Wiki.RIP

2020 coronavirus pandemic in Brazil

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

2020 coronavirus pandemic in Brazil
COVID-19 Outbreak Cases in Brazil.svg
Map of states with confirmed coronavirus cases (as of 2 April)
DiseaseCOVID-19
Virus strainSARS-CoV-2
LocationBrazil
First outbreakLombardy, Italy[1]
Index caseSão Paulo
Arrival date26 February 2020
(1 month, 1 week and 2 days)
Confirmed cases7,910[2]
Suspected cases63,516[2]
Recovered120
Deaths
299[2]
Official website
coronavirus.saude.gov.br
Suspected cases have not been confirmed as being due to this strain by laboratory tests, although some other strains may have been ruled out.

The 2019–20 coronavirus pandemic was confirmed to have spread to Brazil on 25 February 2020, after a 61-year-old man from São Paulo who had returned from Lombardy, Italy tested positive for the virus. Since then, as of 22 March 2020, 6,836 cases were confirmed in the country, causing 241 deaths.[2] Local transmission has been reported in at least seven states[citation needed], and the pandemic has triggered a variety of responses from federal, state and local governments, while also impacting politics, education and the economy.

Current number of cases by states

State Confirmed Cases Confirmed Deaths
 São Paulo 2981 164
 Minas Gerais 314 3
 Rio de Janeiro 832 28
 Bahia 246 2
 Rio Grande do Sul 306 4
 Paraná 224 3
 Pernambuco 95 8
 Ceará 444 8
 Pará 40 1
 Goiás 71 1
 Maranhão 54 1
 Santa Catarina 235 2
 Paraíba 20 1
 Amazonas 200 3
 Espírito Santo 96 0
 Rio Grande do Norte 92 2
 Alagoas 18 1
 Mato Grosso 27 0
 Piauí 18 4
 Distrito Federal 355 3
 Mato Grosso do Sul 51 1
 Sergipe 20 0
 Rondônia 9 1
 Tocantins 12 0
 Acre 43 0
 Amapá 11 0
 Roraima 22 0
 Brazil 6,836 241

Timeline

COVID-19 cases in Brazil  ()
     Deaths        Recoveries        Active cases

Feb Feb Mar Mar Apr Apr Last 15 days Last 15 days

Date
# of cases
# of deaths
2020-02-26
1(n.a.)
1(=)
2020-02-29
2(+100%)
2(=)
2020-03-04
4(+100%)
2020-03-05
8(+100%)
2020-03-06
14(+75%)
2020-03-07
19(+43%)
2020-03-08
25(+32%)
2020-03-09
30(+20%)
2020-03-10
34(+13%)
2020-03-11
52(+53%)
2020-03-12
76(+46%)
2020-03-13
98(+29%)
2020-03-14
121(+24%)
2020-03-15
200(+65%)
2020-03-16
234(+17%)
2020-03-17
291(+24%) 1(n.a.)
2020-03-18
428(+47%) 4(+300%)
2020-03-19
621(+45%) 7(+75%)
2020-03-20
964(+55%) 11(+57%)
2020-03-21
1,178(+22%) 18(+64%)
2020-03-22
1,546(+31%) 25(+39%)
2020-03-23
1,891(+22%) 34(+36%)
2020-03-24
2,201(+16%) 46(+35%)
2020-03-25
2,433(+11%) 57(+24%)
2020-03-26
2,915(+20%) 77(+35%)
2020-03-27
3,417(+19%) 92(+17%)
2020-03-28
3,904(+14%) 114(+24%)
2020-03-29
4,256(+9.0%) 136(+19%)
2020-03-30
4,579(+7.6%) 159(+17%)
2020-03-31
5,717(+25%) 201(+26%)
2020-04-01
6,836(+20%) 240(+19%)
2020-04-02
7,910(+15%) 299(+24%)
Sources:
  • From 2020-03-27: Data from the daily report of the Ministry of Health in order to be standardized; [1]

These are the deaths and new confirmed cases of the new Coronavirus in Brazil.

January and February

On 28 January 2020, the Ministry of Health (Ministério da Saúde) raised the emergency alert to level 2 of 3, considering an "imminent threat" for Brazil, as a suspected case was being investigated in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais.[3] The following day, the Ministry announced it was investigating two other suspected cases, in Porto Alegre and Curitiba. No further information was given about the patients in Porto Alegre and Curitiba. However, it was informed that the Belo Horizonte patient was a student that had recently visited Wuhan, China, point of origin of the outbreak.[4]

On 3 February, the Minister of Health Luiz Henrique Mandetta said that the Brazilian government would declare a Public Health Emergency of International Concern, even without confirmed cases in the country. He also said the government would assist on the return of Brazilians from Wuhan.[5] The following day, the Ministry confirmed that around 30 Brazilians were in Wuhan, and that they would return to the country on 8 February. It was also announced that they would be quarantined for 18 days in Anápolis, Goiás.[6]

On 5 February, the Brazilian government sent two planes to evacuate 34 Brazilians from Wuhan. They and the flight crew were quarantined at a Brazilian Air Force base in Anápolis,[7] and discharged, along with the doctors and health professionals who had contact with them, on 23 February, four days earlier than predicted, as routine tests repeatedly showed negative results for COVID-19.[8]

On 6 February, the Ministry announced nine suspected cases in the country in five different states. However, these were later dismissed.[9] On 24 February, it was informed by the Ministry that there was officially four suspected cases in the country after 54 cases were dismissed.[10]

On 25 February, the Health Department of São Paulo reported the first case of COVID-19 in Brazil – and in South America. It was a 61-year-old man from São Paulo, São Paulo who travelled through Lombardy, Italy between 9 and 21 February. He tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 at Albert Einstein Israelite Hospital, which was also confirmed by the Adolfo Lutz Institute. The patient was showing mild symptoms and had been quarantined at home.[11][12]

On 26 February, following the first confirmed case in the country, the government reported that Brazil was monitoring 20 suspected cases, 12 of them were people who came from Italy.[13] The following day, Brazil reported 132 suspected cases in 16 states, 85 of them in the state of São Paulo.[14]

On 28 February, the Brazilian government reported 182 suspected cases in 17 states; 72 of the previous day cases were discarded.[15] That same day, Brazilian scientists from Adolfo Lutz Institute and the University of São Paulo's Tropical Medicine Institute — part of the Centre for Arbovirus Discovery, Diagnostics, Genomics & Epidemiology — announced the sequencing of the COVID-19 genome of the first case reported in Brazil, in a record time of just two days.[16] This discovery will assist in improving the diagnosis and control measures to curb the spread of the disease.[17]

On 29 February, a second case was confirmed in the country: the patient was a 32-year-old man who arrived from Milan. Brazil also reported 207 suspected cases in 17 states, 91 of them in São Paulo.[18]

1–15 March

On 3 March, Brazil raised the number of suspected cases from 433 to 488 in 23 states.[19] That same day, the genome of COVID-19 samples from the second Brazilian case were released on the GISAID database. The analysis shows two independent introductions of the virus in Brazil from Northern Italy and have direct implications in understanding the outbreak in Italy.[20] The following day, two additional cases of COVID-19 were confirmed, raising the number of infected patients to 4. The number of suspected cases was raised from 488 to 531.[21] Up until that moment, all of the confirmed cases were from the state of São Paulo.[citation needed]

President Jair Bolsonaro's official announcement about COVID-19, 6 March.

On 5 March, three new cases were confirmed, raising the total to 8. The disease had now spread to the states of Rio de Janeiro and Espírito Santo, also in the Southeast Region. Later that day, a woman in the Federal District was hospitalized after testing positive for COVID-19 and was waiting for the confirmation test.[22] That was the first case reported in the Central-West Region.

On 6 March, the country raised the number of confirmed cases to 13. The state of Bahia — and Northeast Region — confirmed its first case, and the number of suspected cases was raised to 768.[23] That same day, Brazilian scientists announced the cultivation of COVID-19 in a laboratory, with the purpose of contributing to the diagnosis and vaccines against the disease.[24] Later that day, President Jair Bolsonaro, said during an official announcement on television that "there is no reason to panic" and that people "must strictly follow the experts recommendations as the best protective measure".[25]

On 7 March, the Ministry of Health confirmed 6 new cases, raising the number to 19. The number of suspected cases was reduced to 674.[26] The following day, six new cases were confirmed, raising the total number to 25. The states of Alagoas (in the Northeast) and Minas Gerais (in the Southeast) reported their first cases.[27]

On 9 March, the country confirmed 5 new cases of coronavirus – all of them in the state of Rio de Janeiro —, raising the total number to 30. The number of suspected cases was raised to 930.[28] The following day, Brazil confirmed four new cases, raising the number to 34. The disease had spread to the Southern Region, with the state of Rio Grande do Sul confirming its first case. The number of suspected cases was reduced to 893.[29]

On 11 March, the Federal District confirmed a second case of COVID-19. The patient was the husband of the woman who was hospitalized on 5 March. The examination was carried out by a court order. He had refused to be quarantined and had been in regular contact with others.[30] Later that day, the total number of cases in the country was raised to 69, with new cases being confirmed in the states of São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande do Sul, and Bahia.[31]

On 12 March, Brazil confirmed 137 cases.[32] The state of Paraná (in the South) confirmed its first 6 cases, while Pernambuco (in the Northeast) confirmed its first two cases.[33] Fábio Wajngarten, Press Secretary to President Bolsonaro, tested positive for COVID-19. As such, the president and his cabinet were being monitored. Wajngarten had also interacted with U.S. President Donald Trump and Vice President Mike Pence, during Bolsonaro's visit to Miami on 7 March, raising concerns that he might have infected them.[34] Also on 12 March, the Ministry of Health requested the approval of an additional R$10 billion (US$2.1 billion) in the federal budget to reinforce its fight against the disease in Brazil.[35] It also estimated that 2,000 intensive care units will be needed to treat patients in the coming weeks.[36] Later that day, second cases were confirmed in Espírito Santo[37] and Minas Gerais.[38] Also on 12 March, the cruise ship Silver Shadow from the Bahamas with 318 passengers and 291 crew members, docked in Recife, Pernambuco, with a suspected case of COVID-19 in a 78-year-old Canadian tourist. The ship was isolated by health authorities.[39]

On 13 March, President Jair Bolsonaro tested negative for COVID-19.[40][41] Later that day, Amazonas reported its first case – becoming the first state in the North Region to do so —, while Goiás (in the Central-West Region) reported its first three cases, with 25 new cases being confirmed nationally.[42] The Ministry of Health issued a warning recommending Brazilians and foreigners arriving in Brazil to stay in isolation for at least 7 days.>[43] Also on 13 March, the first patient of COVID-19 in the country, the 61-year-old man from São Paulo, finally recovered.[44]

On 14 March, Brazil confirmed 23 additional cases. Mato Grosso do Sul (in the Central-West Region) and Sergipe (in the Northeast) reported their first cases.[45][46][47] The following day, Brazil confirmed 43 additional cases.[48] That same day, President Jair Bolsonaro, who was being monitored by doctors after Wajngarten tested positive for COVID-19, was heavily criticized for meeting his supporters in a public parade in Brasília without wearing a mask.[49]

16–31 March

On 16 March, Brazil confirmed 34 additional cases, totaling 234, the largest number in Latin America.[50] The following day, the first coronavirus-related death was confirmed in the country. It was a 62-year-old man hospitalized in a private hospital in São Paulo.[51] Later that day, the Ministry of Health reported 291 confirmed cases in the country.[52]

On 18 March, Brazil confirmed three additional deaths. The patients were a 65-year-old man, an 85-year-old man (both with pre-existing conditions), and an 80-year-old man (without pre-existing conditions); they were all from the state of São Paulo.[53][54] That same day, Pará (in the North) reported its first confirmed case. The patient, a 37-year-old person from Belém, is quarantined with his family.[55] Also on 18 March, President Jair Bolsonaro confirmed that two of his Ministers (Bento Albuquerque and Augusto Heleno) had tested positive for COVID-19.[56] At night, he once again made a televised address to the nation, which was met with panelaços from both his followers and opponents.[57] By the end of the night, the Ministry of Health had reported 428 cases in the country.[58]

By 19 March, Brazil had seven deaths from COVID-19. The first death in the state of Rio de Janeiro was that of a 63-year-old domestic worker from Miguel Pereira who was not warned of the risk of contagion by her employer, who was infected with coronavirus in Italy.[59][60] The other victims were a 69-year-old man from Niterói, who was diabetic and hypertensive,[61] and an unidentified person hospitalized in a private hospital in São Paulo.[62] According to G1, there were 647 confirmed cases in the country by night.[63]

By 20 March, Brazil had 11 deaths from COVID-19. The four new victims were a 70-year-old man, an 80-year-old man, a 93-year-old man and an 83-year-old woman. All of them had pre-existing conditions and were hospitalized in private hospitals in the state of São Paulo.[64] The number of confirmed cases reached 904.[65][66] In two hours, the number of confirmed cases in the country went from 750 to 970.[67] By night, the health departments of the Brazilian states had reported 977 confirmed cases. COVID-19 cases were confirmed in 23 states and the Federal District.[68]

On 21 March, Brazil had 18 deaths from COVID-19. By noon, the health departments had reported 1,000 confirmed. Rio de Janeiro confirmed its third death. The victim was a 65-year-old man from Petrópolis. According to Folha de S. Paulo, he had been hospitalized in a private hospital since returning from a trip to Egypt.[69][70] São Paulo, in turn, reported six additional deaths: four women (aged 89, 76, 73, and 89), and two men (aged 90, and 49). São Paulo is the focus of the disease in the country, with 459 confirmed cases. As such, the local government has declared a state-wide quarantine starting on 24 March. The measure determined the closure of all commerce and non-essential services from that date until 7 April. By the end of the day, 1,128 cases were confirmed by the ministry of Health in 25 states and the Federal District.[71] Maranhão (in the Northeast) reported its first case. Only the state of Roraima (in The North) was the last to register a COVID-19 case, so all states and the Federal District registered cases.[72][73][74]

On 22 March, Brazil had 25 deaths from COVID-19. The Ministry of Health reported on Sunday (22) that the number of confirmed cases of covid-19 – the disease caused by the new coronavirus – reached 1,546. The death toll from the disease has grown to 25 people, according to the ministry. São Paulo continues to concentrate the number of cases in the country. There are 631 records. The number of fatalities in the state has already reached 22, according to the ministry's balance sheet. All took place in the city of São Paulo. Thus, the percentage of fatal cases is 3.5%. Of the seven new deaths confirmed since yesterday, five are men (76, 81, 82, 82, 83 years old) and two are women (88 and 96 years old). Among the total deaths recorded so far, 21 occurred in private hospitals and one in a public hospital. In the State of Rio de Janeiro, the number of cases is 186 and there are three deaths in the cities of Niterói, Petrópolis and Miguel Pereira, which is equivalent to a lethality rate of 1.6%. In less than 24 hours, the city of Rio de Janeiro registered a 60.5% increase in the number of confirmed cases of the new coronavirus in the capital. In a bulletin released at 2 pm, 170 notifications were recorded. Of this total, 23 people are hospitalized, 12 in ICUs. There are still 175 suspected cases. There are no confirmed deaths in the state capital. Roraima, which was the only state with no cases registered until Saturday, accounts for two occurrences. Thus, all units of the Brazilian Federation already have Covid-19 records.[75][76] In Bahia, confirmed by SESAB, there are already 55 confirmed cases, 33 in Salvador, seven in Porto Seguro, six in Feira de Santana, three in Lauro de Freitas, and two in Prado. The cities that have only one confirmed case are Itabuna, Camaçari, and more recently registered, Barreiras and Conceição do Jacuípe. Across the country there are already 1604 infected and 25 deaths registered.[77]

On 23 March, Brazil had 34 deaths from COVID-19. New number of patients represents an increase of 22% in relation to the 1,546 cases registered until Sunday (22). Among deaths, growth was 36%. The total number of confirmed cases of a new coronavirus (Sars-Cov-2) rose to 1,891 on Monday (23), according to a balance by the Ministry of Health. The number of deaths also increased to 34 deaths.[78][79]

On 24 March, Brazil had 46 deaths from COVID-19. According to the Ministry of Health, this Tuesday (24) Brazil registers 2201 people infected with the coronavirus and 46 dead. São Paulo is the state that leads the list with 910 cases and 40 deaths, followed by Rio de Janeiro, which records 305 cases and 6 deaths. And more: Elderly residents of communities will be hosted in hotels in Rio de Janeiros to avoid contamination.[80]

On 25 March, Brazil had 57 deaths from COVID-19. The number of confirmed cases of coronavirus (Covid-19) in Brazil rose to 2,433, according to information passed by the states to the Ministry of Health on Wednesday (25). To date, there are 57 deaths, 48 in the state of São Paulo and six in Rio de Janeiro. The North, Northeast and South regions recorded the first deaths, one in Amazonas, one in Pernambuco and one in Rio Grande do Sul.[81]

On 26 March, Brazil had 77 deaths from COVID-19. One month after the first case of coronavirus (causing Covid-19 disease) in Brazil, confirmed on 26 February, the country has 2,915 infected and 77 deaths. The lethality rate is 2.7%. The balance was released by the Ministry of Health, on Thursday, 26. The first death in Brazil was registered on 17 March, in São Paulo. The state has already registered more than 90% of cases but now it is almost 40%, with 1,052 infected. Despite this, it still has the highest number of deaths, 58. There are also deaths in Rio de Janeiro (9), Goiás (1), Santa Catarina (1), Rio Grande do Sul (1), Ceará (3), Pernambuco ( 3) and Amazonas (1). In addition to São Paulo, the states with the most infections are: Rio de Janeiro (421), Ceará (235) and the Federal District (200).[82]

On 27 March, Brazil had 92 deaths from COVID-19. The Ministry of Health released the most recent balance of cases of Covid-19, a disease caused by the coronavirus Sars-Cov-2. The main figures are: 92 deaths, 3,417 confirmed cases, 2.7% is the fatality rate. São Paulo concentrates 1,223 cases, and Rio de Janeiro, 493. According to the Ministry of Health, until 3 pm, there were 116 patients admitted to wards and another 148 patients in the ICU. The numbers only consider people whose test results have already been presented and tested positive. Disregard suspected cases.[83][84]

On 28 March, Brazil had 117 deaths from COVID-19. The Ministry of Health reported on Saturday (28) that Brazil has so far registered 114 deaths and 3,904 confirmed cases of coronavirus. The mortality of Covid-19 in the country is 2.9%, according to the balance released by the folder. The survey also points out that, in the country, men die more from coronavirus than women – 61.4% (H) against 38.6% (M). Approximately 90% of deaths are people over 60 years of age. In 84% of deaths, patients had at least one risk factor. The most common, according to the Ministry, is heart disease, followed by diabetes and pneumopathy. According to the folder, the state with the highest number of cases is São Paulo, with 1,406. Then, Rio de Janeiro with 558. Then, Ceará, 314. The southeast region concentrates 56.9% of cases in Brazil, followed by northeast (16%), south (13.2%) centerwest (9.2%) %) and north (4.7%). Of the 22 deaths added to the total in the country this Saturday, the state of São Paulo had 16 deaths. Two more dead were confirmed in the state, but not yet accounted for by the secretariat and the Ministry of Health: a 56-year-old student in the Chemistry course at USP and a 26-year-old who died at Hospital Santa Cruz, in Vila Mariana, São Paulo. . With them, there are already 86 deaths in SP. In addition to them, the Health Department of Rio Grande do Norte confirmed late Saturday night the first death from the new coronavirus in the state. The victim is a 61-year-old university professor with a history of diabetes. With this case there are 117 deaths in Brazil.[85][86][87]

On 29 March, Brazil had 136 deaths from COVID-19. The Ministry of Health released on Sunday (29) the most recent balance of cases of Covid-19, a disease caused by the coronavirus Sars-Cov-2. The main figures are: 136 deaths, 4,256 confirmed cases and the lethality rate rose from 2.8% until Saturday (28) to 3.2% this Sunday. The state of São Paulo concentrates 1,451 cases and the Rio de Janeiro 600 cases. The balance added 22 deaths to the total. In the balance of the previous day, Brazil had 114 deaths. This represents a 19% increase in the number of deaths. Sunday saw the same increase in the number of deaths as Saturday, where there were also 22 more victims. These are the two days with the highest number of deaths in Brazil from the new coronavirus so far. The highest rates came from São Paulo (98 deaths) and Rio de Janeiro (17 deaths). In addition, deaths from covid-19 were recorded in Amazonas (1), Bahia (1), Ceará (5), Pernambuco (5), Piauí (1), Rio Grande do Norte (1), Federal District (1), Goiás (1), Paraná (2), Santa Catarina (1) and Rio Grande do Sul (2). Among the 136 deaths, 98 occurred in the state of São Paulo. There was an increase of 14 deaths in SP in the balance of this Sunday.[88][89]

The death of two young people, one 26 and 33 years old, from the new coronavirus (covid-19) is being investigated in São Paulo to see if they had any comorbidities. The information is from the Health Department of São Paulo. The two young men died on Sunday (29), in the capital, and are among the 14 people who died victims of the covid-19 that were counted today. All deaths occurred in the private health network. The latest balance sheets released by the Department of Health have not yet accounted for the death of a 56-year-old boy, a student at the Faculty of Chemistry at the University of São Paulo (USP), which took place this Saturday (28). The death was confirmed in a statement from USP, which reported that he died at the University Hospital.[90]

On 30 March, Brazil had 159 deaths from COVID-19. The number of deaths due to the new coronavirus (covid-19) rose from 136 to 159 between yesterday and today. An increase of 16% between the last update and the one just released by the Ministry of Health. Confirmed cases, on the other hand, went from 4,256 to 4,579. The result of new 323 infected people marked an increase of 7% compared to yesterday. The number was the lowest performance in the last five days, when the number of new people infected, for example, surpassed 500 last Friday (27). The states with the most cases were São Paulo (1451), Rio de Janeiro (600), Ceará (372), Distrito Federal (312) and Minas Gerais (231). The lowest incidence is in states in the North Region, such as Rondônia (6), Amapá (8), Tocantins (9) and Roraima (16). The lethality index reached 3.5% with today's balance, above the one seen in yesterday's balance, when it was around 3.2%. In Mato Grosso do Sul there is no record of deaths. But there are already 44 people with the coronavirus and another 51 under investigation.[91]

On 31 March, Brazil had 201 deaths from COVID-19. The number of deaths due to the new coronavirus reached 201, this Tuesday (31). The number of new deaths, 42, was the highest in the historical series. The highest number of deaths in a day so far had been 23, yesterday (30). The result marks an increase of 26% in relation to the previous day, when 159 deaths were registered. Regarding the profile, 41.4% were women and 68.6%, men. Regarding age, 89% were over 60 years old. Regarding health complications, most (107) had heart disease, 75 had diabetes, 33 pneumopathy and 22 some neurological condition. The deaths occurred in São Paulo (136), Rio de Janeiro (23), Ceará (7), Pernambuco (6), Piauí (4), Rio Grande do Sul (4), Paraná (3), Amazonas (3), Federal District (3), Minas Gerais (2), Bahia (2), Santa Catarina (2), Alagoas (1), Maranhão (1), Goiás (1), Rondônia (1) and Rio Grande do Norte (1) . The confirmed cases went from 4,579 to 5,717. The result of new 1,138 people infected in one day was more than double the highest recorded so far, of 502 new cases on March 27. The states with the most cases are São Paulo (2,339), Rio de Janeiro (708), Ceará (390), Distrito Federal (332) and Minas Gerais (275). The lowest incidence is in states in the Northern Region, such as Rondônia (eight), Amapá (10), Tocantins (11) and Roraima (16). The lethality rate, which was below 2% at the weekend, was 3.5% on today's balance sheet, the same as recorded yesterday. Hospitalizations went from 757 yesterday to 1,075 today.[92]

1–15 April

On 31 March, Brazil had 241 deaths from COVID-19. The Ministry of Health released on Wednesday (1st) the most recent national assessment of the cases of Covid-19, a disease caused by the coronavirus Sars-Cov-2. The main data are: 241 deaths, 6,836 confirmed cases, 3.5% is the fatality rate. Among more than 200 deaths analyzed, 89% were of people over 60 and 84% of people with at least one comorbidity, which is a pre-existing disease. Seven of the 212 deaths analyzed occurred in people under the age of 60 and without comorbidities. The deaths are located in the states of Amazonas (3), Pará (1), Rondônia (1), Alagoas (1), Bahia (2), Ceará (8), Maranhão (1), Paraíba (1), Pernambuco (8) ), Piauí (4), Rio Grande do Norte (2), Minas Gerais (3), Rio de Janeiro (28), São Paulo (164), Federal District (3), Goiás (1), Mato Grosso do Sul ( 1), Paraná (3), Rio Grande do Sul (4) and Santa Catarina (2). All Brazilian regions have confirmed cases of deaths from coronavirus. Only the states of Acre, Amapá, Roraima, Tocantins, Sergipe, Espírito Santo and Mato Grosso do not have confirmed deaths from the disease so far, but they also register confirmed cases, as do all other Brazilian states.[93][94]

Response

Policy responses and prevention announced in the country amid the Covid-19 pandemic.

Contingency plan booklet of the pandemic

Scientific research and forecast

Illustration of the SARS-CoV-2

On 28 February, researchers from Brazil and the University of Oxford sequenced the 2019 n-CoV virus genome from the first confirmed case of the disease in São Paulo. The work, usually done in 15 days by scientists, was done in just two days, according to the São Paulo State Research Support Foundation (Fapesp). The first preliminary analysis by the scientists shows that the genome of the coronavirus diagnosed in Brazil differs in three points in the genetic code of the virus found initially in Wuhan, the Chinese city where the disease arose. According to one of the study's authors, Ester Cerdeira Sabino, the more we unravel the virus's RNA, the more we can track its path.

Genetic analysis of a virus's RNA is also essential for the development of vaccines and the creation of diagnostic tests. A preliminary analysis of the sequence is now available online for consultation by other researchers worldwide. The research was carried out by the Adolfo Lutz Institute in partnership with the Institute of Tropical Medicine of the Faculty of Medicine of the University of São Paulo and the University of Oxford.[95]

On 19 March, Scientists predict up to 2 million deaths in Brazil in the worst scenario without measures to contain the virus. They point out that a policy of social distancing is one of the most effective measures without a vaccine.[96]

On 20 March, experts from Italy warned that the Coronavirus growth curve in Brazil would repeat that of European countries. Observatory with physicists from University of São Paulo USP, Unicamp, Unesp, UnB, UFABC, Berkley (US) and Oldenburg (Germany) shows that the number of infected people, considering data from March 19th, had been doubling every 54 hours, and that the case Total would exceed 3 thousand on the 24th.[97][98]

On March 21th, researchers are mobilizing to increase test availability in Brazil. The expectation is that with just a drop of blood from the patient it will be possible to know if he has the new coronavirus and at what stage; the idea is that experiments are ready for the current wave of COVID-19 and action mobilizes some of the main Brazilian universities.[99] The Health Minister has said the numbers will increase exponentially until the end of June.[71]

On March 22nd, Brazil reached a thousand cases after Italy and Spain. A North American University survey shows that the evolution of the disease in the country is slower than that observed elsewhere. Brazil took longer to go from 100 to 1,000 cases of COVID-19 than countries like Italy and Spain. The data used were compiled by the American university Johns Hopkins. The country passed 100 confirmed cases of the new coronavirus on March 13th. That day, 151 cases were recorded. Eight days later, on March 21st, Brazil reached the 1,000th positive test and reached 1,021 people with the disease. In Italy, this movement took place between February 23rd and 29th (six days); in Spain, between March 2nd and 9th (seven days). This means, in the assessment of a statistical expert in epidemiology, Antonio Ponce de Leon, that the rate of infections in Brazil is slower. Italy and Spain are the European countries most affected by the virus. The first recorded, March 22nd, more than 59 thousand cases and 5.4 thousand deaths. Spain had 28,700 patients with 1,700 deaths. Both, who had their health systems collapsed because of the disease, started the fight by restricting the tests to only the most serious cases – the same Brazilian strategy. The justification was that this was a finite and expensive resource.[100]

On 23 March, Research predicts a negative GDP of up to 4.4% with the effect of the coronavirus. The study makes a projection of the impact on the economy, comparing to the effects of the crisis of 2008 and the strike of truck drivers in 2018. The impact of the coronavirus will come through two channels: an external channel and the domestic channel. With the pandemic, the American economy, the European economy and the Chinese economy have practically stopped, or are in a very strong deceleration rhythm. With that, by itself, it would already have a very strong effect in Brazil without a doubt.[101]

On 26 March, The increase in demand and the lack of protective masks in the market for health professionals who are at the forefront of combating the new coronavirus (covid-19) brought together several researchers and students from universities in Rio de Janeiro to develop production projects of the much needed equipment at this time of health crisis. At Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), a group of professors and a master's student at the School of Engineering are already producing low-cost faceshield masks on 3D printers.

Professor Márcio Cataldi said that initially the production is being carried out on three printers in the homes of the members of the group, but next Monday (30) five more equipment will be used, and the eight will work in a laboratory of the School of Engineering. At the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), the work is in partnership with the Pontifical Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), the Federal University of the State of Rio de Janeiro [Unirio) and members of civil society.

The prototypes of facial protectors developed by UFRJ were validated by the Hospital Universitário Clementino Fraga Filho (HUCFF) and follow the guidelines of the National Health Surveillance Agency (Anvisa). At PUC-Rio, a group of researchers and professors from different institutions in the state is dedicated to production that can also extend to cloaks and valves, among other equipment used by doctors and nurses in the Unified Health System (SUS) in the state. In addition to PUC-Rio and UFRJ, the group includes representatives from Unirio, Federation of Industries of the State of Rio de Janeiro (Firjan), National Service for Industrial Learning (Senai), state government, National Institute of Technology (INT), Coppe UFRJ, DASA Group, Clementino Fraga Filho University Hospital, Brazilian Navy and SOS 3D Covid 19.

One of the production sites is the Department of Arts and Design at PUC-Rio, with 16 printing units operating in the Volume and Prototyping. In addition to facial protectors manufactured in 3D printing and laser cutting, the university will produce N95 masks, which are also already in short supply in health facilities. The PUC-Rio team includes professors João Victor de Melo and Gabriella Vaccari, and laboratories Diogo de Souza Marques and Hanna Claudia Marins.[102]

Preventive measures

On 14 March, Approximately 40 military personnel from the Fire Department of the Federal District are scheduled and prepared to work in bus terminals and airports in the identification of people suspected of infection by Covid-19. The operation, which is expected to start in the next few days, will count on the help of state-of-the-art equipment capable of even detecting whether or not an environment has the presence of people who have already acquired the disease. The information was released on Saturday (14), at a press conference at the Buriti Palace, when officials of the corporation demonstrated part of the work they intend to develop to help fight the proliferation of the coronavirus.[103]

COE (COVID-19) (49666502131).jpg

On 16 March, Today (16) an Emergency Operations Center (COE) of the Municipal Health Secretariat (Sesau) was created to establish actions to combat and control Covid-19. The creation of the COE was based on the need to establish a response plan and a strategy for monitoring and supporting confirmed and suspected cases. The center will use urgent measures to prevent, control and contain risks, damages and public health problems.

The Emergency Operations Center will act jointly with other organs and sectors internal and external to Sesau and will be valid for six months, and may be extended for consecutive periods, if necessary, based on epidemiological indicators. Among the duties of COE-Covid-19 will be the analysis of patterns of occurrences, the distribution and confirmation of positive cases for the disease. The center will also develop flows and protocols, assistance and a laboratory for dealing with the virus in the public network. The COE should also train municipal employees and private entities, whether or not they are affiliated with the Unified Health System (SUS), so that there is a standard in the measures taken to increase responses to the Public Health Emergency.[104]

Brazilian firefighters will be helping in the detection of suspected cases

On 17 March, Brazilian authorities partially closed their border with Venezuela. Health Minister Luiz Henrique Mandetta had urged closure of the border due to Venezuela's collapsing health system.[105]

On 18 March, Rio de Janeiro and five other municipalities — São Gonçalo, Guapimirim, Niterói, Nova Iguaçu, and Mesquita — in the state of Rio de Janeiro have declared an emergency state to help contain the coronavirus. declared emergency situations in the area of public health.[106]

The following day, the government of Rio Grande do Sul declared a public calamity situation. Among the measures adopted are the prohibition of interstate travel and the restriction of items purchased in the markets.[107]

On 20 March, it was the government of Rio Grande do Norte that declared a public calamity situation.[108]

Government declarations about the disease on the Palácio do Planalto

On 20 March, The Ministry of Health declared, on Friday (20), the recognition of community transmission of the coronavirus (Covid-19) throughout the national territory. This means that the whole of Brazil must unite against the virus. In practical terms, the declaration is a command from the Ministry of Health for all national managers to adopt measures to promote social distance and avoid agglomerations, known as non-pharmacological measures, that is, that do not involve the use of medicines or vaccines.[109]

Government of Rio Grande do Norte decrees public calamity because of the coronavirus. The measure becomes effective on Friday (20), after being published in the Official Gazette of the State.[108] In remote voting, Senate approves state of public calamity because of coronavirus. On Friday (20), the Senate approved, in the first remote vote in the history of the House, the draft legislative decree that recognizes that the country is in a state of public calamity due to the global pandemic caused by the coronavirus. The vote was unanimous and 75 senators participated. The acting president of the Senate, Antônio Anastasia (PSD-MG), has already signed the promulgation of the text, which is already in force.[110]

On 21 March, In SP, cases of coronavirus rise almost 40% in two hours. Deaths also increased in the period. Cities in the Campinas region declared an emergency situation due to the pandemic of the new coronavirus. In addition to the metropolis, Hortolândia, Holambra, Indaiatuba, Itapira, Jaguariúna, Mogi Guaçu, Mogi Mirim, Paulínia, Sumaré and Águas de Lindoia issued decrees with special measures to contain the progress of Covid-19 cases. Valinhos and Vinhedo determined a state of public calamity. Americana is in a state of attention.[111][112]

In view of the advance of the Covid-19 outbreak, the federal government closed land borders with Argentina, Bolivia, Colombia, French Guiana, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru and Suriname. The border with Venezuela is already closed. The ordinance was signed by Sergio Moro, Minister of Justice, Luiz Henrique Mandetta, of Health, and Braga Netto, of the Civil House. There is an expectation that air travel will also be stopped soon. Rio de Janeiro declared an emergency situation and determined, among other measures, the suspension, as of Saturday, 21, of the air bridge between Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo. The governor of São Paulo, João Doria (PSDB), recommended closing the shopping centers and gyms in the metropolitan region. In addition, classes in public and private schools are also being suspended.[71]

On 24 March, The six cemeteries in the Federal District, managed by Campo da Esperança Serviços Ltda., Have adopted specific protocols to avoid crowding people and prevent further cases of transmission of the new coronavirus. One of the measures foresees that patients who die as a result of the disease caused by the microorganism, Covid-19, will not be able to have a funeral ceremony at the DF units, only the burial, in compliance with a protocol defined by local Executive bodies. The company released a letter that, among other measures, establishes that the other funerals cannot last more than two hours - in addition to the 30 minutes foreseen for the procession - and that the chapels cannot have more than 10 people at the same time. The inspection and control of this care is up to the families themselves. The measures, adopted since Tuesday (3/17) were approved by the Secretariat of Justice and Citizenship (Sejus).[113]

Sirens used to warn people about the dangers of the pandemic

On 25 March, The city continues to advise residents to stay in their homes. This Wednesday (25.03), the mobile sirens of the Secretariat of Civil Defense and Voluntary Actions were in the Community of Alemão and Neylor, Atílio Marotti, Vale do Carangola and Bairro da Glória. The action reinforces the prevention work carried out by the municipal government, with the objective of preventing the proliferation of the coronavirus (Covid-19). In addition to the four mobile sirens, the 20 sets of the Alert and Alarm System installed in 12 communities in Petrópolis also emit guidance messages. The equipment plays in the neighborhoods daily at 10, 16 and 20h.

The locations with fixed sirens are: Gentio, Buraco do Sapo, 24 de Maio, Alto da Serra, Bingen [pt], Dr. Thouzet, Independência [pt], Quitandinha, São Sebastião, São Paulo|São Sebastião, Sergeant Boening, Siméria and Vila Felipe. All equipment is functioning normally. The operation with mobile sirens began last weekend and has already passed through Araras, Secretary, Posse, Centro [pt], Cascatinha, Itamarati, Corrêas, Nogueira [pt], Alto da Serra and São Sebastião. Other locations will be served in the coming days. The call is for people to stay at home.[114]

On 28 March, The health minister, Henrique Mandetta, changed this Saturday the tone again of his declarations on social isolation. On Wednesday, he had adjusted his speech to that of President Jair Bolsonaro, opposed to a more general isolation and favorable to the isolation only of chronic patients and the elderly and people aged 60 and over. Although it was not direct and explicit, on Saturday Mandetta was more emphatic in advocating that people who can stay at home. He justified his defense that people should stay at home so that the health system is not overburdened, increasing the lethality of Covid 19 due to lack of beds and ICU.[115]

Foreign policy

On 19 March, Eduardo Bolsonaro, son of President Jair Bolsonaro, set off a diplomatic dispute with China, Brazil's largest trading partner, when he retweeted a message blaming the Chinese Communist Party for the virus.[116] Yang Wanming, China's top diplomat in Brazil, later retweeted a message saying "The Bolsonaro family is the great poison of this country."[117] Bolsonaro made a televised speech about the pandemic, during which both pro and anti-Bolsonaro panelaços broke out in the largest cities of Brazil.[118] According to one poll, 64% of Brazilians reject the way Bolsonaro has been handling the pandemic, while 44.8% support his impeachment, an all-time high.[119] According to some sources in the Congress, Bolsonaro is shutting down political dialogue on purpose. They claim he is forcing his impeachment as a way to mobilize his supporters.[120]

On 21 March, Banners offend China's politician at the embassy, which he calls an act of "clowning". Videos of offenses against Chinese politicians began to circulate on social networks. In one of them, made from a car, a white man in a yellow shirt, a dark hat and cream pants films two tracks with bad words in Portuguese and English. In them, the target is the General Secretary (paramount leader) of Chinese Communist Party, Xi Jinping. One calls the coronavirus "China virus" or virus from China. Another uses a curse word that far-right militants began to spread after one of President Jair Bolsonaro's sons, Rio de Janeiro councilor Carlos Bolsonaro (PSC), complained about a report in Veja magazine. The president of the Brazil-China Parliamentary Front, deputy Fausto Pinato, demanded that President Jair Bolsonaro deny his son, under pain of assuming that he was agreeing with him. The presidents of the Chamber and the Senate, Rodrigo Maia (DEM-RJ) and Davi Alcolumbre (DEM-AP), apologized to the Chinese. Yesterday, Jair Bolsonaro said he would not apologize. However, he said that the subject was "page turned" and that the country's relationship with the Chinese was "very good".[121]

On 1 April, president Jair Bolsonaro also said that he spoke today, by phone, with the President of the United States, Donald Tump about "this problem that is worldwide". "Obviously, we are together in the search for the best for our countries," he said in the statement to the press. Earlier, in a publication on Twitter, Bolsonaro reported that he exchanged information about the impact of covid-19 and about the experiences in the use of hydroxychloroquine. "On occasion, we reaffirm the mutual solidarity between the two countries," he wrote. Chloroquine, and its hydroxychloroquine variation, is being tested for the treatment of hospitalized patients with covid-19. These drugs are usually used against malaria in cases of lupus and rheumatoid arthritis.[122][123]

Internal policy

President Jair Bolsonaro has been criticized for his handling of the coronavirus crisis.[124] On 10 March, he referred to the pandemic as a "fantasy" created by the media.[125]

On 15 March, Jair Bolsonaro, who was being monitored by doctors after his Press Secretary tested positive for COVID-19, was heavily criticized for meeting his supporters in a public parade in Brasília without wearing a mask.[49] Later, impeachment cases were brought up against the President for his participation in the parade, which some viewed as anti-democratic, and also for posing a threat to public health.[126]

Declarações à Imprensa referentes ao Corona vírus em 18 de março de 2020 - Palácio do Planalto 33

On 18 March, President Jair Bolsonaro said on Wednesday (18) that the spread of the new coronavirus (Covid-19) in Brazil worries the government, but called on the population to commit themselves to follow the guidelines of the authorities and avoid the climate of panic in the country. "First, I would also say that panic does not go anywhere. I repeat that the moment is of great concern, of great gravity, but we must prevent this climate from reaching us by adopting these measures," he said during a news conference at Planalto Palace, alongside eight ministers. Everyone was wearing health masks. The government also announced that properties from the Minha Casa Minha Vida housing program, which are still unoccupied, will be reserved to house patients who need to be isolated because of the new coronavirus. The Minister of Infrastructure, Tarcísio Freitas, announced measures to help airlines, which had more than 50% reduction in demand, due to the closing of borders and cancellations of domestic and international flights.[127]

On 20 March, Jair Bolsonaro (sem partido) criticized the governor of Rio de Janeiro, Wilson Witzel (PSC), for asking for the suspension of the arrival of flights from states where contamination by the new coronavirus is confirmed.[128] Bolsonaro says that closing shopping malls and commerce hurts the economy. In the midst of the COVID-19 pandemic, experts from around the world have suggested measures to restrict the circulation of individuals as one of the most efficient ways to contain the spread of the virus. However, then-president Jair Bolsonaro said on Friday (20) that he was against the closing of trade decreed by most state governors as a measure to combat the coronavirus.[129] Doria counters Bolsonaro: "we are doing what he does not do, lead". The governor of São Paulo, João Doria Jr (PSDB), countered today a statement by president Jair Bolsonaro and said that the governors are playing the role that would be his, which is to lead in a pandemic moment for the new coronavirus. Earlier in Brasília, Bolsonaro criticized what he called extreme measures, such as "closing shopping malls and fairs". He did not specifically mention Doria, but the governor of São Paulo defended the stance.[130] Brazil is the 2nd country with more cases of coronavirus at the top of the government. Just behind Iran and followed by France, the Brazilian government has at least thirteen prominent politicians contaminated. The confirmation on Thursday 18 that the Minister of Mines and Energy, Bento Albuquerque, and the President of the Senate, Davi Alcolumbre, contracted the new coronavirus makes Brazil the second country with more cases of the disease at the top of the government. With 13 confirmed, it is second only to Iran, which has 24 sick officials.[131]

On 21 March, For Congress, Bolsonaro wants them to try impeachment to have a confrontation. The presidents of the Chamber, Rodrigo Maia (DEM-RJ), and the Senate, Davi Alcolumbre (DEM-AP), as well as the leaders of the main parties of the Congress no longer believe in the possibility of productive dialogue with President Jair Bolsonaro.[120] Coronavirus unmasks Bolsonaro's death policy. How the scrapping of SUS and public communication make Brazil more susceptible to the pandemic. After Jair Bolsonaro participated in last Sunday's acts against the Supreme Federal Court and the National Congress, a district deputy and a group of three PSOL parliamentarians and militants filed two impeachment cases against the President of the Republic for supporting anti-democratic demonstrations. A portion of civil society bet on the annulment of the ticket that elected him, in view of the cases of disinformation committed still in the electoral process. The coronavirus pandemic spells out another series of riots that Bolsonaro has been committing in the exercise of the Presidency of the Republic.[126] On 23 March, Rodrigo Maia stated that Brazil might need between $78.1 billion to combat coronavirus.[132]

On 22 March, on CNN Brasil, Bolsonaro criticized the quarantine decree and called Doria a lunatic. The president gave an exclusive interview to the broadcaster and spoke about the measures to contain the new coronavirus, the confidence in the hydroxychloroquine medicine and also harshly criticized the state governors. In the interview, Bolsonaro considered that the governors who decreed quarantine in their states are extrapolating. They are giving an "overdose of the medicine and that the excess medicine becomes a poison". João Doria, governor of São Paulo, and Wilson Witzel, governor of Rio de Janeiro, were criticized by the president. "Doria is a lunatic. He denies that he used my name to be elected governor and is taking advantage to grow politically," said Bolsonaro. "The subject (of the discussions) has to be focused only on the problem that lies ahead, which is the coronavirus." The president also commented on the suspicion that he was infected with the new coronavirus and justified the use of the term "little flu" to refer to COVID-19. "Several times the press wanted me to do the third test. I said that they were very concerned about my health and, after having been stabbed before, I am calm with this virus. I said it would be a 'little flu' for me."[133]

On 23 March, president Jair Bolsonaro said on Monday that it is not yet time to talk about postponing municipal elections this year because of the outbreak of the new coronavirus. "I am not in the business of postponing municipal elections, it is still too early," he said, as he left the Palácio da Alvorada. "They ask if Mandetta's popularity is higher than mine. So much!", the president said. Bolsonaro also stated that panic cannot be spread to society: "We cannot bring panic to society, because panic is also a more serious disease." The president pointed out that today he will have a meeting, by videoconference with governors from the North and Northeast regions. And he will hear proposals to combat the new coronavirus.[134]

President Jair Bolsonaro's official announcement on 24th March.

On 24 March, president Jair Bolsonaro declared that the routine in the country must return to reality and that the Brazilian press spread the panic around the coronavirus, which he called again "little flu". Speaking on radio and television, Bolsonaro also criticized governors for determining quarantine – with trade and border closures – and questioned why schools were closed.[135][136] Politicians and authorities reacted to President Jair Bolsonaro's pronouncement about the coronavirus pandemic on Tuesday night (24). The president called for "a return to normal", an end to "mass confinement" and said that the media had spread "dread". Senate President Davi Alcolumbre (DEM-AP) released a note in which he classified Bolsonaro's speech as "serious" and said the country needs "serious leadership". The president of the Chamber of Deputies, Rodrigo Maia (DEM-RJ), affirmed that the statement "was wrong when attacking the press, the governors and specialists in public health". A large number of the Brazilian politicians spoke out against this statement by the President of the Republic[a] The PSDB, the Brazilian Press Association (ABI), the Secretaries of Health of the Northeast, the Brazilian Society of Infectology, also spoke against the president's speech. In favor of the president's speech, his two sons Eduardo Bolsonaro (no party) federal deputy and Flávio Bolsonaro (no party) senator, along with Vitor Hugo (PSL-GO), federal deputy, spoke.[137] Brazilian cities register pots against Bolsonaro for the eighth consecutive day. São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Brasília, Belo Horizonte and Recife were some of the cities in which people threw pots during the president's speech last Tuesday (24). Brasilienses protested, against the pronouncement of the President of the Republic, Jair Bolsonaro (without party). "Pots" were recorded in Águas Claras, in the Southwest, in Cruzeiro, in Asa Norte, in Asa Sul and in Taguatinga.[138][139]

On 27 March, The governor of São Paulo, João Doria (PSDB), received death threats on his cell phone and on social media the day after he attended a meeting of governors and repudiated the statement by President Jair Bolsonaro (sem partido), made on national network, about the measures adopted by governors to fight the coronavirus. In addition to the death threats, the messages spoke of breaking into Doria's home, where the governor lives with his family. Doria registered a police report on Thursday night (26) and the Civil Police will investigate the threats. The governor's house, located in Jardins, a prime area of São Paulo, was surrounded and protected by the Military Police (PM). According to the government, there are indications that the attacks were allegedly articulated by the "hate office", led by the president's son, Carlos Bolsonaro.[140]

Impact

Economy

Economists expect an economic stagnation for the country in 2020.[141] As such, on 16 March, the Ministry of Economy announced a stimulus package of R$147.3 billion (US$29 billion) to help the economy against the effects of the pandemic.[142] The Brazilian government is also in negotiations with the New Development Bank to receive an aid package for its COVID-19 efforts; China received one billion USD from the same institution.[143]

On 21 March, Economy Minister Paulo Guedes announced a series of aid measures to reduce the impact on the economy that will be caused by Covid-19. A scholarship for self-employed professionals, in the amount of R $200, is being prepared, in addition to the payment guarantee for workers who have reduced working hours.[71]

On 22 March, Crisis of the new coronavirus poses challenges for the industry and for Brazil. Now, the outlook is that the country's growth this year will be negative, culminating in an unprecedented economic recession. In this new scenario, the industrial sector, the largest job generator in the country, will be the most affected. The crisis generated by the new coronavirus abruptly interrupted the recovery cycle in industrial activity in Brazil. The government has announced measures in recent days to prevent the economic slowdown, but some sectors are already being impacted. A survey carried out by the Brazilian Association of the Electrical and Electronic Industry (Abinee) at the beginning of March showed that 70% of the associated companies already have problems with the supply of components, which are mainly produced in China and other Asian countries.[144]

On 23 March, government announces package of R$ 85.8 billion for states and municipalities. Amount involves transfers to the health area, recomposition of transfers of constitutional funds and suspension of the maturity of debts of the states with the Union.[145]

On 24 March, The government last week announced a monthly aid of R$ 200 for informal, microentrepreneurs or unemployed professionals for the duration of the coronavirus crisis. According to the Ministry of Economy, this measure - which has not yet been made official - should benefit between 15 and 20 million people and seeks to guarantee income for those workers who have no fixed income and, in general, also do not contribute to social security. The expectation is that R$ 15 billion will be injected into the economy.[146] The House of Representatives approved on Thursday night (26), a bill that guarantees emergency income for self-employed workers, informal and without fixed income during the crisis caused by the coronavirus pandemic. The proposal now goes to the Senate. The project provides resources of R$ 600 for Brazilians in situations of social vulnerability, but in practice, it can reach R$ 1,200 per family. The government had initially proposed R$ 200 per person. With the defeat previously sanctioned, the government authorized its leaders to negotiate the approved amount.[147]

On 27 March, the federal government today announced the creation of a credit line for the payment of salaries for employees of small and medium-sized companies for up to two months. On the other hand, the entrepreneur will have to commit himself not to lay off workers due to the crisis caused by the coronavirus pandemic. In total, the volume of investment may reach R$ 40 billion (R$ 20 billion per month) and serve around 1.4 million companies and 12.2 million workers. Most of the money (85%) will be injected by the federal government and 15% by private banks. In practice, this means that the government will have 85% of the default risk and the banks with the remaining 15%.[148]

On 28 March, the secretary of the National Treasury, Mansueto Almeida, said this Saturday (28) that the government will "believe" in the registration of people who present themselves as informal workers to receive the payment of the benefit of R$ 600 as a form of assistance in the face of the pandemic of the coronavirus. According to him, if someone receives the amount wrongly, it will be resolved later. He also said that the primary deficit in public accounts (expenses greater than revenues, not counting interest on public debt) will overcome the barrier of R$ 300 billion this year due to spending to combat the coronavirus pandemic and reduce the effects of the crisis on the economy and unemployment.[149]

TV BrasilGov - Coletiva de imprensa. O Presidente Jair Bolsonaro faz pronunciamento no dia 01/04/2020.

On 1 April, President Jair Bolsonaro announced (1st) about R $ 200 billion in measures to help workers and companies and help states and municipalities in facing the effects of the crisis caused by the pandemic of the new coronavirus. Speaking to the press at the Planalto Palace, Bolsonaro explained that, from today to tomorrow, three provisional measures (MPs) will be issued and the project that provides for R $ 600 emergency aid for informal, self-employed and without fixed income workers will be sanctioned.

Alongside the president, Economy Minister Paulo Guedes explained that this aid will cost R$ 98 billion to public coffers and should benefit 54 million Brazilians. "So that they have the resources in the next three months to face the first wave of impact, which is the health wave. There is another wave coming from economic dislocation that threatens us", he said. The federal government will also transfer R$ 16 billion to state and municipal participation funds. "It is to reinforce this fight on the front, where the virus is attacking, the health and safety systems", explained Guedes.

Education

On 20 March, The pandemic has impacted education all over the world. In over a hundred countries, there were nationwide school closures. However, President Jair Bolsonaro has issued few country-wide measures to slow the spread of the virus,[150][151] and because the federal government failed to act appropriately regarding the pandemic and had, as of 20 March, not decided to cancel classes in the whole country, lower instances of government had to act autonomously. As such, municipal, state, and private schools and universities had different reactions regarding the suspension of classes. Classes were suspended at once, gradually or not at all. Some of them were replaced with distance education or simply postponed. Because of that, there are only "localized" (as opposed to "national") school closures, according to UNESCO.[152]

Favelas

TVFolha - Como a pandemia afeta uma favela

On 16 March, Rocinha residents' association, south of Rio de Janeiro, recommends that tourists do not visit a community with the intention of preventing the spread of new coronaviruses. In a video published on social networks, the president of the region, Wallace Pereira, said that he is following up on preventive measures adopted by the government and, although he cannot prohibit it, he recommends that tourist visits be avoided. As Favela Tour, Favela Experience and Favela Walking Tour agencies said they were no longer visiting. Another address that arouses the interest of tourists is the Santa Marta community, also in the south of the city. After a joint decision between the guides and the local commerce, a favela also stops receiving tourists in the period of 15 days, initiated. “Actually, the option was to cancel all meetings. We have received information that the favela is prone to contamination. We don't know how to make money, but health always comes first. The community here helps one another, so the hunger for people will not die. "

Collectives of Santa Marta Guides: • Allan Basílio (local guide) • Andréia and Paulo (Santa Marta souvenirs • Barbosa MB (Rio Favela) • Elias Duarte (TouRio - Favela Santa Marta) • Gilson (Favela Scene) • Jean René Mandundu - M- Washiwa. (JR Tour). • Jonatas Nogueira (local guide) • Marco Antonio and Mario (Favela Top Tour) • Jose Carlos, Salete Martins and Veronica Moura (Santa Tours) • Sheila Souza and Roberta Souza (Brazilidade) • Thiago Firmino (Favela Santa Marta Tour)[153]

On 17 March, Residents of Favelas in Rio de Janeiro suffer from a lack of water amid the coronavirus pandemic. Cariocas and fluminenses are much more exposed to the proliferation of coronavirus without having water for cleaning, says a specialist. In parts of the Baixada Fluminense and the North Zone of Rio de Janeiro the water does not reach. Among the affected areas are: Chatuba de Mesquita, Camarista, Méier and Complexo do Alemão communities. The infectious disease doctor and pediatrician Cristiana Meirelles says that without clean running water, the situation of fighting the epidemic becomes catastrophic.[154] Cufa calls for measures to contain coronavirus in favelas. Government actions do not include the economically fragile, a contingent that totals more than 70 million people, says the organization.[155]

On 18 March, Residents' Associations of Complexo do Alemão and CRAS (Reference Center for Social Assistance) remain open to respond to urgent requests. The request for everyone to remain in their homes remains valid indefinitely.[156] Faced with the coronavirus pandemic in Brazil, and the emergency measures taken by the city hall of Rio de Janeiro and the state government, presidents of residents' associations in Complexo do Alemão call attention to specific actions to prevent contagion and transmission in Rio's favelas. In addition to the lack of water in some locations, not only in Alemão but also in Rocinha, in Acari, in Cidade de Deus, most residents are unable to afford the costs of buying alcohol gel. The free distribution of a prevention kit is the solution suggested to Mayor Marcelo Crivella and Governor Wilson Witzel. The kit must have alcohol gel, gloves and mask for external use, in addition to soap, detergent, liquid alcohol for use at home and working environments in the favelas.

“We need an urgent hygiene kit. We have to hug each other. We are another favelados forgotten by the government, where we are only remembered during election times. A prevention kit is very important and so far nothing! We will obey and be quarantined, but the city and the government had to remain present. ” BURUCA, president of the Reservoir association. “It is their obligation to send this kit to us and so far they have done nothing and said nothing. You can't expect the worst to happen. ” MARQUINHOS, president of the Nova Brasília association.[157]

The advancement of coronavirus in Brazil and in the world has been changing everyone's routine, and in order to keep the population attentive to care, in Rio de Janeiro, police and firefighters are already alerting people in areas of agglomerations such as beaches, commercial points and bar environments. In addition, communities will soon have these warnings through the Civil Defense sirens that are spread out to warn of the risk of heavy rain. According to information that the Voice of the Communities found, the warnings are already recorded and will soon be in the daily lives of the communities so that everyone is alert to the necessary preventions against the contagion of the virus.[158]

On 20 March, With the arrival of the pandemic of the new coronavirus (Covid-19) in Brazil, much has been said about the care that the person has to adopt to avoid spreading the disease. However, many of these recommendations like "stay at home" are not an option for many Brazilians.[159]

On 21 March, Without piped water and space for isolation, Rio's favelas lack the resources to fight the coronavirus. Government authorities are not doing the proper planning that these communities need. "We are talking about places where there is no running water, there is a lot of mud, a lot of animals. People are unable to maintain the personal hygiene and cleanliness required at this time, "says one resident.[160]

On 22 March, Favelas do Rio have 61 suspected cases of the new coronavirus, according to the Department of Health. Of the total, 19 are in Cidade de Deus, in the West Zone, where the first case was confirmed over the weekend. City Hall installed community taps in eight slums in this Monday (23). The number of confirmed cases are: in Cidade de Deus 19, in Rio das Pedras 10, Manguinhos 8, in Jacarezinho 7 cases, Complexo Lins 4, Jacaré 2, in Parada de Lucas 2. Already in Acari, Complexo Caju, Complexo da Maré , Pedreira Complex, São Carlos Complex, Mangueira, Rocinha, Vidigal and Vilar Carioca 1 (each). "The biggest concern is that the favelas will suffer the most. Crowds of people, there are houses here with 5, 6 children in one room. It is worrying, very worrying. If it spreads out here, it will be very sad", says the leader Thiago Firmino. Rio's favelas suffer from a lack of water and the population is more vulnerable to coronavirus. Public Defender asks for help from residents to organize data and take emergency measures. Trajano reported that some areas of Maré have been without water for two days while others have not received water for two weeks. "If the water arrives, it is always with the help of a pump bought by the resident. We have already complained to Cedae, the company said it is resolving, but we already know that the favela is always the last to receive everything and that the rights only come after a lot of collection ".[161][162][163]

Healthcare

Ministério da Saúde -01- Boletim Infecção Humana pelo Novo Coronavírus 2019-nCoV

On 23 January, faced with cases of respiratory disease in China, caused by the new coronavirus, the Ministry of Health installed, this Wednesday (01/22), the Emergency Operations Center (COE) - new coronavirus. The committee's objective is to prepare the public health system to deal with possible cases in Brazil. So far, there is no detection of any suspected cases in the country. The portfolio has been carrying out daily monitoring of the situation with the World Health Organization (WHO), which has been monitoring the issue since the first reports of cases in Wuhan, China, on December 31, 2019. The Ministry of Health conducted this Thursday (23), in Brasília, a technical press conference to clarify doubts about the virus and inform the actions that the portfolio has taken, with the state and municipal health departments, in addition to other bodies, for a possible treatment of a suspected case in the country. During the press conference, the acting Health Minister, João Gabbardo, highlighted that the portfolio will continue to inform Brazilian society as the situation updates by the WHO. “The Ministry of Health has an obligation to clarify and not generate unnecessary panic in the population and we are working together with the state departments for this purpose. Our laboratory network is prepared to carry out the tests and make the diagnostics ", highlighted João Gabbardo.

The COE is composed of technicians specialized in responding to public health emergencies. In addition to the Ministry of Health, the group includes the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO / WHO), the National Health Surveillance Agency (Anvisa), the Evandro Chagas Institute (IEC), and other bodies. In this way, the country will be able to respond in a unified and immediate way to the entry of the virus in Brazilian territory. The Ministry of Health provides basic care to reduce the overall risk of acute respiratory infections. Among the guidelines are: avoid close contact with people suffering from acute respiratory infections; perform frequent hand washing, especially after direct contact with sick people or the environment; avoid close contact with wild animals and sick animals on farms.

Since learning about the cases of severe pneumonia in China, the Brazilian Federal Government has adopted several actions to monitor and improve the country's capacity to act. These actions include the adoption of measures recommended by WHO; the notification of the Ports, Airports and Borders area of ​​the National Health Surveillance Agency (Anvisa); the notification of the Animal Surveillance area of ​​the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Supply (MAPA); and the notification to the Health Departments of the States and Municipalities, other Secretariats of the Ministry of Health and other federal agencies based on official data, avoiding restrictive and disproportionate measures in relation to the risks to the health and transit of people, goods and goods.[164]

Since the first cases were reported in the country, there were concerns if its healthcare system would be able to deal with the pandemic.

On 18 March, hospitals in São Paulo denounced a lack of health materials, such as masks, gloves and hand sanitizer, caused by an in an increase in prices.[165][166] According to them, packages of masks went from R$4.50 in January to R$140 on 17 March. The government said it will negotiate with the industry to meet the demand.[167][168]

In Salvador, there was an outage of masks and hand sanitizer in the local commerce.[169] Rio and five other municipalities in the state declare an emergency to contain the coronavirus. Municipalities of São Gonçalo and Guapimirim also declared a state of emergency and Niterói, Nova Iguaçu and Mesquita declared an emergency situation in the area of public health.[106]

On 19 March, scientists predicted up to 2 million deaths in Brazil in the worst scenario without measures to contain the coronavirus. They point out that maintaining social distance is one of the most effective measures without a vaccine.[96] Their conclusion came after analyzing the growth curve of COVID-19 cases in Brazil. The contagion rate is the same as that registered in Italy, as the number of infected people has been doubling every 54 hours. According to estimates, the number of confirmed cases might reach 3,000 by 24 March.[97] According to the Ministry of Health, the number of infected patients will grow exponentially by the end of June.[71] The mayor of Belo Horizonte, Alexandre Kalil (PSD), asked General Altair José Polsin, commander of the 4th Army Region, for the temporary assignment of 51 professionals from the army garrison to assist in the demands of fighting the coronavirus. The Brazilian Army has not yet said whether it will meet this demand. Peak cases of Covid-19 in BH will be in the 1st week of April. In an interview, the health secretary announced the creation of two more Respiratory Disease centers and is studying placing PMs to serve the population.[170][171][171]

Government of RS decrees public calamity situation due to coronaviruses. Among the measures are the prohibition of interstate travel and the restriction of items purchased in the markets. Decree applies from this Thursday (19).[107] Employees at four public hospitals in the city of São Paulo reported a shortage of materials such as alcohol gel, masks and gloves when caring for patients with suspected coronavirus (covid-19). Professionals report precariousness against coronavirus in the SUS: “The patient is exposed, and so are we”. With a shortage of masks and even rationing of gel alcohol, the situation of public service workers is different from that of private reference hospitals in São Paulo.[165][166] Stores specializing in medical supplies no longer have alcohol gels and masks. Among them, those known as N95, used by health professionals. With the worldwide coronavirus pandemic and the great search for protection, street vendors (without sales in the middle of the pandemic crisis) have been taking advantage of the demand for equipment and trying to profit from it.[169]

Health professionals clean up public transport to prevent spread

On 20 March, it was reported by the press that Brazil was contradicting the recommendation of the World Health Organization by only testing patients in severe condition. João Gabbardo, executive secretary at the Ministry of Health, said that the criteria adopted would not change, and people with serious cases will be tested for COVID-19.[68] The following day, a group of scientists announced they were developing new COVID-19 tests in Brazil. They expect to elaborate a test which will work with a single drop of blood from the patient. They expect it to be ready for the current outbreak of COVID-19, and hope to engage some of the main Brazilian universities in its development.[99] Without protective items, health workers improvise caps like masks in hospitals. In addition to the first cases of coronavirus in Acre, health professionals in the state have to deal with the lack of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE). Some agents are improvising caps like masks.[172]

Health professionals in RJ complain about the lack of conditions to work with patients in Covid-19. Doctor says there are no N95 masks, with more efficient filter, at Hospital Salgado Filho. Unions say there is a shortage of personal protective equipment in hospitals.[173]

On 31 March, Mandetta announced that the government will put in place a monitoring for Brazilians that will reach 125 million people. The platform, based on artificial intelligence, will contact the Brazilians in the government database and obtain information about the health condition. "The set of this information will be used so that we anticipate who is at risk, where it is, the name and that should be a great tool for people management", informed the holder of the portfolio. The government released data on the advance of covid-19 at a press conference at the Planalto Palace. The Chief Minister of the Civil House, Walter Braga Netto, participated; Economy, Paulo Guedes; Health, Luiz Henrique Mandetta; and Justice and Public Security, Sergio Moro.[174]

Religious services

Dom Odilo Scherer, Archbishop of São Paulo had initially defended that churches should not be closed, arguing that there should be more daily services to diffuse large gatherings. Later, he determined the suspension of celebrations with the people. [175][176][177] Bishop Edir Macedo, founder of the Universal Church of the Kingdom of God has also defended that services should not be suspended, as well as Silas Malafaia, leader of Assembleia de Deus Vitória em Cristo.[175] Malafaia said he would only close his churches if mandated by a court order. Macedo has caused greater controversy after he dismissed coronavirus as a creation of the media. [178]

Television programming

Brazilian networks started airing prevention tips during their programming. Globo, SBT, RecordTV e RedeTV! announced they would suspend the production of telenovelas, and would record their talk shows without a live audience, while expanding journalism in their programming.[179][180][181]

Statistics

These are the graphs related to the numbers of cases and deaths in each state of the country.

New cases per day

Total confirmed cases

New deaths per day

Total confirmed deaths

Total cases, by state

Cases by state every 5 days ()

Date New cases Total Cumulative
AL
Alagoas
AM
Amazonas (Brazilian state)
BA
Bahia
DF
Federal District (Brazil)
ES
Espírito Santo
GO
Goiás
MG
Minas Gerais
PE
Pernambuco
PR
Paraná (state)
RJ
Rio de Janeiro (state)
RN
Rio Grande do Norte
RS
Rio Grande do Sul
SC
Santa Catarina (state)
SP
São Paulo (state)
MS
Mato Grosso do Sul
SE
Sergipe
AC
Acre (state)
RO
Rondônia
PA
Pará
RR
Roraima
AP
Amapá
TO
Tocantins
MA
Maranhão
PI
Piauí
CE
Ceará
PB
Paraíba
MT
Mato Grosso
Feb 25 -29 2 2 2
Mar 01 - 05 1 1 1 4 7 9
Mar 06 - 10 1 2 1 7 1 13 25 34
Mar 11 - 15 1 7 13 3 4 1 7 6 16 1 6 6 117 2 1 3 194 228
Mar 16 - 20 6 6 26 94 12 15 34 23 28 85 1 48 38 93 8 6 7 1 2 1 1 1 4 67 1 1 609 837
Mar 21 - 25 1 19 6 4 10 1 19 3 7 61 8 18 13 230 4 3 4 2 2 1 1 1 14 1 433 1270
Mar 26 - 31 433 1270
Total 7

[182]

26

[183]

41

[184]

112

[185]

26

[186]

20

[187]

55

[188]

33

[189]

43

[190]

170

[191]

9

[192]

71

[193]

57

[194]

459

[195]

16

[196]

10

[197]

11

[198]

3

[199]

2

[200]

2

[201]

1

[202]

2

[203]

2

[204]

4

[205]

84

[206]

1

[207]

2

[208]



Notes

  1. ^ They include: Davi Alcolumbre (DEM-AP) President of the Senate, Rodrigo Maia (DEM-RJ) President of the Chamber, Felipe Santa Cruz President of the OAB, Gilmar Mendes Minister of the STF, Wilson Witzel (PSC) governor of Rio de Janeiro, Helder Barbalho (MDB) governor of Pará, Alexandre Frota (PSDB-SP) federal deputy, Joice Hasselmann (PSL-SP) federal deputy, Janaina Paschoal (PSL-SP) state deputy, Rodrigo Pacheco (DEM-MG) senator, Kim Kataguiri (DEM-SP) federal deputy, José Serra (PSDB) former Minister of Health, José Ricardo Roriz vice president of Fiesp, Leila do Vôlei (PSB-DF) senator, Renato Casagrande (PSB) governor of Espírito Santo, Wellington Dias (PT), governor of Piauí, Fátima Bezerra (PT) governor of Rio Grande do Norte, Antonio Anastasia (PSD-MG) senator, Fernando Henrique Cardoso former president, João Amoêdo ex-president of the New Party, Enio Verri (PT-PR) federal deputy, Eduardo Braga (MDB-AM) senator, Humberto Costa (PT-PE) senator, Randolfe Rodrigues (Rede-AP) senator, Alessandro Molon (PSB-RJ) federal deputy, Flávio Dino (PCdoB) governor of Maranhão, José Nobre Guimarães (PT-CE) federal deputy, Rogério Carvalho (PT-SE) senator, Fernanda Melchionna (PSOL-RS) federal deputy, Weverton Rocha (PDT-MA) senator, Marcelo Freixo (PSOL-RJ) federal deputy, Paulo Pimenta (PT -RS) federal deputy, Jean-Paul Prates (PT-RN) senator, Eliziane Gama (Cidadania-MA) senator, Marcelo Ramos (PL-AM) federal deputy, Arnaldo Jardim (Cidadania-SP) federal deputy, Reinaldo Azambuja (PSDB) governor of Mato Grosso do Sul, Wilson Lima (PSC) governor of Amazonas.[137]

References

  1. ^ "Ministério da Saúde investiga possível paciente com coronavírus em SP; caso foi para contraprova". G1 (in Portuguese). Retrieved 20 March 2020.
  2. ^ a b c d "Casos de coronavírus no Brasil em 2 de abril". Ministério da Saúde (in Portuguese). 2 April 2020. Archived from the original on 24 March 2020. Retrieved 2 April 2020.
  3. ^ Cruz, Carolina (28 January 2020). "Ministério da Saúde investiga caso suspeito de coronavírus em MG". G1 (in Portuguese). Archived from the original on 28 January 2020. Retrieved 28 January 2020.
  4. ^ "Ministério da Saúde confirma 3 casos suspeitos de coronavírus no Brasil". Exame Abril. 28 January 2020. Archived from the original on 29 January 2020. Retrieved 29 January 2020.
  5. ^ "País adotará emergência para retirar cidadãos de área de surto de coronavírus, diz ministro". G1. 3 February 2020. Archived from the original on 3 February 2020. Retrieved 3 February 2020.
  6. ^ "Coronavírus: brasileiros na China devem chegar ao país no sábado e cumprir quarentena em Anápolis". G1. 4 February 2020. Archived from the original on 5 February 2020. Retrieved 4 February 2020.
  7. ^ Gomes, Pedro Henrique (5 February 2020). "Coronavírus: aviões da FAB decolam de Brasília para buscar brasileiros na China". G1. Archived from the original on 5 February 2020. Retrieved 5 February 2020.
  8. ^ "Coronavírus: Brasileiros são liberados da quarentena e deixam Anápolis". BBC News Brasil. 23 February 2020. Retrieved 23 February 2020.
  9. ^ "Brasil descarta mais 3 casos suspeitos de coronavírus e investiga 9, diz Ministério da Saúde". G1. 6 February 2020. Archived from the original on 6 February 2020. Retrieved 6 February 2020.
  10. ^ "Brasil tem 4 casos suspeitos de novo coronavírus; outros 54 foram descartados". G1. Globo.com. 24 February 2020. Archived from the original on 25 February 2020. Retrieved 25 February 2020.
  11. ^ "Ministério da Saúde investiga possível paciente com coronavírus em SP; caso foi para contraprova". G1. 25 February 2020.
  12. ^ "Brasil confirma primeiro caso do novo coronavírus". Folha de S. Paulo. 25 February 2020.
  13. ^ "Governo confirma 1º caso, mas diz que avaliará coronavírus em país tropical". UOL. 26 February 2020.
  14. ^ "Brasil tem 132 casos suspeitos de coronavírus". G1. 27 February 2020. Archived from the original on 27 February 2020. Retrieved 27 February 2020.
  15. ^ "Brasil tem 182 casos suspeitos de coronavírus, diz Ministério da Saúde". G1. 28 February 2020. Archived from the original on 28 February 2020. Retrieved 28 February 2020.
  16. ^ "Projecto CADDE – Primeiro genoma de coronavírus no Brasil". R7. 29 February 2020. Archived from the original on 5 March 2020. Retrieved 4 March 2020.
  17. ^ "Cientistas do Brasil e de Oxford sequenciam genoma do novo coronavírus detectado em SP". G1 Bem Estar. 28 February 2020. Archived from the original on 28 February 2020. Retrieved 28 February 2020.
  18. ^ "Segundo caso de coronavírus no Brasil é confirmado em SP". R7. 29 February 2020. Archived from the original on 29 February 2020. Retrieved 29 February 2020.
  19. ^ "Notificação de casos de doença pelo coronavírus 2019 (COVID-19)". Ministerio da Saude. 4 March 2020. Archived from the original on 27 February 2020. Retrieved 4 March 2020.
  20. ^ "Projeto Cadde – Segundo genoma de coronavírus no Brasil". Virological. 29 February 2020. Archived from the original on 5 March 2020. Retrieved 4 March 2020.
  21. ^ "Ministério da Saúde confirma terceiro paciente com coronavírus no Brasil; quarto caso em SP aguarda contraprova". G1. 4 March 2020.
  22. ^ "Paciente que testou positivo para coronavírus no DF está internada em UTI". G1 DF. 5 March 2020. Archived from the original on 6 March 2020. Retrieved 6 March 2020.
  23. ^ "Brasil tem 13 casos confirmados de coronavírus, diz ministério". R7. 6 March 2020.
  24. ^ "Pesquisadores brasileiros desenvolvem 'novo coronavírus' em laboratório; material vai ajudar no diagnóstico da doença". Bem Estar. 6 March 2020. Archived from the original on 23 March 2020. Retrieved 6 March 2020.
  25. ^ "Coronavírus: Bolsonaro diz na TV que não há razão para pânico ainda que problema se agrave". G1. 6 March 2020. Archived from the original on 7 March 2020. Retrieved 7 March 2020.
  26. ^ "Ministério da Saúde confirma quatro novos casos do novo coronavírus; agora são 19 no país". 7 March 2020. Archived from the original on 8 March 2020. Retrieved 7 March 2020.
  27. ^ "Brasil tem 25 casos confirmados de coronavírus". 8 March 2020. Archived from the original on 9 March 2020. Retrieved 8 March 2020.
  28. ^ "RJ confirma mais 5 casos do novo coronavírus e total de infectados chega a 8". 9 March 2020. Archived from the original on 10 March 2020. Retrieved 9 March 2020.
  29. ^ "Brasil tem 34 casos confirmados de novo coronavírus, diz ministério". 10 March 2020. Archived from the original on 10 March 2020. Retrieved 10 March 2020.
  30. ^ "Coronavírus: GDF pede e juíza obriga marido de paciente infectada a passar por exames". G1 (in Portuguese). Retrieved 13 March 2020.
  31. ^ "Sobe para 64 o número de casos do novo coronavírus no Brasil". 11 March 2020. Archived from the original on 12 March 2020. Retrieved 11 March 2020.
  32. ^ "Brasil tem 137 casos confirmados de novo coronavírus, diz ministério". G1 (in Portuguese). n.d. Archived from the original on 17 March 2020. Retrieved 20 March 2020.
  33. ^ "Ministério da Saúde confirma seis casos do novo coronavírus no Paraná". G1 PR. 12 March 2020.
  34. ^ "Exame de Fabio Wajngarten para coronavírus dá positivo". O Globo. 12 March 2020. Archived from the original on 12 March 2020. Retrieved 12 March 2020.
  35. ^ "Guedes diz que governo negocia R$10 bi para combate ao coronavírus: há espaço para medidas emergenciais". Infomoney. 12 March 2020.
  36. ^ "SUS prevê 2 mil leitos de UTI para tratar pacientes com Covid-19". Infomoney. 12 March 2020. Archived from the original on 22 March 2020. Retrieved 12 March 2020.
  37. ^ "Entenda como está a situação do coronavírus no ES e no mundo". agazeta.com.br (in Portuguese). Archived from the original on 20 March 2020. Retrieved 20 March 2020.
  38. ^ "Segundo caso de coronavírus é confirmado em Minas Gerais, diz governo do estado". G1 (in Portuguese). Archived from the original on 20 March 2020. Retrieved 20 March 2020.
  39. ^ "Cruzeiro fica em quarentena em Recife após idoso ser suspeito de contrair coronavírus". Jornal de Brasília. 12 March 2020.
  40. ^ "Coronavírus: Bolsonaro testa negativo para covid-19". UOL. 13 March 2020. Archived from the original on 14 March 2020. Retrieved 13 March 2020.
  41. ^ "Brazilian President Jair Bolsonaro Tests Negative for Coronavirus". Time. 13 March 2020. Archived from the original on 13 March 2020. Retrieved 13 March 2020.
  42. ^ "13 March report". G1. 13 March 2020. Archived from the original on 14 March 2020. Retrieved 13 March 2020.
  43. ^ "Ministério da Saúde recomenda que viajante internacional fique em casa por 7 dias ao chegar ao Brasil". G1. 13 March 2020. Archived from the original on 14 March 2020. Retrieved 13 March 2020.
  44. ^ "Governo anuncia que primeiro paciente com coronavírus no Brasil está curado" (in Portuguese). Istoé. 13 March 2020. Archived from the original on 16 March 2020. Retrieved 14 March 2020.
  45. ^ "Brasil tem 121 casos de coronavírus, segundo relatório do Ministério da Saúde". G1 (in Portuguese). Archived from the original on 20 March 2020. Retrieved 20 March 2020.
  46. ^ "SC tem 1ª transmissão local do novo coronavírus; casos da doença no estado chegam a 5". G1. 13 March 2020. Archived from the original on 15 March 2020. Retrieved 14 March 2020.
  47. ^ "Pernambuco tem sete casos confirmados e já registra transmissão local do Covid-19". Diário de Pernambuco. 14 March 2020. Archived from the original on 17 March 2020. Retrieved 14 March 2020.
  48. ^ "Brasil tem 200 casos confirmados". G1. 15 March 2020. Archived from the original on 16 March 2020. Retrieved 15 March 2020.
  49. ^ a b "Bolsonaro tira selfies com manifestantes em frente ao Palácio do Planalto". Archived from the original on 22 March 2020. Retrieved 22 March 2020.
  50. ^ "Notificação de casos de doença pelo Coronavírus 2019". Ministério da Saúde. 16 March 2020. Archived from the original on 27 February 2020. Retrieved 4 March 2020.
  51. ^ "São Paulo registra primeira morte por coronavírus". Folha de S.Paulo. 17 March 2020. Archived from the original on 18 March 2020. Retrieved 17 March 2020.
  52. ^ "Notificação de casos de doença pelo coronavírus 2019 (COVID-19) – Plataforma Integrada de Vigilância em Saúde – Ministério da Saúde". 18 March 2020. Archived from the original on 18 March 2020.
  53. ^ "SP registra mais duas mortes por coronavírus; total vai a 3". G1 (in Portuguese). Archived from the original on 18 March 2020. Retrieved 18 March 2020.
  54. ^ "SP confirma quatro mortes pelo coronavírus no estado". G1 (in Portuguese). 18 March 2020. Archived from the original on 18 March 2020. Retrieved 18 March 2020.
  55. ^ "Secretaria Estadual de Saúde confirma primeiro caso de coronavírus no Pará". G1 (in Portuguese). Archived from the original on 18 March 2020. Retrieved 18 March 2020.
  56. ^ "Em entrevista sobre coronavírus, Bolsonaro diz que governo ganha 'de goleada' e pede elogios". G1.
  57. ^ "Cidades registram panelaços contra Bolsonaro durante e depois de pronunciamento". G1. Archived from the original on 20 March 2020. Retrieved 22 March 2020.
  58. ^ "ATENÇÃO! Ministério da Saúde atualiza situação sobre o coronavírus por meio de coletiva online" [ATTENTION! Ministry of Health updates situation on coronavirus through online conference]. saude.gov.br (in Portuguese). 19 March 2020. Archived from the original on 19 March 2020. Retrieved 22 March 2020.
  59. ^ Pública, Agência (19 March 2020). "Doméstica morta não foi avisada de risco de contágio por 'patroa' – Brasil – iG". Último Segundo. Archived from the original on 19 March 2020. Retrieved 19 March 2020.
  60. ^ "Governo do RJ confirma a primeira morte por coronavírus". G1 (in Portuguese). Archived from the original on 19 March 2020. Retrieved 19 March 2020.
  61. ^ "Governo do RJ confirma a segunda morte por coronavírus". G1 (in Portuguese). Archived from the original on 19 March 2020. Retrieved 19 March 2020.
  62. ^ "Hospital confirma mais uma morte por coronavírus em SP; total no País chega a 7". Istoé (in Portuguese). Retrieved 19 March 2020.
  63. ^ "Brasil tem 621 casos de coronavírus e transmissão sustentada muda atendimento em postos, diz ministério". G1. Archived from the original on 20 March 2020. Retrieved 21 March 2020.
  64. ^ Carolina, Ana (20 March 2020). "Foi confirmada a oitava morte por Coronavírus no Brasil".
  65. ^ "Brasil tem 11 mortes por covid-19 e 904 casos confirmados". R7.com. 20 March 2020. Archived from the original on 21 March 2020. Retrieved 20 March 2020.
  66. ^ "Últimas notícias de coronavírus de 20 de março". G1. Archived from the original on 20 March 2020. Retrieved 20 March 2020.
  67. ^ "Governo declara transmissão comunitária de coronavírus em todo o Brasil". 20 March 2020.
  68. ^ a b "Casos de coronavírus no Brasil em 20 de março". G1. Archived from the original on 21 March 2020. Retrieved 20 March 2020.
  69. ^ "Últimas notícias de coronavírus de 21 de março". G1. Archived from the original on 21 March 2020. Retrieved 21 March 2020.
  70. ^ "Rio confirma 3º morte pelo novo coronavírus; são 12 vítimas no Brasil". HuffPost Brasil. 21 March 2020.
  71. ^ a b c d e "Brasil tem 1546 casos e 25 mortes pelo coronavírus". EXAME. Archived from the original on 19 March 2020. Retrieved 21 March 2020.
  72. ^ Minas, Estado de; Minas, Estado de (21 March 2020). "São Paulo registra mais seis mortes por coronavírus; agora já são 18 no país – Nacional – Estado de Minas". Estado de Minas. Archived from the original on 21 March 2020. Retrieved 21 March 2020.
  73. ^ "Número de mortes por coronavírus no estado de SP sobe para 15; são 459 casos confirmados". G1. Archived from the original on 21 March 2020. Retrieved 21 March 2020.
  74. ^ "Brasil já tem 18 mortos por novo coronavírus". Super Rádio Tupi. 21 March 2020. Archived from the original on 21 March 2020. Retrieved 21 March 2020.
  75. ^ "Brasil registra 1.546 casos e 25 mortes por covid-19, diz ministério". R7.com. 22 March 2020. Archived from the original on 22 March 2020. Retrieved 22 March 2020.
  76. ^ "Coronavírus: Brasil tem 1.546 casos e 25 mortes, segundo Ministério da Saúde". O Globo. 22 March 2020. Archived from the original on 22 March 2020. Retrieved 22 March 2020.
  77. ^ "Novo balanço de notificações suspeitas de Covid-19 em Itabuna é divulgado pela Vigilância Epidemiológica". Archived from the original on 23 March 2020. Retrieved 23 March 2020.
  78. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 24 March 2020. Retrieved 24 March 2020.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  79. ^ "Coronavírus: Brasil tem 34 mortes e 1.891 casos confirmados, diz Ministério da Saúde". Archived from the original on 23 March 2020. Retrieved 23 March 2020.
  80. ^ "Brasil tem 46 mortos e 2201 casos confirmados de coronavírus". R7.com. 24 March 2020. Retrieved 27 March 2020.
  81. ^ "Coronavírus: 57 mortes e 2.433 casos confirmados". saude.gov.br. 25 March 2020.
  82. ^ "Mortes no Brasil por coronavírus sobem 19% em um dia e chegam a 92".
  83. ^ https://s2.glbimg.com/eZMLfm7bBIcgDfImgVOxLmotA4k=/0x0:1200x3522/1600x0/smart/filters:strip_icc()/i.s3.glbimg.com/v1/AUTH_59edd422c0c84a879bd37670ae4f538a/internal_photos/bs/2020/y/3/3cbi9xRXKkEsucG1ubkQ/mapa-brasil-casos-coronavirus2703.png
  84. ^ "Brasil tem 92 mortes e 3.417 casos confirmados de novo coronavírus, diz Ministério da Saúde". G1.
  85. ^ "Brasil tem 114 mortes e 3.904 casos confirmados de coronavírus". R7.com. 28 March 2020.
  86. ^ "Brasil tem 114 mortes e 3.904 casos confirmados de coronavírus, diz ministério". G1.
  87. ^ "Jovem de 26 anos morre com coronavírus em SP, diz hospital". G1.
  88. ^ "Brasil tem 136 mortes e 4.256 casos confirmados de coronavírus, diz ministério". G1.
  89. ^ "Brasil registra 4.256 casos e 136 mortes decorrentes do novo coronavírus". noticias.uol.com.br.
  90. ^ https://agenciabrasil.ebc.com.br/saude/noticia/2020-03/sp-investiga-historico-clinico-de-2-jovens-que-morreram-por-covid-19
  91. ^ "Brasil registra 4.579 casos confirmados de coronavírus e 159 mortes da doença". Enfoque MS - Notícias de Campo Grande/MS.
  92. ^ "País tem 201 mortes por covid-19 e 5.717 casos confirmados". Agência Brasil. 31 March 2020.
  93. ^ "Brasil registra 6.836 casos confirmados de coronavírus e 241 mortes". saude.gov.br. 1 April 2020.
  94. ^ "Brasil tem 241 mortes e 6.836 casos confirmados de coronavírus; ministro diz que número é maior". G1.
  95. ^ "Cientistas do Brasil e de Oxford sequenciam genoma do novo coronavírus detectado em SP | Coronavírus | G1". G1.globo.com. Retrieved 2 April 2020.
  96. ^ a b Povo, O. (21 March 2020). "Cientistas prevem até 2 milhões de mortes no Brasil no pior cenário sem medidas para conter o vírus". Coronavirus. Archived from the original on 20 March 2020. Retrieved 20 March 2020.
  97. ^ a b "Curva de crescimento do coronavírus no Brasil repete a de países europeus, alertam especialistas da Itália". Época Negócios. Archived from the original on 20 March 2020. Retrieved 20 March 2020.
  98. ^ "Ritmo de contágio do coronavírus no Brasil está igual ao registrado na Itália e acelerando, apontam universidades". G1. Archived from the original on 20 March 2020. Retrieved 20 March 2020.
  99. ^ a b "Pesquisadores se mobilizam para aumentar oferta de testes no Brasil". Terra. Archived from the original on 21 March 2020. Retrieved 21 March 2020.
  100. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 24 March 2020. Retrieved 24 March 2020.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  101. ^ "Pesquisa prevê PIB negativo de até 4,4% com efeito do coronavírus". 23 March 2020. Archived from the original on 24 March 2020. Retrieved 24 March 2020.
  102. ^ "Universidades e sociedade civil se juntam para produzir máscaras". Agência Brasil. 26 March 2020.
  103. ^ Renata Moura, da Agência Brasília. "Corpo de Bombeiros vai atuar na detecção de casos suspeitos – Agência Brasília". Agenciabrasilia.df.gov.br. Retrieved 2 April 2020.
  104. ^ CGNotícias Agência Municipal de Notícias de Campo Grande (16 March 2020). "Prefeitura cria Centro de Operações de Emergências (COE) para Covid-19 | CGNotícias". Campogrande.ms.gov.br. Retrieved 2 April 2020.
  105. ^ "Brazil partially closing Venezuela border, allowing trucks". Reuters. 18 March 2020. Archived from the original on 18 March 2020. Retrieved 18 March 2020.
  106. ^ a b "Rio e outros 5 municípios do estado declaram situação de emergência para conter o coronavírus". G1. Archived from the original on 19 March 2020. Retrieved 19 March 2020.
  107. ^ a b "Governo do RS decreta situação de calamidade pública devido ao coronavírus". G1. Archived from the original on 20 March 2020. Retrieved 20 March 2020.
  108. ^ a b "Governo do RN decreta calamidade pública por causa do coronavírus". G1. Archived from the original on 20 March 2020. Retrieved 20 March 2020.
  109. ^ Saúde, Ministério da (20 March 2020). "Ministério da Saúde declara transmissão comunitária nacional". Ministério da Saúde (in Portuguese). Retrieved 2 April 2020.
  110. ^ "CONTEÚDO ABERTO: Em votação remota, Senado aprova estado de calamidade pública por causa de coronavírus". Gazeta do Povo. Archived from the original on 21 March 2020. Retrieved 20 March 2020.
  111. ^ "Em SP, casos de coronavírus sobem quase 40% em duas horas". diariodolitoral.com.br. Archived from the original on 21 March 2020. Retrieved 21 March 2020.
  112. ^ "Coronavírus: veja lista de cidades em estado de emergência ou calamidade pública e o que muda com decretos na região de Campinas". G1. Archived from the original on 21 March 2020. Retrieved 21 March 2020.
  113. ^ "Cemitжrios do DF nсo poderсo fazer velзrio de vьtimas da Covid-19 - Cidades". Correiobraziliense.com.br. Retrieved 2 April 2020.
  114. ^ "Sirenes móveis são usadas no Retiro, Carangola e Corrêas". Petropolis.rj.gov.br. 4 January 2020. Retrieved 2 April 2020.
  115. ^ "Jovem de 26 anos morre com coronavírus em SP, diz hospital | São Paulo | G1". G1.globo.com. Retrieved 2 April 2020.
  116. ^ Brazil coronavirus cases top 600, diplomatic spat with China bubbles Archived 20 March 2020 at the Wayback Machine By Pedro Fonseca, Reuters, 19 March 2020
  117. ^ "Bolsonaro's son enrages Beijing by blaming China for coronavirus crisis". The Guardian. 19 March 2020. Archived from the original on 20 March 2020. Retrieved 22 March 2020.
  118. ^ "Brazil coronavirus protesters urge 'Bolsonaro out'". BBC News. 19 March 2020. Archived from the original on 22 March 2020. Retrieved 22 March 2020.
  119. ^ "Gestão de Bolsonaro do coronavírus é reprovada por 64%, e 45% se dizem a favor de impeachment" Archived 23 March 2020 at the Wayback Machine. El País. 19 March 2020.
  120. ^ a b "Para o Congresso, Bolsonaro quer que tentem impeachment para ter confronto". noticias.uol.com.br. Archived from the original on 21 March 2020. Retrieved 21 March 2020.
  121. ^ "Faixas ofendem político da China em embaixada, que chama ato de "palhaçada"". noticias.uol.com.br. Archived from the original on 21 March 2020. Retrieved 21 March 2020.
  122. ^ Jair M. Bolsonaro (Verified account) (31 March 2010). "Jair M. Bolsonaro on Twitter: "- Nesta manhã tive contato telefônico com o Presidente dos EUA, @realDonaldTrump.Trocamos informações sobre o impacto do covid-19, bem como experiências no uso da hidroxicloroquina. - Na oportunidade, reafirmamos a solidariedade mútua entre os dois países. Com @ernestofaraujo"". Twitter.com. Retrieved 2 April 2020.
  123. ^ "Governo anuncia R$ 200 bilhões para socorrer trabalhadores e empresas". Agência Brasil. 1 April 2020.
  124. ^ Dias, Isabela (20 March 2020). "Could the Coronavirus Topple Jair Bolsonaro?". Slate. Archived from the original on 22 March 2020. Retrieved 22 March 2020.
  125. ^ "Bolsonaro diz que 'pequena crise' do coronavírus é 'mais fantasia' e não 'isso tudo' que mídia propaga". G1 (in Portuguese). Archived from the original on 22 March 2020. Retrieved 22 March 2020.
  126. ^ a b "Coronavírus desmascara a política de morte de Bolsonaro". 21 March 2020. Archived from the original on 21 March 2020. Retrieved 21 March 2020.
  127. ^ https://agenciabrasil.ebc.com.br/politica/noticia/2020-03/bolsonaro-diz-que-situacao-e-grave-mas-nao-deve-haver-panico
  128. ^ "Bolsonaro critica Witzel por querer impedir voos para o Rio de Janeiro". noticias.uol.com.br. Archived from the original on 20 March 2020. Retrieved 20 March 2020.
  129. ^ "Bolsonaro diz que fechar shoppings e comércio prejudica a economia". BNews. Archived from the original on 20 March 2020. Retrieved 20 March 2020.
  130. ^ "Doria rebate Bolsonaro: 'estamos fazendo o que ele não faz, liderar'". noticias.uol.com.br. Archived from the original on 20 March 2020. Retrieved 20 March 2020.
  131. ^ "Brasil é 2º país com mais casos de coronavírus na alta cúpula do governo". VEJA. Archived from the original on 20 March 2020. Retrieved 20 March 2020.
  132. ^ "Brazil needs up to $78 billion to fight coronavirus crisis – Congress leader". Reuters. 23 March 2020. Archived from the original on 24 March 2020. Retrieved 24 March 2020.
  133. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 24 March 2020. Retrieved 24 March 2020.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  134. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 24 March 2020. Retrieved 24 March 2020.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  135. ^ "Bolsonaro critica imprensa e fechamento de escolas e diz que crise passará". noticias.uol.com.br. Retrieved 27 March 2020.
  136. ^ "Autoridades no RJ reagem a pronunciamento de Bolsonaro que pede fim do 'confinamento em massa'". G1. Retrieved 27 March 2020.
  137. ^ a b "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 25 March 2020. Retrieved 25 March 2020.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  138. ^ "Cidades brasileiras registram panelaços contra Bolsonaro pelo oitavo dia seguido | Política | G1". G1.globo.com. Retrieved 2 April 2020. soft hyphen character in |title= at position 94 (help)
  139. ^ "DF tem panelaço contra Bolsonaro durante pronunciamento na TV". Metrópoles. 24 March 2020.
  140. ^ "Doria recebe ameaças de morte após trocar acusações com Bolsonaro". G1.
  141. ^ Bianchetti, Mara (21 March 2020). "Economia brasileira sofrerá forte impacto com o novo coronavírus". Diário do Comércio. Archived from the original on 22 March 2020. Retrieved 22 March 2020.
  142. ^ "Guedes anuncia pacote de R$147 bilhões para combater pandemia de covid-19". Poder 360. 16 March 2020.
  143. ^ "Banco de Desenvolvimento do BRICS libera ajuda de R$5 bilhões à China". Terra. Archived from the original on 21 March 2020. Retrieved 21 March 2020.
  144. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 24 March 2020. Retrieved 24 March 2020.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  145. ^ "Coronavírus: governo anuncia pacote de R$ 85,8 bilhões para estados e municípios". G1.
  146. ^ "Quem deve ter direito e como deve funcionar o auxílio de R$ 200 para trabalhadores informais". G1.
  147. ^ "Câmara aprova renda emergencial e derrota proposta 'aviltante' do governo". 27 March 2020.
  148. ^ "Governo anuncia R$ 40 bi para empresas pequenas e médias pagarem salários". economia.uol.com.br.
  149. ^ "Governo aceitará autodeclaração de quem não tem renda e prevê déficit de R$ 300 bilhões em 2020". G1.
  150. ^ "Latin America takes steps to counter coronavirus, Brazil's Bolsonaro snubs warnings". France 24. 16 March 2020. Archived from the original on 20 March 2020. Retrieved 16 March 2020.
  151. ^ "Latin American countries order school closures over coronavirus fears". Reuters. 12 March 2020. Archived from the original on 20 March 2020. Retrieved 16 March 2020.
  152. ^ "COVID-19 Educational Disruption and Response". UNESCO. Archived from the original on 21 March 2020. Retrieved 20 March 2020.
  153. ^ Cannabrava, Melissa. "#COVID19NasFavelas: Turismo é cancelado em comunidades da Zona Sul".
  154. ^ "Moradores de comunidades do RJ sofrem com falta de água em meio à pandemia de coronavírus". G1. Archived from the original on 19 March 2020. Retrieved 19 March 2020.
  155. ^ "Cufa pede medidas para conter o coronavírus nas favelas". EXAME. Archived from the original on 21 March 2020. Retrieved 21 March 2020.
  156. ^ Cannabrava, Melissa. "#COVID19NasFavelas: Para casos de urgência, Associações de Moradores e CRAS permanecem abertos".
  157. ^ Cannabrava, Melissa. "#COVID19NasFavelas: Associações de moradores do Alemão pedem kit prevenção".
  158. ^ Magalhães, Claudia. "Exclusivo: Governo vai usar sirenes da Defesa Civil para alertar moradores das favelas sobre coronavírus".
  159. ^ Antonio, Lucas (20 March 2020). "O coronavírus no olhar das periferias". Jornal SP Norte. Archived from the original on 21 March 2020. Retrieved 21 March 2020.
  160. ^ "Sem água canalizada e espaço para isolamento, favelas do Rio não têm recursos para enfrentar o coronavírus". PÚBLICO. Archived from the original on 21 March 2020. Retrieved 21 March 2020.
  161. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 24 March 2020. Retrieved 24 March 2020.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  162. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 24 March 2020. Retrieved 24 March 2020.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  163. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 24 March 2020. Retrieved 24 March 2020.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  164. ^ Saúde, Ministério da (23 January 2020). "Brasil prepara rede de saúde para novo coronavírus". Ministério da Saúde (in Portuguese). Retrieved 2 April 2020.
  165. ^ a b "Funcionários relatam falta de álcool gel e luvas em hospitais de São Paulo". noticias.uol.com.br. Archived from the original on 20 March 2020. Retrieved 20 March 2020.
  166. ^ a b Oliveira, Joana (20 March 2020). "Profissionais relatam precariedade contra coronavírus no SUS: "Paciente fica exposto, e nós também"". EL PAÍS. Archived from the original on 20 March 2020. Retrieved 20 March 2020.
  167. ^ "Coronavírus: Hospitais de SP denunciam falta de materiais e aumento de até 30 vezes nos preços". G1. Archived from the original on 20 March 2020. Retrieved 20 March 2020.
  168. ^ Brasília, Redação Jornal de (18 March 2020). "Coronavírus: Caixa de máscara sobe de R$ 4,50 para R$ 140, denunciam Hospitais". Archived from the original on 20 March 2020. Retrieved 20 March 2020.
  169. ^ a b "Máscaras para profissionais de saúde esgotam em Salvador e ambulantes 'aproveitam'". bahianoticias.com.br. Archived from the original on 20 March 2020. Retrieved 20 March 2020.
  170. ^ "Pico de casos de Covid-19 em BH será na 1ª semana de abril". R7.com. 19 March 2020. Archived from the original on 22 March 2020. Retrieved 22 March 2020.
  171. ^ a b "Coronavírus: Prefeitura de BH pede reforço do Exército para o atendimento da saúde". G1. Archived from the original on 20 March 2020. Retrieved 20 March 2020.
  172. ^ "Sem itens de proteção, agentes de saúde improvisam toucas como máscaras em hospitais". 19 March 2020.
  173. ^ "Profissionais de saúde do RJ reclamam da falta de condições para trabalhar com pacientes de Covid-19". G1. Archived from the original on 20 March 2020. Retrieved 20 March 2020.
  174. ^ https://agenciabrasil.ebc.com.br/saude/noticia/2020-03/ao-vivo-pais-tem-201-obitos-por-covid-e-5717-casos-confirmados
  175. ^ a b Pires, Breiller (20 March 2020). "Igrejas desafiam recomendação de suspender missas e cultos diante da pandemia do coronavírus". EL PAÍS. Archived from the original on 21 March 2020. Retrieved 22 March 2020.
  176. ^ "Comunicado sobre a suspensão temporária de Celebrações Religiosas". 21 March 2020. Archived from the original on 26 March 2020. Retrieved 21 March 2020.
  177. ^ "Comunicado n°2 da Arquidiocese de São Paulo sobre Celebrações e outras Ações Pastorais nas igrejas durante a pandemia do Coronavírus". 26 March 2020. Archived from the original on 31 March 2020. Retrieved 28 March 2020.
  178. ^ "Mônica Bergamo: Vídeo mostra Edir Macedo dizendo que coronavírus é inofensivo e que Satanás e mídia promovem medo". 15 March 2020. Archived from the original on 22 March 2020. Retrieved 22 March 2020.
  179. ^ Padiglione, Cristina (12 March 2020). "Em razao do coronavirus, Domingao do Faustao vai ao ar sem plateia pela 1 vez em 31 anos". Folha de S.Paulo. Archived from the original on 22 March 2020. Retrieved 13 March 2020.
  180. ^ Oliveira, Fernando (13 March 2020). "Com medo do coronavirus, Raul Gil cancela gravaÇao e se isola em sitio". UOL. Archived from the original on 22 March 2020. Retrieved 13 March 2020.
  181. ^ "RedeTV! cancela plateia do Encrenca com medo do surto de coronavirus". Noticias da TV – UOL. 12 March 2020. Archived from the original on 22 March 2020. Retrieved 13 March 2020.
  182. ^ "Alagoas tem 7 casos". G1. 21 March 2020.
  183. ^ "Amazonas tem 26 casos". G1. 22 March 2020.
  184. ^ "Bahia tem 41 casos". G1. 21 March 2020.
  185. ^ "Distrito Federal tem 112 casos". G1. 21 March 2020.
  186. ^ "Espirito Santo tem 26 casos". G1. 21 March 2020.
  187. ^ "Goiás tem 20 casos". G1. 21 March 2020.
  188. ^ "Minas Gerais tem 55 casos". G1. 21 March 2020.
  189. ^ "Pernambuco tem 33 casos". G1. 21 March 2020.
  190. ^ "Paraná tem 43 casos confirmados". G1. 21 March 2020.
  191. ^ "Rio de Janeiro tem 170 casos confirmados". G1. 22 March 2020.
  192. ^ "Rio Grande do Norte tem 9 casos confirmados". G1. 21 March 2020.
  193. ^ "Rio Grande do Sul tem 71 casos confirmados". G1. 21 March 2020.
  194. ^ "Santa Catarina confirma 57 casos". G1. 21 March 2020.
  195. ^ "São Paulo tem 459 casos confirmados". G1. 21 March 2020.
  196. ^ "Mato Grosso do Sul confirma 16 casos". G1. 21 March 2020.
  197. ^ "Sergipe confirma 10 casos". G1. 21 March 2020.
  198. ^ "Acre confirma 11 casos". G1. 21 March 2020.
  199. ^ "Rondônia confirma 3 casos". G1. 21 March 2020.
  200. ^ "Pará confirma 2 casos". G1. 20 March 2020.
  201. ^ "Roraima confirma 2 casos". G1. 21 March 2020.
  202. ^ "Amapá confirma 1 caso". G1. 20 March 2020.
  203. ^ "Tocantins confirma 2 casos". G1. 21 March 2020.
  204. ^ "Maranhão confirma 2 casos". G1. 21 March 2020.
  205. ^ "Piauí confirma 4 casos". G1. 20 March 2020.
  206. ^ "Ceará confirma 84 casos". G1. 21 March 2020.
  207. ^ "Paraíba confirma 1 caso". G1. 18 March 2020.
  208. ^ "Mato Grosso confirma 2 casos". G1. 21 March 2020.

External links

What is Wiki.RIP There is a free information resource on the Internet. It is open to any user. Wiki is a library that is public and multilingual.

The basis of this page is on Wikipedia. Text licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0 Unported License..

Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. wiki.rip is an independent company that is not affiliated with the Wikimedia Foundation (Wikimedia Foundation).

E-mail: wiki@wiki.rip
WIKI OPPORTUNITIES
Privacy Policy      Terms of Use      Disclaimer