 February, Germany enacted new health security measures to include regulations for air and sea travel, requiring passengers from multiple countries, including Italy, to report their health status before entry. Train railway companies must report passengers with symptoms to authorities and the federal police would step up checks within 30 kilometres of the border.
On 3 March, India suspended all visas to nationals of Italy, as well as visa to foreign nationals who have travelled to Italy on or after 1 February 2020. Passengers arriving directly or indirectly from Italy must undergo medical screening at port of entry.
On 4 March, Thailand declared that people travelling from Italy must be quarantined for 14 days after arriving, with no exceptions.
On 8 March, Romania declared that people travelling from Italy must be quarantined for 14 days after arriving on a connecting flight or by road, with no exceptions, and suspended flights from Italy from 9 to 23 March.
On 10 March, Slovenia barred entry to foreign nationals travelling from Italy. On same day also Austria barred entry to foreign nationals travelling from Italy with exception for people with medical documents and people who travel only through Austria to Germany without stop in Austria.
On 18 March, Nigeria placed an indefinite suspension on all flights coming from Italy with immediate effect.
The Italian government asked for medical equipment from the European Union mechanism of civil protection, and on 11 March complained about the slow response of the other European countries. The Italian Permanent Representative to the European Union, Maurizio Massari, wrote: "unfortunately, not a single EU country responded to the Commission’s call." Eventually, Germany, France and Austria donated millions of protective masks to Italy, however aid arrived from non-EU countries like China, Russia and Cuba before it arrived from any other EU country.
The lack of masks became an issue during the peak of the emergency, partly because of the requisitions of imported goods bought by Italy in transport hubs in other countries such as Poland and Turkey. Masks were confiscated by mistake in Czechia. It was happen during a raid against Chinese reseller Zhou Lingjian.
Since early March, the German government restricted the export of products essential to its national health service. Italian distributors were advised they could not be supplied with surgical gowns, protective masks, glasses, particulate respirators, nor visors. France also imposed similar export restrictions and the German health minister Jens Spahn defended Germany's decision. On 12 March, the German ministry issued a decree suspending the export restriction in particular emergency cases, and promised to send one million protective masks to Italy.
On 13 March, a team of nine Chinese experts, among whom there was the manager of the 40,000 Chinese doctors who had been sent to Wuhan and a leading cardio-pulmonary reanimation doctor, arrived in Rome to share their expertise. The Chinese Red Cross brought 31 tons of respiratory devices, electrocardiographs, 40 ventilators, tens of thousands of masks, and other medical equipment supplied by the hospital of the School of Medicine of Shanghai Jiaotong University. While the head of the Italian Red Cross, Francesco Rocca said these medical supplies were donated by the Chinese Red Cross, other sources claimed that these were paid products and services. Chinese billionaire and Alibaba co-founder Jack Ma also donated 500,000 masks and other medical supplies, which landed at Liege Airport in Belgium on 13 March and were then sent to Italy.
The Agnelli family donated €10 million to the Government's coronavirus funds. The family's companies Fiat and Ferrari also brought 150 ventilators and offered to help make new ventilator units, in addition to providing a fleet of vehicles to be used to distribute food and medical supplies to the elderly.
On 21 March, the Cuban government sent 52 medical staff (35 doctors and 17 nurses) specialised in infectious diseases who had dealt with the Ebola outbreak. They arrived in Milan on 22 March and entered service in Cremona on 24 March.
On 21 March, US Secretary of State Mike Pompeo said that the United States Air Force "sent a C-130 filled with medical supplies to Italy". On 30 March, US President Donald Trump said that the US was to send $100 million worth of medical and hospital supplies to Italy.
After a phone call with Conte, Russian president Vladimir Putin arranged the Russian army to send medical help to Italy. On 22 March 2020, Russia sent nine military transport planes with eight mobile brigades of military medics, a team of about one hundred military virologists and epidemiologists, special disinfection vehicles, and other medical equipment and pharmaceuticals to Italy. The fuselage of the plane also carried a message for the nation, which read: “From Russia with Love”.
The US-based evangelical group Samaritan's Purse opened a coronavirus field hospital in the parking lot of Cremona hospital.
On 24 March, Germany took in six coronavirus patients from the Bergamo hospital to be treated in Saxony. Later the same week, the German health minister said that Germany would take in a total of at least 47 Italian patients.
On 25 March, a C-130 from Ramstein Air Base in Germany delivered humanitarian supplies to Aviano Air Base.
Somalia sent twenty volunteer doctors to Italy to help fight COVID-19.Albania also sent a group of thirty medical staff members to Lombardy.
This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (March 2020)
The pandemic outbreak put relevant pressure on the Italian healthcare system.
Intensive care units were expanded, and new hospitals were created, especially in Lombardy. In Emilia-Romagna, professor Marco Ranieri developed a method to double the usage of ventilators in ICUs. The lack of a single protocol for hospitals was considered a problem.
A letter published on the New England Journal of Medicine Catalyst Innovations in Care Delivery claimed that the reason for the elevated death count in the area of Bergamo was hospitals contamination. Progressively, different hospitals became dedicated to COVID-19 patients only, a more rigid separation was set up between hospital sections and triage structures were added to hospitals. In some regions, hotels were used to host healthcare workers or patients, and in Liguria a ship was adapted to host people in quarantine. On 1 April, the first Italian drive-through testing facility opened in Alessandria.
One of the treatments employed for COVID-19 patients involved the administration of antiviral drugs. Remdesivir was tested with promising initial results in Naples. Despite doubts from the scientific community, Avigan (favipiravir) was also included in testing protocols by Italian Medicines Agency even though it was not authorized in Europe. The supercomputer of ENEA in Portici was used to run advanced simulations related to other possible drugs.
The workforce of the healthcare system underwent massive reorganization. Pediatricians were assigned to adult patients and as a result, their insurance coverage had to be adapted. Retired professionals were asked to go back to work to fill the gaps, despite the high risk for their age group.
Healthcare workers were also affected by coronavirus infections, with a higher percentage of women because of their predominance among nurses. This caused death in a considerable amount of cases, especially general practitioners. Healthcare personnel was also subject to high levels of stress and the risk of professional burn-out is considered high, particularly across nurses and in more affected areas. Two suicides of a nurse in Jesolo and one in Monza were assumed to be related to psychological pressure.
The emergency was an occasion to test or develop new protocols based on digital technologies. Remote diagnostics were introduced to monitor home care patients in Lodi. The Policlinico Universitario in Rome tested AI software for fast analysis of chest X-rays.
To facilitate home calls from patients, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia in Genoa (IIT) and Istituto di robotica e macchine intelligenti (I-RIM) designed a robot for video calls that could be assembled by hospital personnel.
The pandemic provoked large economic damage to the Italian economy. The sectors of tourism, accommodation and food services were among the hardest hit by foreign countries' limitations to travel to Italy, and by the nationwide lockdown imposed by the government on 8 March.
On 12 March, the Italian stock market was among the worst hit during Black Thursday, when the FTSE MIB index lost 17% of its value in one day.
Multiple factories, like Fiat Chrysler, halted production in some of their plants. On 21 March, the government issued the shutdown of all non-essential businesses, industries, and economic activities.
Economist Alberto Bisin forecast that Italy's debt-to-GDP ratio would rise from 130% to 180% by the end of the year, due to borrowing and losses.
Some Italian small and medium-sized enterprises partially or totally converted their production to supply personal protective equipment at a local scale. Many of these items could not be approved for hospital use, but they were considered useful to supply demand for the general population.
In Veneto, Grafica Veneta – the printing company of the Harry Potter books in Italian – started to mass-produce protective masks.
In Piedmont, Ci.Ti.Elle, a company from Castiglione Torinese specialized in textiles for hotels, put its twelve employers to assemble surgical masks for the regional Protezione Civile, and the hospitals of San Maurizio Canavese, Alessandria and Chivasso, with the support the Filmar company from Caselle for the elastics.
In Lombardy Cifra, a manufacturer from Verano Brianza specialized in sportswear, also converted its production line.
In the textile district of the province of Prato, the company Machattie started its production of polypropylene masks in March, and the company Dreoni in Vaiano switched its production from car upholstery to protective masks with certified standard, with the help of the local population.
Companies producing alcoholic beverages also underwent reconversion to produce alcohol-based hand sanitizer. In Piedmont this occurred in Canelli at the Ramazzotti factory (part of the Pernod Ricard group) and in Chieri at the Martini plant.
Isinnova, a local engineering startup from Brescia, provided emergency solutions to local hospitals in order to compensate the shortages of spare parts for the machines. Firstly, they produced Venturi valves for respirators using 3D printers, and later (in collaboration with Decathlon Group) they adapted a snorkelling mask into a non-invasive ventilator. Using 3D-printer technology as well, Elmec Informatica also started to produce for the hospital of Busto Arsizio sterilizable protective masks in thermoplastic polyurethanes that could adapt to CPAP antiviral filters.
Cross-talks with the EU
On 25 March, Italy, together with Belgium, France, Greece, Ireland, Luxembourg, Portugal, Slovenia, and Spain, sent a joint letter to the Council of the EU, calling for the issuing of a new common debt instrument, nicknamed in the media as "eurobond" or "corona bond", in order to help funding the measures taken against the coronavirus pandemic and the expected economic downturn to follow. In subsequent conference calls between the leaders of the EU member states, the proposal saw the opposition of the Netherlands and Germany.
An Italian flag with the slogan "Andrà tutto bene" ("Everything will be all right")
Subsequent to the imposing of the national lockdown, there were protests in some Italian prisons, with six deaths after clashes in the Sant'Anna penitentiary in Modena.
With all of Italy ordered to remain indoors, Italians took to their balconies to sing together, play music, and applaud the country's health care providers. Some of the demonstrations were spontaneous, others were organised by social media and radio. On 13 March at 6 pm, Italians throughout the country joined to sing the national anthem. At noon on 14 March, they stood on their balconies clapping to salute the nation's health care workers. A video of opera singer Maurizio Marchini performing the aria "Nessun dorma" from his balcony in Florence went viral.
After the first outbreak in Lombardy and Veneto, the regional governments of Emilia-Romagna, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Liguria, Lombardy, Piedmont, Trentino, and Veneto closed all schools and universities from 23 February to 1 March. The suspension was later extended, with the agreement of the national government, up to 8 March in Emilia-Romagna, Lombardy, and Veneto.
On 4 March, the government announced the closure of all schools and colleges until 15 March.
With the enactment of the lockdown of Lombardy and 14 more northern provinces on 8 March, the re-opening of schools in these areas was delayed to 3 April. On 9 March, the government extended the lockdown to the national territory, closing all schools and universities until 3 April.
In Italy, in-person gatherings for religious worship have been suspended and as a result, many churches broadcast Mass via online live-stream, radio and television.
Church funerals cannot be held given the national lockdown. In some northern cities, authorities have had issues in dealing with the storage of the high number of coffins, and churches have offered to care for them. In the towns of Seriate and Bergamo, the Italian Army has volunteered to transport some of these coffins from churches and morgues to cemeteries and crematoriums in other provinces.
On 5 March, the Italian government decided to postpone the constitutional referendum that was due on 29 March. The referendum has been delayed until further notice.
Countries and territories with COVID-19 cases linked directly to Italian cluster
A number of COVID-19 cases have emerged worldwide that are linked to Italy, and especially to the northern regions.
On 25 February 2020, Algeria confirmed its first case, an Italian man from Bertonico, Lombardy who arrived in the country on 17 February.
Central African Republic –
On 14 March, the Central African minister of health announced the first confirmed case in the country, a 74-year-old Italian citizen coming from Milan.
Côte d'Ivoire –
On Tuesday, 10 March, Côte d'Ivoire confirmed its first case, a 45-year old Ivorien male who had sojourned in Italy.
On 2 March, the Moroccan Ministry of Health reported its first case, a man who had lived in Italy.
On 28 February 2020, Nigeria confirmed its first case, an Italian man who tested positive at Lagos University Teaching Hospital and was treated at the Infectious Disease Hospital in Yaba, Lagos. He entered Nigeria from Milan on 25 February for a brief business visit, then fell ill the next day.
Senegal confirmed on 12 March that their fifth confirmed case was a Senegalese national who returned from Italy on 6 March.
Seychelles confirmed its first two cases on 14 March. Both were people who were in contact with someone in Italy who tested positive.
Tunisia confirmed its first case on 2 March 2020, and identified the patient as a Tunisian who had returned from Italy.
On 3 March, Argentina confirmed its first case, a 43-year-old man who arrived in Argentina two days earlier after a trip that included northern Italy.
Two people who returned from Italy to Bolivia were tested positive.
On 25 February, Brazil confirmed its first case, a 61-year-old man from São Paulo who travelled to Lombardy between 9 and 21 February. He showed mild symptoms and was quarantined at home.
Cases 21 and 27 in Ontario were persons who had travelled to Italy.
On 5 March, Chile confirmed its third case, a 56-year-old man who travelled across Europe and visited Northern Italy.
The first case in Colombia, confirmed in March, was of person who had travelled to Milan.
On 11 March, Italian tourists brought the virus to yet another country, with Cuba confirming that three tourists from Italy were confirmed to have the disease in Trinidad.
Dominican Republic –
On 1 March, authorities in the Dominican Republic confirmed the first case in the country, a tourist coming from Italy.
On 28 February, Mexico confirmed its first two cases of COVID-19. A 35-year-old man in Mexico City and a 41-year-old man in the northern state of Sinaloa who tested positive were held in isolation at a hospital and a hotel, respectively. They had both travelled to Bergamo and stayed in Italy for a week in mid-February.
On 13 March, Uruguay announced its first four cases, some of whom had arrived from Milan.
On 13 March, Venezuelan Vice President, Delcy Rodríguez, confirmed two cases in the country. One, a 41-year-old woman, had travelled from the US, Italy, and Spain.
Armenia confirmed that three cases were imported from Italy on 12 March.
On 11 March a student born in 1997 tested positive for the coronavirus after developing fever in Italy.
On 8 March, Bangladesh confirmed its first cases; two are Bangladeshis who had returned from Italy and another is a family member of one of the two who returned.
On 2 March, the Indian capital of New Delhi confirmed its first case, an Indian national who had returned from Italy. Later the same day, an Italian tourist who had arrived in Jaipur, Rajasthan on 29 February tested positive in a second test after having previously tested negative. On 3 March, his wife also tested positive.
On 4 March 14 more Italian tourists who were kept at a quarantine facility in Delhi were confirmed positive, as well as the group's Indian driver. A Paytm employee in Gurgaon who had returned from a vacation in Italy also tested positive. On 8 March, five members of a family in Kerala tested positive, three of whom had returned from Italy.
On 13 March, Japan confirmed that a man in his 30s who had been living in Italy since 6 January tested positive for coronavirus upon landing at Haneda Airport in Tokyo that day. He is currently under quarantine at a hospital in Tokyo.
On 2 March, Jordan confirmed that a man in his 30s who had returned from Italy two weeks earlier had tested positive, with other potential cases under observation.
Mainland China –
On 1 March, Qingtian County, Lishui, Zhejiang confirmed its first imported case, a 31-year-old Chinese woman who had worked at a restaurant in Bergamo. On 2 March, seven more imported cases were confirmed in Qingtian County that are related to the first imported case. Beijing reported one imported case on 3 March, four on 5 March, three on 6 March, one on 7 March and five on March. On 4 March, Deqing County, Huzhou, Zhejiang confirmed two new imported cases from Italy. On 10 March, Shanghai confirmed two new imported cases from Italy. They are native in Fujian and work in Italy.Qingdao, Shandong also confirmed the first imported case from Italy. On 11 March, Zhengzhou, Henan confirmed the first imported case, who stay in Italy. On 12 March, Shanghai confirmed one more imported case. On 13 March, Shanghai confirmed four more imported cases. On 14 March, Shanghai confirmed one more imported case, and Beijing also confirmed one more imported case from Italy. On 15 March, Beijing confirmed two more imported cases, and Shanghai also confirmed one more. On 16 March, Shanghai and Guangxi separately confirmed one more imported case from Italy. On 20 March, Beijing confirmed one more imported case.
On 28 February, Malaysia confirmed that a 54-year-old Italian who was married to a Malaysian tested positive and was admitted to Sungai Buloh Hospital. He was in Italy from 15 to 21 February for work.
The Maldives' first cases were two staffers at Kuredu Island Resort who caught the disease from an Italian tourist who had returned to Italy and tested positive there.
A case was recorded of a patient who had travelled to Milan.
South Korea –
On 28 February, South Korea confirmed that a 38-year-old man living in Gwangjin who visited Milan from 19 to 24 February was admitted to Seoul Medical Centre.
Sri Lanka –
Like nearby Maldives, Sri Lanka was also affected by a group of infected Italian tourists, who passed on the disease to a 52-year-old tour guide upon their visit to the island nation.
On 5 March, Thailand announced that its 44th and 45th confirmed cases, a 29-year-old Italian and 42-year-old Thai, had arrived in Thailand from Italy on 2 March. Both were admitted in Chonburi Province.
Case 17 had travelled to Italy (as well as to France and the UK).
On 9 March, a 54-year-old man and his 28-year-old son, who had travelled from Florence to Albania by car, were confirmed positive. Three other people from the men's family were suspected of having the virus. Another Albanian who had gone to Italy for a one-day trip is suspected.
On 2 March, Andorra registered its first case, a 20-year-old man who had been to Milan.
On 25 February, Austria confirmed its first two cases, a 24-year-old man and a 24-year-old woman from Lombardy who had visited their hometown in Bergamo, tested positive and were treated at a hospital in Innsbruck, Tyrol.
On 27 February, a couple who tested positive and their two children who were showing symptoms were admitted to Kaiser-Franz-Josef Hospital. The family was previously on holiday in Lombardy. On 28 February, one of the children, a 15-year-old boy, tested positive.
Nine patients diagnosed with the virus had travelled from Northern Italy. Belgium has confirmed that there are many more and that Italy is the source of most of its cases.
Bulgaria – On 8 March, Bulgaria confirmed its first two cases.
On 25 February, Croatia confirmed its first case, a 26-year-old man who had stayed in Milan between 19 and 21 February and was hospitalised at the Dr. Fran Mihaljević University Hospital for Infectious Diseases in Zagreb.
On 26 February, the man's twin brother tested positive and was admitted to the same hospital. A Croatian man who worked in Parma, Italy also tested positive and was admitted to a hospital in Rijeka.
One of the country's first two cases had a travel history to Milan.
Czech Republic –
On 1 March, Czech Republic confirmed its first three cases. As of 8 March 24 of 31 confirmed cases in the country have links to Italy, leading the government to institute a mandatory quarantine for all persons with a history of recent travel to Italy.
On 27 February, Denmark confirmed its first case, a man who had returned from a ski holiday in Valmalenco, Sondrio and was tested at Zealand University Hospital, Roskilde and quarantined at home.
On 28 February, a man who had returned from a ski holiday in Northern Italy on 15 February tested positive at Rigshospitalet in Copenhagen and was placed in home quarantine.
On 29 February, an employee at the Aarhus University Hospital who had been to a conference in Munich, Germany, where he had met an infected person from Italy, tested positive. On 3 March, five people who had returned from Northern Italy tested positive.
On 3 March, Estonia confirmed its second case, a patient who had arrived on 29 February from Bergamo and was travelling through Riga Airport. Two other Estonian passengers from the same flight and one returnee from Bergamo arriving through Tallinn Airport tested positive on 5 March. Two cases in Saaremaa were confirmed on 10 March: the patients had been in contact with the Power Volley Milano team members during the 2019–20 CEV Challenge Cup matches held in Saaremaa on 4 and 5 March. On 9 March 5 Milan players had been diagnosed with fever before a league match. The infected in Saaremaa included the CEO of the Saaremaa VK volleyball club.Saare County quickly became the worst hit part of the country.
On 26 February, Finland confirmed that a Finnish woman who had visited Milan and was back in Finland on 22 February tested positive at the Helsinki University Central Hospital.
On 28 February, a Finnish woman who had travelled to Northern Italy tested positive at the Helsinki and Uusimaa Hospital District and was placed in home isolation.
On 25 February, France confirmed that a 64-year-old man from La Balme-de-Sillingy who had returned from a trip to Lombardy on 15 February tested positive and was treated at Centre Hospitalier Annecy-Genevois, Épagny-Metz-Tessy. His wife also tested positive and was admitted to the same hospital.
On 26 February 2020, a 36-year-old man who had made multiple trips to Lombardy tested positive and was treated at Nouvel Hôpital Civil, Strasbourg.
On 27 February 2020, a daughter and a friend of the infected couple from La Balme-de-Sillingy were confirmed positive. A Italian man living in Montpellier who had just returned from Italy was admitted to Centre Hospitalier Universitaire. A person who had travelled to Italy was admitted to Hôpital Bichat, Paris.
On 28 February 2020, two relatives of the infected couple from La Balme-de-Sillingy tested positive. A 23-year-old fashion student from Nice who had recently returned from Milan tested positive at Nice University Hospital Centre and was admitted to Hôpital l'Archet.
On 25 February 2020, Germany confirmed that a 25-year-old man from Göppingen, Baden-Württemberg who recently returned from Milan tested positive and was treated in Klinik am Eichert.
On 26 February 2020, the man's 24-year-old girlfriend and her 60-year-old father, a chief physician at University Hospital Tübingen, tested positive and were admitted to the same hospital. A 32-year-old man from Rottweil, Baden-Württemberg who had visited Codogno with his family on 23 February tested positive and was admitted to a hospital for isolation.
On 27 February, Bavaria confirmed that a man from Middle Franconia tested positive after having contact with an Italian man who later tested positive. Baden-Württemberg confirmed that two women and a man from Breisgau-Hochschwarzwald and Freiburg, respectively, tested positive. They had contact with an Italian participant at a business meeting in Munich who tested positive in Italy. A man from Böblingen who had had contact with the girlfriend of the patient from Göppingen also tested positive.
On 28 February, a man from Freiburg who had travelled to Bergamo tested positive and underwent isolation. A man from Rhine-Neckar was admitted to the University Hospital Heidelberg. A 32-year-old man in Heilbronn who was in Milan on 21 February fell ill and was admitted to a hospital.
On 23 March Tbilisi TV Tower was lit into the colours of the Italian flag to show Georgia's solidarity in the fight with the coronavirus.
On 28 February 2020, Georgia confirmed that a 31-year-old Georgian woman who had travelled to Italy tested positive and was admitted to Infectious Diseases Hospital in Tbilisi.
On 26 February 2020, Greece confirmed its first case, a 38-year-old woman from Thessaloniki who had recently visited Northern Italy and was admitted to AHEPA University Hospital.
On 27 February, her 9-year-old child tested positive and was admitted to the same hospital. A 40-year-old woman from Athens who had travelled to Italy tested positive.
On 28 February, a 36-year-old woman from Athens who had recently travelled to Italy tested positive. Both were admitted to the Attikon University General Hospital.
Three of the seven cases in Hungary reported to date are linked to Italy.
On 28 February 2020, Iceland confirmed its first case, an Icelandic male in his 50s who had previously been to Northern Italy and was placed in solitary confinement in Landspítali in Reykjavík.
On 5 March, a total of 34 cases had been confirmed in Iceland, most of which are imported cases from Italy.
On 27 February 2020, Ireland's first case was confirmed by the Health Protection Surveillance Centre. The male patient had travelled to an affected region in Northern Italy. A second, unrelated case was confirmed on 3 March, a female in the eastern portion of Ireland who had travelled to Italy.
On 2 March, Latvia confirmed its first case, a person who had travelled from Milan to Munich and then to Riga on 29 February.
The nation's second and fourth cases were persons who had travelled to Italy.
A 12-year-old Italian brought the infection to Malta.
On 7 March, Moldova confirmed its first case, a 48-year-old woman who had returned from Italy. Moldova confirmed the existence of imported case from diseased Italy on 11 March.
On 27 February, the Netherlands confirmed its first case, a man who had been in Lombardy and was admitted to Elisabeth-TweeSteden Hospital in Tilburg.
On 28 February, a woman from Amsterdam who had visited Lombardy was in home isolation in Diemen.
North Macedonia –
On 26 February, North Macedonia confirmed its first case, a woman who tested positive at the Clinic for Infectious Diseases, Skopje. She had stayed in Italy for a month and had been sick for two weeks. Upon returning to North Macedonia, she immediately reported to the clinic.
On 27 February, Norway confirmed that two people who tested positive were linked to the outbreak in Italy. They were quarantined at home in Oslo.
On 28 February, an individual from Bergen and an employee of Oslo University Hospital, Ullevål tested positive and were placed in home isolation. Both had visited Northern Italy.
On 6 March, the Norwegian Institute of Public Health reported that 79 of the 113 confirmed cases in Norway were linked to the outbreak in northern Italy.
Of the country's first five cases, two were from Italy, two were from Germany and one was from the UK.
On 2 March, a doctor who had travelled to Northern Italy and became ill on 29 February was confirmed positive at Hospital de São João in Porto. On 4 March, a 44-year-old man who had travelled to Italy was confirmed positive at the same hospital.
On 26 February, Romania confirmed its first case, a man from Gorj who tested positive after having come in contact with an 71-year-old man from Cattolica, Italy. The Italian man visited his wife's family and had several business meetings in Romania from 18 to 22 February. The Romanian man was admitted to National Institute of Infectious Diseases Prof. Dr. Matei Balș in Bucharest.
On 28 February, a 45-year-old man from Maramureș who had returned from Italy on 25 February was admitted to the Clinic of Infectious Diseases and then transferred to Cluj. A 38-year-old woman who had returned from Bergamo tested positive was admitted to a hospital in Timișoara.
On 3 March, a 47-year-old man who had travelled in the same plane with the 38-year-old woman was confirmed positive and admitted to the same hospital.
The majority of confirmed cases in Romania are related to Italy.
On 2 March, a Russian citizen who had returned from Italy was diagnosed.
San Marino –
On 27 February, San Marino confirmed its first case, an 88-year-old man with pre-existing medical conditions who was hospitalised at Rimini Hospital.
On 6 March, Serbia registered its first case, a 43-year-old man who had been to Budapest and Italy. At least one other case had been to Italy.
An asymptomatic man who had travelled to Venice between 14 and 15 February transmitted the virus to his father and his wife.
Many Slovenian cases are linked to Italy, including the nation's first case.
On 24 February, a 69-year-old medical doctor from Lombardy who had been vacationing in Tenerife since 17 February tested positive at the University Hospital of the Nuestra Señora de Candelaria. A 25-year-old man returning from a holiday in Italy also tested positive in Asturias.
On 25 February, the wife of the doctor from Lombardy tested positive and was admitted to the same hospital where her husband was being treated. A 36-year-old Italian woman living in Barcelona who had visited Bergamo and Milan from 12 to 22 February also tested positive. A man from Villarreal who had recently travelled to Milan tested positive and was admitted to Hospital Universitario de La Plana. A 24-year-old man from Madrid who had recently returned from Northern Italy tested positive and was admitted to Hospital Carlos III.
On 26 February, two Italian tourists who were vacationing with the Lombardy doctor and his wife also tested positive. The group were transferred to University Hospital of the Nuestra Señora de Candelaria and underwent quarantine. A 22-year-old man from Barcelona who travelled to Milan between 22 and 25 February tested positive and was admitted to Hospital Clínic. A woman from La Gomera who travelled to Italy between 4 and 8 February tested positive and was admitted to Hospital General de La Gomera in Tenerife.
On 27 February, a 44-year-old man from Valencia who worked as a sportswriter and had travelled to Milan's San Siro Stadium on 19 February to watch a football game tested positive and was admitted to Hospital Clínico Universitario de València. Two other people with whom he had made contact also tested positive and were admitted to the same hospital. Two more people who had visited the same football game in Milan were hospitalised at the same place. A woman who had visited Milan was hospitalised at Hospital de Sagunto, Valencia. An Italian student studying in Valencia who had visited Northern Italy was admitted to Hospital Universitario Doctor Peset. A 22-year-old woman from Tenerife who had travelled to Italy from 19 to 25 February was admitted to Hospital Clínic. An 18-year-old Italian student studying at IE University, Segovia, who had just returned from Milan, was admitted to Hospital General de Segovia.
On 28 February, a 27-year-old man from Aragon with a history of recent trips to Milan tested positive.
On 26 February, Sweden confirmed that a 30-year-old man who previously visited Northern Italy fell ill three days after returning to Sweden and was admitted to Sahlgrenska University Hospital in Gothenburg.
On 27 February, three patients in their 30s were confirmed positive in Västra Götaland. Two of them had been in contact with the Gothenburg patient, while the other had previously visited Italy.
On 28 February, a man in his 50s who had returned from Northern Italy on 24 February tested positive and was admitted to a hospital in Jönköping.
On 25 February, Switzerland confirmed its first case, a 70-year-old man in the canton of Ticino who had previously visited Milan.
On 27 February, a 28-year-old IT worker from Geneva who had recently returned from Milan tested positive and was admitted to Geneva University Hospital. Two Italian children on vacation in Graubünden tested positive and were hospitalised. A 26-year-old man in Aargau who had visited Verona on a business trip the previous week tested positive and was hospitalised. A 30-year-old woman who visited Milan was admitted to a hospital in Zurich. A young woman who had travelled to Milan tested positive in Basel-City. She worked for a daycare centre in Riehen, and after her test was confirmed, the children at the daycare were put into a two-week quarantine. On 28 February, her partner, a 23-year-old man, also tested positive in Basel-Country. On 29 February, the man's mother tested positive as well.
On 28 February, a 45-year-old-man who had travelled to Milan tested positive in Zürich.
On 3 March, Ukraine confirmed its first case in Chernivtsi, a man who had travelled from Italy by plane to the Romanian city of Suceava and then to Ukraine by car with his wife.
United Kingdom –
On 27 February, the United Kingdom confirmed that a patient who had visited Milan tested positive and was admitted to Royal Free Hospital in London.Northern Ireland reported its first case, an adult who had travelled from Northern Italy via Dublin and was admitted to Royal Victoria Hospital in Belfast.
On 28 February, Wales reported its first case, a patient who had returned from northern Italy was treated at a specialist unit in England.
^Mounk, Yascha (11 March 2020). "The Extraordinary Decisions Facing Italian Doctors". The Atlantic. Archived from the original on 12 March 2020. Retrieved 12 March 2020. Now the Italian College of Anesthesia, Analgesia, Resuscitation and Intensive Care (SIAARTI) has published guidelines for the criteria that doctors and nurses should follow in these extraordinary circumstances. The document begins by likening the moral choices facing Italian doctors to the forms of wartime triage that are required in the field of "catastrophe medicine."
^"Coronavirus, stop export of masks: Germany "suffocates" Italy". Libero (newspaper) (in Italian). 13 March 2020. Retrieved 15 March 2020. "which confirms that the company will not be able to meet the demand for new surgical gowns, protective masks, glasses and visors because Germany, with a letter in early March, confirmed the restrictions on the export of essential products for the system national health service".
^"Coronavirus, Germany asphyxiates Italy on masks? The case of the "export limits"". Il Messaggero (in Italian). 13 March 2020. Retrieved 15 March 2020. explains to Italian customers that they cannot meet their demand for masks and the like due to export restrictions imposed by the German government. The US multinational received the letter in the first week of March. The restrictions concern: surgical gowns (sterile and non-sterile), particulate respirators (FFP2 / FFP3), surgical masks, protective goggles, visors, protective clothing.
^Day, Michael (26 February 2020). "Covid-19: Italy confirms 11 deaths as cases spread from north". BMJ: m757. doi:10.1136/bmj.m757. Retrieved 30 March 2020. Confirmed cases of covid-19 in Italy leapt by 45% to reach 322 on 25 February, and four more deaths were confirmed amid signs that the infection was spreading around the country and across borders. ... Authorities in Austria and Croatia also reported their first cases of covid-19 and said that the patients affected had recently travelled from Italy’s Lombardy region, confirming fears that travellers were starting to carry the infection from its European epicentre. An Italian couple from the north of Italy tested positive on the Spanish island of Tenerife, forcing the quarantine of their hotel.