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2020 coronavirus pandemic in Cambodia

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2020 coronavirus pandemic in Cambodia
COVID-19 Outbreak Cases in Cambodia.svg
Map of provinces with coronavirus cases:
  Confirmed cases reported
  Suspected cases reported
(as of 2 April 2020)
DiseaseCOVID-19
Virus strainSARS-CoV-2
LocationCambodia
First outbreakWuhan, Hubei, China
Index caseSihanoukville
Arrival date27 January 2020
(2 months and 6 days)
Confirmed cases110
Suspected cases5,659 (as of 31 March)
Recovered34[1]
31[2][3]
Deaths
0
Official website
www.cdcmoh.gov.kh
Suspected cases have not been confirmed as being due to this strain by laboratory tests, although some other strains may have been ruled out.

The first case of the pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was confirmed in Cambodia on 27 January 2020.[4] According to Global Health Security Index's report in 2019, Cambodia ranked 89th out of 195 countries in preparedness for infectious disease outbreak.[5]

Timeline

Preventive measures poster by Communicable Disease Control Department

27 January

An empty hand sanitizer shelf in Kep on January 28, the day after the first case was confirmed in Cambodia

At 3 p.m, the first case had been confirmed in Sihanoukville on a 60-year-old Chinese man who arrived in 23 January from Wuhan, Hubei with his family. Three other members of his family were placed under quarantine as they did not appear to have symptoms, while he was placed in a separate room at the Preah Sihanouk Referral Hospital.[6][7][8]

10 February

After two weeks of being treated and kept under observation, he had fully recovered, Health Ministry stated on account of testing negative for the third time by Pasteur Institute of Cambodia. The family were finally discharged and flew back to their home country on the next day as of the 80 Chinese nationals who arrived in Sihanoukville on the same flight as him, most have since returned to China, although the city of Wuhan remains under quarantine.[9][10]

13 February

The cruise ship MS Westerdam was reportedly taking 1,455 passengers and 802 crew around Asia, 651 of whom were U.S citizens. The ship was previously docked in Hong Kong, around the time it was badly hit by the virus.[11] The Westerdam arrived in Sihanoukville on 13 February after it had been turned away by four countries due to virus concerns. About 20 passengers on board, who were unwell, took clinical tests but the vast majority had their temperature taken and filled out a form. Most of these passengers then disembarked.

Of 145 Westerdam passengers who stopped in Malaysia by plane on 15 February, an 83-year-old American woman tested positive for the virus, leading to concern that other passengers may also have been infected.[12] By only then, the remaining of 781 passengers were isolated and taken clinical tests, and still, the Westerdam was criticized as it was not designed for quarantine and the passengers were able to socialize.[citation needed]

A comedian based in Oregon who was hired to perform on the Westerdam was said to have flouted the quarantine by sneaking a flight back to Seattle.[13] However, he averred that the quarantine never took place and was cleared by US CDC on both ends.[14]

Later tests on the American woman who had already returned home showed negative as she never had carried the virus after all, US CDC stated on 6 March.[15] While the CDC had not tested the woman directly, it was confirmed that after the patient's initial positive result, two subsequent tests came back negative. It wasn't clear why she initially tested positive for COVID-19, though CDC officials have said she might have had other respiratory illness.

7 March

The second case of the coronavirus was a 38-year-old man, a Cambodian in Siem Reap. He was among four people (three of the man's relatives and a Japanese woman) placed under quarantine at Siem Reap Provincial Referral Hospital, all of whom had direct contact with a Japanese man in his 40s who left Cambodia on 3 February and tested positive upon arrival in his country at Chubu Centrair International Airport in Tokoname, Aichi. Meanwhile, some 40 other people in the same city had been isolated under medical supervision since indirect contacts with the same Japanese man. The government prompted its decision to close all schools and cancelled the upcoming Songkran in the city.[16][17]

10 March

The Ministry of Health confirmed the country's third case. At 4:30 p.m, a 65-year-old British woman had tested positive for the virus in Kampong Cham. She was a passenger of a cruise ship named Viking Cruise Journey, which travelled from Ho Chi Minh City to Kampong Cham City.[18]

The woman took a flight from London straight to Hanoi on 2 March then another flight to Ho Chi Minh City with four other people, all British. Arriving to Phnom Penh on 7 March via the cruise, it was reported that a Vietnamese woman, who was seated next to the group on the plane from London, had carried the virus. The group of five were taken samples for testing. Two of them refused, claiming that they were healthy and having no symptoms, until the cruise ship reached Kampong Cham on 9 March.[19]

11 March

Following the event, the boat had been docked to provide samples to be tested from all 29 other passengers and 34 crew and were they placed under quarantine in a hotel somewhere in the city.[20]

The British patient was transferred to Royal Phnom Penh Hospital in Phnom Penh at her own request, adding that she had been conducted with coordination from WHO.[21]

12 March

Another cases of two passengers of Viking Cruise Journey were publicly confirmed at noon to have tested positive in a British man, 73 and his wife, 69, bringing up to five the confirmed cases at the time. Due to their ages, the married couple were transferred to Khmer-Soviet Friendship Hospital in Phnom Penh.[22][23]

13 March

The health officials confirmed two cases in Phnom Penh at 8 p.m sharp, tallying to seven in total. A 49-year-old Canadian and a 33-year-old Belgian were in quarantine in Khmer-Soviet Friendship Hospital.[24] The authorities were trying to locate those who had contacts with the patients.[25]

For the time being, another two visitors to Tuol Sleng Genocide Museum (A British and his friend, a Canadian woman who worked in China) were suspected to have the symptoms and admitted to the said hospital. A British man, however, made an escape but was found later in Kampot and hospitalized there. They were tested negative, assuming it was just a fever they had. Nevertheless, their self-monitoring was needed for any changes.

All cruise ships had since been prohibited to enter the country through K'am Samnar checkpoint and any other checkpoints.[26][27]

14 March

Resulting from the previous day, at 12:57 p.m, MOEYS published an article, declaring that they would have to shut down all educational institutes in Phnom Penh for a while until further notice, so did an NGO of where the Belgian man had been working at.[28][29]

According to Ministry of Health's press release, Cambodia announced a ban on all entries from Italy, Germany, Spain, France and the United States, thereby all visas would be undeniably suspended. This policy would be held for thirty days, effective on March 17.[30]

15 March

Iran was added to the list of countries whose nationals were suspended entry to Cambodia, making a total of six. This would take effect on 18 March.[31]

An additional case of COVID-19 was confirmed in Phnom Penh at 5 p.m sharp on a French man, 35. With his wife and his four-month-old baby, the family flew from Paris to Singapore on 13 March. Showing signs of fever, the authorities there took his samples for examination. To wait for the results, he wasn't allowed to go any further, however as a follow-up health checkup was presented, he was informed that he could carry on and the results would be available accordingly.

The family were off, landed at Phnom Penh International Airport on the morning of 14 March. The same day, the test came back positive. As of 15 March, the man was admitted to Khmer-Soviet Friendship Hospital while his wife and child, were staying at home of a relative under medical supervision.[32]

Contacts with the man were found in the plane he boarded, in total of 24 passengers (including him and his family), and another two transporters who drove them home, to be examined. At 9 p.m, a report of 4 more cases were publicized, tallied up to twelve at the end of the day. It included a 4-month-old child of the French patient, a Cambodian from France, and two Khmer Muslims, 35 and 39, who attended a mosque event near Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia on 29 February. The ten mosque event attendees arrived at Preah Vihear (except one, who arrived at Stung Treng) on 3 March and up to 14 March, Malaysia informed that it had found the infected from that gathering. Another 8 people were continually in testing.[33][34]

16 March

The closures of educational institutions had then been expanded nationwide.[35]

17 March

Within the span of two days, total confirmed cases leapt to 33.[36][37]

At half past 9 a.m, 12 cases were publicly stated. 11 Khmer Muslims were found to be infected in various provinces. They were among 79 people returning from attending a mosque event in Malaysia. One case further referred to a Cambodian man who crossed the border from Thailand in Banteay Meanchey.[38]

At 9:00 p.m, nine more cases were included, six more attendees in Malaysia and three Malaysians out of a group of five. Two of the group were put under quarantine at a mosque in Kep.[39]

The government mandated the extended closure to karaoke clubs and cinemas and forbid all religious gatherings and concerts.[40][41][42]

18 March

Four more cases were detected: two Malaysians in Kampot and two more tabligh attendees in Tboung Khmum.[43]

In response to Vietnam's unilaterally shutting down borders with Cambodia without prior notice, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs announced to suspend all border crossings with Vietnam for a month-long period with the exception of diplomats and official passport holders. The measure would take effect on 20 March to avert inconvenience quarantine requirements for both nations.[44][45]

It was reported that Thailand unilaterally closed Cambodian-Thai provincial border crossing, An Ses-Preah Vihear.

The government had established a national committee for combating the COVID-19, it had duties to set national policy and strategy related to the fight against the COVID-19 and control the impact of the virus on politics, economy, and society at national and international levels. The committee was obliged to direct the implementation of the strategic plan in preventing, containing and controlling the spread of the virus.[46]

19 March

Ten more cases were detected: two wives of the infected men, two more tabligh attendees, and six Malaysians.[47]

20 March

The Ministry of Health announced an additional 4 confirmed cases: a Malaysian, and three Cambodians, one of whom was infected from an attendee from Malaysia and had no recent travel record overseas.[48]

21 March

Two more cases were confirmed at 9 p.m, a 67-year-old and an 80-year-old Frenchmen who arrived Sihanoukville as tourists on 18 March. 37 people suspected to have contacts with were put under quarantine.[49]

22 March

Having tested negative for a few times, a 65-year-old patient, British woman was reported that she fully recovered. She was said to be discharged later that day.

After bilateral meetings between Cambodia and Thailand was resulted in agreement upon closing all borders starting from 23 March for 14 days. An exception was made at Poipet-Aranyaprathet border crossing where only heavy-duty trucks were allowed under strict conditions. [50]

At 10 p.m, more 29 people linked in the same tourist group of the cases confirmed the previous night, plus two Cambodian guides were detected of the virus. The tourist group arrived Cambodia on March 11, visiting four provinces. As the tour ended in Sihanoukville on 18 March, the group had stayed in Independence Hotel and was scheduled to depart from Phnom Penh on 21 March.[51]

23 March

At 19:30, three new cases were recorded to include a mother of a 4-month-old child whom she and her infant had been placed under treatment at the Kantha Bopha Children's Hospital and other two Cambodians.[52]

Human Rights Watch said that the Cambodian government was using the Covid-19 outbreak to crack down on opposition. 17 people, including four members of the former Cambodia National Rescue Party (CNRP), had been arrested since January because they shared information about the coronavirus in Cambodia.[53]

24 March

The Health Ministry registered four new cases, risen up to 91. A British couple and an American couple were passengers of Viking Cruise Journey where the rest of them, 24 people were cleared and would depart for home from Phnom Penh via charter flights the next day.[54] It also added that four patients, two from Tboung Khmum and another two from Battambang, were all tested negative twice and ready to be discharged.[55]

25 March

Cambodia recorded five new cases, two from the French tourist group and 3 Cambodians with no recent foreign travels.[56]

Four more patients, three from Phnom Penh and one from Tboung Khmum, had made complete recovery for that day.[57]

174 Chinese nationals had been quarantined in Svay Rieng upon their arrival from Phnom Penh by bus after two of them exhibited high temperatures.[58] [59]

26-31 March

Reportedly around 40 thousand workers from Thailand had returned home. The local authorities were ordered to pay close attention and getting them informed on preventive measures and self-quarantine themselves for two weeks.[60]

On 26-28 March, two Indonesians taking off from Thailand and a Cambodian family of four who went on a trip to France were added to confirmed cases.[61][62][63]

On 29-31 March, six cases were added to the total of 109 at the month's end.[64][65] [66]

Eleven patients from Koh Kong, Banteay Meanchey, Phnom Penh, Kampong Chhnang, Battambang and Siem Reap was reported to have recovered from the disease.[67][68] [69]

On 28 March, The government mandated to impose travel restrictions to Cambodia, effective on 30 March. It stated that it would suspend visa exemption policy and issuance of tourist visa, e-visa and visa on arrival to all foreigners for a period of one month. Any foreign individual entering the country must obtain a prior visa from Cambodian missions abroad and provide a medical certificate, issued no more than 72 hours prior to arrival time and proof that he/she holds at least 50 thousand dollars for medical coverage.[70]

The authorities had traced 340 people who had indirect contacts with infected French tourist group in Siem Reap.[71]

Confirmed Cases

Confirmed cases by provinces, gender and age

Province # of cases Re⁠covered Classi⁠fication # of Cases
Banteay Meanchey 4 2 All 110
Battambang 8 2 (+1)[3] Sex Male 80
Kampong Cham 15 1 Female 30
Kampong Chhnang 3 1 Age Above 80 1
Kampot 2 0 70-79 7
Kandal 2 0 60-69 38
Kep 4 2 50-59 16
Koh Kong 2 1 40-49 13
Phnom Penh 20 8 (+2)[2] 30-39 26
Preah Vihear 2 1 20-29 6
Siem Reap 7 2 10-19 1
Sihanoukville 37 8 0-9 1
Tboung Khmum 4 3 n/d 1

Details of the confirmed cases in Cambodia

Case Date Age Gen⁠der National⁠ity Detection location Treatment facility Previous country been to Status Note Source
1 27 January 2020 60 Male  China Sihanoukville Preah Si⁠hanouk Referral Hospital  China Dis⁠charged (10 February) Arrived from Wuhan on 23 January with his family. [6]
2 7 March 2020 38  Cambodia Siem Reap Siem Reap Referral Hospital No Dis⁠charged (30 March) To have person-to-person spread from his employer, a Japanese man in his 40s. [16]
3 10 March 2020 65 Female  United Kingdom Kampong Cham Kampong Cham Pro⁠vincial Hospital  Vietnam Dis⁠charged (22 March) Case 3-⁠5 were passengers of Viking Cruise Journey. Boarded the same plane from London to Hanoi. Possibly infected from a Vietnamese woman.
Case 4 and 5 are married couple.
[18]
Royal Ph⁠nom Penh Hospital
4 12 March 2020 73 Male Khmer-Soviet Friendship Hospital Dis⁠charged (29 March) [22]
5 69 Female Dis⁠charged (29 March)
6 13 March 2020 49 Male  Canada Phnom Penh  Thailand Dis⁠charged (2 April) [25]
7 33  Belgium Undisclosed In-patient Identity requested to be concealed.
8 15 March 2020 35  France  Singapore  Singapore Dis⁠charged (29 March) Arrived from Singapore on 14 March. Possibly infected in France. [32][34]
9 4 months Phnom Penh National Pediatric Hospital In-patient Child of case 8. Spread from his father.
Kantha Bopha Hospital
10 Undisclosed  Cambodia Khmer-Soviet Friendship Hospital  France In-patient Identity covered by the government. Later revealed to be a senior official of Foreign Affairs.
11 35 Preah Vihear Preah Vihear Provincial Hospital  Malaysia In-patient Attendees of a mosque event in Malaysia. Arrived Cambodia on 3 March.
12 39 Dis⁠charged (29 March)
13 17 March 2020 38 Banteay Meanchey Banteay Meanchey Provincial Hospital  Thailand Dis⁠charged (30 March) Based in Serei Saophoan. [38][39]
14 41  Malaysia Dis⁠charged (27 March) Attendees of a mosque event in Malaysia.

Case 23 is a Malay translator, workplace in Kep.

15 63 Phnom Penh Khmer-Soviet Friendship Hospital Dis⁠charged (29 March)
16 64 Dis⁠charged (27 March)
17 75 Kampong Chhnang Kampong Chhnang Provincial Hospital In-patient
18 28 In-patient
19 38 Battambang Battambang Provincial Hospital In-patient
20 41 Dis⁠charged (24 March)
21 42 Dis⁠charged (24 March)
22 45 In-patient
23 30 Kep Kep Provincial Hospital Dis⁠charged (1 April)
24 61 Tbong Khmum Tboung Khmum Provincial Hospital Dis⁠charged (24 March)
25 40 Siem Reap Siem Reap Provincial Hospital Dis⁠charged (2 April)
26 27 Phnom Penh Khmer-Soviet Friendship Hospital Dis⁠charged (29 March)
27 40 In-patient
28 36 Kampong Chhnang Kampong Chhnang Provincial Hospital Dis⁠charged (29 March)
29 58  Malaysia Kep Kep Provincial Hospital In-patient
30 61 Dis⁠charged (1 April)
31 66 In-patient
32 57  Cambodia Koh Kong Koh Kong Provincial Hospital Dis⁠charged (26 March) Attendees of a mosque event in Malaysia.
33 53 Tboung Khmum Tboung Khmum Provincial Hospital Dis⁠charged (24 March)
34 18 March 2020 60  Malaysia Kampot Kampot Provincial Hospital In-patient [43]
35 64 In-patient
36 71  Cambodia Tboung Khmum Tboung Khmum Provincial Hospital In-patient Attendees of a mosque event in Malaysia.
37 52 Discharged (25 March)
38 19 March 2020 35 Female Battambang Bat⁠tambang Provincial Hospital No In-patient To have person-to-person spread from her husband, Case 22. [47]
39 41 In-patient To have person-to-person spread from her husband, Case 21.
40 60 Male Kandal Kandal Pro⁠vincial Hospital  Malaysia In-patient Attendee of a mosque event in Malaysia.
41 34 Phnom Penh Chak Angre Krom Hospital In-patient Religious worker from Kampot, had stayed in Phnom Penh for a few days.
42 26  Malaysia Kampong Cham Kampong Cham Provincial Hospital In-patient Religious workers temporarily in Kang Meas.
43 34 In-patient
44 34 In-patient
45 51 In-patient
46 58 In-patient
47 62 In-patient
48 20 March 2020 39 In-patient [48]
49 33  Cambodia Phnom Penh Chak Angre Krom Hospital No Discharged (25 March) To have person-to-person spread from someone who attended the mosque event.
50 38 Battambang Battambang Provincial Hospital  Malaysia In-patient Attendees of a mosque event in Malaysia.
51 48 In-patient
52 21 March 2020 67  France Sihanoukville Preah Si⁠hanouk Provincial Hospital Possibly
 France
In-patient A tourist group arrived Cambodia on 11 March. For the final tour in Sihanoukville, they had stayed at Independent Hotel on 18 March and planned to depart on 21 March. [49]
53 80 In-patient
54 22 March 2020 48 Female In-patient [51]
55 59 Dis⁠charged (2 April)
56 66 In-patient
57 61 Dis⁠charged (2 April)
58 63 Dis⁠charged (2 April)
59 52 In-patient
60 62 Dis⁠charged (2 April)
61 66 In-patient
62 59 In-patient
63 63 In-patient
64 76 In-patient
65 60 In-patient
66 63 In-patient
67 60 In-patient
68 69 Dis⁠charged (2 April)
69 69 In-patient
70 59 In-patient
71 66 Male Dis⁠charged (2 April)
72 57 In-patient
73 70 In-patient
74 70 In-patient
75 63 In-patient
76 63 In-patient
77 63 In-patient
78 52 Dis⁠charged (2 April)
79 64 In-patient
80 62 In-patient
81 61 In-patient
82 58 In-patient
83 39  Cambodia No In-patient Tour guides to the group above.
84 33 In-patient
85 23 March 2020 45 Male Kampong Cham Kampong Cham Pro⁠vincial Hospital In-patient To have person-to-person spread from Malaysian(s) while both attended a local event in Kang Meas from 12 to 16 March. [52]
86 36 Koh Kong Koh Kong Provincial Hospital In-patient To have person-to-person spread from his friend, Case 32
87 28 Female  France Phnom Penh Kantha Bopha Hospital  Singapore In-patient Mother of Case 9. Currently nursing the child in the same hospital.
88 24 March 2020 61 Male  United Kingdom Kampong Cham Kampong Cham Provincial Hospital  Vietnam In-patient Passengers of Viking Cruise Journey.

Case 90 and 91 are married couple.

[55]
89 79 Female In-patient
90 59 Male  United States In-patient
91 62 Female In-patient
92 25 March 2020 64 Male  France Sihanoukville Preah Sihanouk Provincial Hospital Possibly
 France
In-patient From the tourist group, Case 52-82 [56]
93 60 Female In-patient
94 27 Male  Cambodia Phnom Penh Chak Angre Krom Hospital No In-patient
95 59 Kandal Kandal Provincial Hospital In-patient To have person-to-person spread from Case 40
96 37 Siem Reap Siem Reap Provincial Hospital In-patient Driver for the French tourist group.
97 26 March 2020 41 Male  Indonesia  Thailand In-patient Medically tested in Thailand. [62]
98 44 In-patient
99 28 March 2020 62  Cambodia Phnom Penh Chak Angre Krom Hospital  France In-patient The family went on a trip to France. The man, Case 99 was back home on 15 March before the rest (his wife, Case 100 and his children, Case 101-102), later on 24 March. [61]
100 61 Female In-patient
101 39 Male In-patient
102 37 Female In-patient
103 29 March 2020 36 Female Banteay Meanchey Banteay Meanchey Provincial Hospital Undisclosed In-patient a Star TV staff. Possibly had contacts with Thai national. [64]
104 30 March 2020 30 Male No In-patient A casino staff. [65]
105 36 Phnom Penh Khmer-Soviet Friendship Hospital  Japan In-patient Arrived Cambodia on 28 March. Based in Kampong Cham.
106 20 Female  United Kingdom In-patient A college student. Arrived Cambodia on 28 March.
107 61 Male  France  Guyana In-patient Arrived Cambodia on 22 March.
108 31 March 2020 39 Female  Cambodia Siem Reap Siem Reap Provincial Hospital No In-patient Wife of Case 25, to have person-to-person spread from her husband [66]
109 12 Male In-patient Child of Case 108
110 2 April 2020 58 Sihanoukville Preah Sihanouk Provincial Hospital In-patient Hospitality manager for the French tourist group. [72]


Humanitarian assistance

On 23 March, a team of seven specialist physicians from southern China's Guangxi with medical supplies, including ventilators, medical masks, protective suits, test kits, and infrared temperature sensors, had landed in Phnom Penh to assist tackling the pandemic.[73][74]

References

  1. ^ "COVID-19 Map Cambodia". Ministry of Health of Cambodia. Retrieved 30 March 2020.
  2. ^ a b Two Cambodian men, 71 and 38, who admitted to Chak Angre Krom Hospital were not found in the detailed table below. The Health Ministry had not mentioned them of when they were traced of the virus, only referred them as recovered and had tested negative twice on 25 March, along with 33-year-old man, Case 49. Source
  3. ^ a b A 30 year-old Cambodian man was not found in the detailed table below. The Health Ministry had not mentioned him of when he was traced of the virus, only referred him as recovered on 29 March. Source
  4. ^ "Cambodia confirms first case of coronavirus: Health minister". CNA.asia. 27 January 2020. Archived from the original on 27 January 2020. Retrieved 27 January 2020.
  5. ^ Global Health Security Index, 2019 Source
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  72. ^ Cite error: The named reference 110 cases was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
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