2019–20 European windstorm season

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2019–20 European windstorm season
2019-20 European windstorm season summary map.png
Map of systems formed in this season.
First storm formed2 October 2019
Last storm dissipatedSeason ongoing
Strongest storm1Dennis
920 mbar (27.2 inHg)
Strongest wind gust140 mph (230 km/h)
Total storms19
Total damage£895 million
(€1.06 billion)
Total fatalities74 (+12 missing)
1Strongest storm is determined by lowest pressure and maximum recorded non-mountainous wind gust is also included for reference.
2020–21 →

The 2019–20 European windstorm season is the fifth instance of seasonal European windstorm naming in Europe. This will be the first season in which the Netherlands will participate, joining the United Kingdom and Ireland's meteorological agencies. The new season's storm names were released on 6 September 2019. In July 2019, it was announced that storm seasons would run from 1 September 2019 to 1 September 2020.[1][2] The Portuguese, Spanish and French meteorological agencies will again collaborate too, joined by the Belgian meteorological agency.

Background and naming

In 2015, the Met Office and Met Éireann announced a pilot project to name storm warnings as part of the "Name our Storms" project for wind storms and asked the public for suggestions. The meteorological offices produced a full list of names for 2015–16 through to 2017–18, common to both the United Kingdom and Ireland, with the Netherlands taking part from 2019 onwards. Names in the United Kingdom will be based on the National Severe Weather Warning Service, when a storm is assessed to have the potential for an Amber ('be prepared') or Red ('take action (danger to life)') warning.

There are two main naming lists: one created by the national meteorological agencies of the United Kingdom, Ireland and the Netherlands, and another created by the equivalent agencies from France, Spain, Portugal and Belgium. Additionally, former Atlantic hurricanes will retain their names as assigned by the National Hurricane Center of the United States.[3]

United Kingdom, Ireland and the Netherlands

The following names have been selected for the 2019–2020 season:[4][5]

  • Atiyah
  • Brendan
  • Ciara
  • Dennis
  • Ellen (unused)
  • Francis (unused)
  • Gerda (unused)
  • Hugh (unused)
  • Iris (unused)
  • Jan (unused)
  • Kitty (unused)
  • Liam (unused)
  • Maura (unused)
  • Noah (unused)
  • Olivia (unused)
  • Piet (unused)
  • Róisín (unused)
  • Samir (unused)
  • Tara (unused)
  • Vince (unused)
  • Willow (unused)

'Liam' was chosen through a poll made by Met Éireann on Twitter.[6]

France, Spain, Portugal and Belgium

This will be the third year in which the meteorological agencies of France, Spain and Portugal will be naming storms which affect their areas. This naming scheme is partially overlapping with that used by the United Kingdom, Ireland and the Netherlands, as storms named by the other group of agencies will be used reciprocally.[7][8]

The following names have been selected for the 2019–2020 season:[9]

  • Amélie
  • Bernardo
  • Cecilia
  • Daniel
  • Elsa
  • Fabien
  • Gloria
  • Hervé
  • Inès
  • Jorge
  • Karine
  • Leon
  • Myriam
  • Norberto
  • Odette (unused)
  • Prosper (unused)
  • Raquel (unused)
  • Simon (unused)
  • Teresa (unused)
  • Valentin (unused)
  • Wanda (unused)

Other naming systems

One former Atlantic hurricane transitioned into a European windstorm and retained its name as assigned by the National Hurricane Center in Miami, Florida:

Besides these naming systems, the Free University of Berlin also names high and low pressure areas through its "Adopt a vortex" programme. The Nordic nations of Denmark, Norway and Sweden also name storms with more limited reciprocation.[10] Other nations may also name storms either through their national meteorological institutions or popularly.

Season summary

2019–20 European windstorm season#Storm Norberto2019–20 European windstorm season#Storm Myriam2019–20 European windstorm season#Storm Leon2019–20 European windstorm season#Storm Karine2019–20 European windstorm season#Storm JorgeStorm Dennis2019–20 European windstorm season#Storm InèsStorm Ciara2019–20 European windstorm season#Storm HervéStorm Gloria2019–20 European windstorm season#Storm Brendan2019–20 European windstorm season#Storm Fabien2019–20 European windstorm season#Storm Elsa2019–20 European windstorm season#Storm Daniel2019–20 European windstorm season#Storm Atiyah2019–20 European windstorm season#Storm Cecilia2019–20 European windstorm season#Storm Bernardo2019–20 European windstorm season#Storm AmélieHurricane Lorenzo (2019)

The first system of the season was Storm Lorenzo, when Met Éireann issued yellow wind warnings for Ireland and an orange warning for the western coastal counties.[11] The storm consisted out of the remnants of Hurricane Lorenzo, which had turned extratropical.[12] The next named system was Amélie, named by Météo-France on 1 November.[13][14] Storm Bernardo was named next, by the Spanish meteorological agency, AEMET. This system primarily affected the Balearic Islands.[15] Cecilia was named next by AEMET, when the agency warned for rain and wind on the Iberian Peninsula and the Balearic Islands.[16]

On 6 December, the Irish meteorological agency named Atiyah, the first system to receive its name of the Irish, British and Dutch storm naming list.[17] After Atiyah passed, storms Daniel, Elsa and Fabien were named in quick succession on 15, 16 and 18 December, respectively.[9][18] Storms Brendan and Gloria were next to be named by Met Éireann and AEMET, respectively, after a quiet start to January 2020. Hervé was named by Météo-France on 3 February, after the agency expected wind gusts of up to 140 km/h (87 mph) at Corsica's coast.[19] A few days later, on 5 February, Ciara was named by Met Office, warning for heavy rain and gales throughout the United Kingdom.[20]

Following Ciara, Dennis was named by the Met Office on 11 February 2020. The agency warned for heavy rain and gales across the United Kingdom.[21] A day later, Inès was named by the French meteorological agency. The agency warned for wind speeds up to 130 km/h (81 mph) in the northern part of France on 13 February.[22][23] The Spanish meteorological agency named Jorge next, warning for seas 4 to 5 m (13 to 16 ft) high on 29 February through 2 March and snow around 1,000 m (3,300 ft).[24] Following Jorge, Karine, Leon, Myriam and Norberto were named in quick succession, on 29 February, 1, 3 and 5 March, respectively. Karine was named by AEMET, while Leon, Myriam and Norberto were named by Météo-France.[9]


Ex-Hurricane Lorenzo

Ex-Hurricane Lorenzo
Lorenzo 2019-10-02 1226Z.jpg
Ex-Hurricane Lorenzo after passing the Azores.
Lorenzo 2019 track.png
Path of Hurricane Lorenzo and the likewise-named storm according to the Saffir-Simpson scale.
Area affectedAzores, Ireland, United Kingdom
Date of impact2–4 October
Maximum wind gust163 km/h (101 mph) Corvo Island, Azores (while tropical)
66 mph (107 km/h), Mace Head, Galway (while extratropical)[25]
Lowest pressure966 mbar (28.5 inHg) (while extratropical)
Fatalities10 (7 missing) (while tropical)
1 (while extratropical)[26]
Power outages20,000+[27]
Damage≥ £283 million (€336 million)[28]

On 26 September 2019, the Portuguese meteorological agency (IPMA) began issuing advisories for Hurricane Lorenzo.[29] The National Hurricane Center issued hurricane and tropical storm watches on 30 September 2019 for the Azores,[30] which were later upgraded to warnings.[31]

On 2 October 2019, Lorenzo passed the Azores a few hours before the NHC issued their 9:00 UTC advisory.[32] The next and final advisory stated that Lorenzo had undergone extratropical transition.[12]

The same day, Met Éireann issued a yellow warning for wind for the entirety of Ireland, as well as an orange warning for the western coastal counties.[33][11] The Met Office issued yellow wind warnings for Northern Ireland, Cornwall and parts of Devon and south-west Wales.[11] Upon issueance of the orange warning, Met Éireann named the extratropical remnants of Lorenzo "Storm Lorenzo".[11][note 1] Lorenzo dissipated above the Irish Sea on 4 October.[34]

On 3 October, the M6 Buoy, located about 400 km (250 mi) west of Mace Head, Galway, recorded a pressure of 969 mbar (28.6 inHg) near Lorenzo's centre.[35] The same buoy also recorded a maximum wave height of 12.5 m (41 ft).[36] On 4 October, while the storm was passing across Ireland, new weather warnings were issued for the counties Longford, Westmeath, Galway, Mayo, Roscommon and Clare.[37] The highest recorded wind gust was 107 km/h (66 mph), with the highest 10-minute mean at 87 km/h (54 mph), both recorded at Mace Head.[25]

Power was cut to almost 20,000 homes in Ireland at the height of the storm, with floodings occurring throughout the country.[27] River Eske partially flooded Donegal as result of nearly 50 mm (2.0 in) of rain falling as high tide was approaching. The amount of damage country-wide, however, was less than anticipated for.[38] The storm's only known fatality while it was extratropical, occurred when a tree fell on a person in Stafford.[26]

Storm Amélie

Storm Amélie
Amelie 2019-11-02 1416Z.jpg
Storm Amélie above the Atlantic Ocean on 2 November.
Amelie 2019 track.png
Track of Storm Amélie according to the Ocean Prediction Center.
Area affectedFrance, Spain, Italy
Date of impact1–4 November
Maximum wind gust189 km/h (117 mph), Cagnano, Haute-Corse, Corsica[39]
Lowest pressure972 mbar (28.7 inHg)[40]
Power outages140,000[42]
Damage≥ £80 million (€90 million)[43]

The French meteorological service, Météo-France, named Storm Amélie[14] on 1 November.[13] The French meteorological agency expected wind gusts up to and possibly surpassing 160 km/h (99 mph) locally at the western coast.[44][45]

Storm Amélie developed as a secondary low on 2 November, undergoing explosive cyclogenesis.[46] Amelie went on land at France's Atlantic coast in the morning hours of 3 November, bringing wind gusts with it up to 163 km/h (101 mph) at Cap Ferret. The storm also brought wind gusts up to 170 km/h (106 mph) at the northern coast of Spain, including a record-setting 130 km/h (81 mph) gust for Santander Airport.[39] Besides causing numerous treefalls and 140,000 power outages,[42] the storm also triggered a landslide, causing the storm's only known fatality.[41] The SNCF temporarily closed a line due to debris on the tracks, causing some 2,000 passengers to be stranded.[47]

After the storm went on land, it gradually tracked north and then east.[39] It passed over Belgium and the Netherlands on 3 November and over Germany on 4 November, splitting up into two systems.[48][49] Thereafter the two systems tracked generally eastwards, across north-eastern Europe.[50]

Storm Bernardo

Storm Bernardo
Bernardo 2019-11-11 1316Z.jpg
Storm Bernardo displaying an eye-like feature on 11 November 2019 at Algeria's coast.
Bernardo 2019 track.png
Track of storm Bernardo according to Met Office.
Area affectedSpain, Algeria
Date of impact10–11 November
Maximum wind gust111 km/h (69 mph), Alfabia Mountains, Mallorca, Balearic Islands[51]
Lowest pressure996 mbar (29.4 inHg)[52]
Power outagesUnknown

Storm Bernardo was named by AEMET on 9 November.[15] The agency expected wave heights up to 6 m (20 ft) at the Balearic Islands and several Spanish provinces bordering the Bay of Biscay. It further expected precipitation up to 20 cm (7.9 in) in the form of snow on the Cantabrian Mountains from 1,000 m (3,300 ft) and rainfall up to 50 L (11 imp gal) within 12 hours in the provinces of Cantabria, Navarra, Basque Country and Asturias. The Asturias' regional meteorological agency warned for avalanches due to snow accumulation.[54] Gusts were expected to be up to 110 km/h (68 mph).[55]

The storm affected the Balearic Islands on 10 November, with gusts up to 111 km/h (69 mph) at Mallorca's north-western coast.[51] On 11 November, Bernardo formed an eye-like feature, leading several outlets to report that the storm had medicane-like characteristics.[56] AEMET did not confirm that the storm had reached medicane status.[51] The storm went on land the same day at Algeria's coast and dissipated subsequently into a larger storm which affected Italy. A treefall on Mallorca caused the only known fatility.[53]

Storm Cecilia

Storm Cecilia
Cecilia 2019-11-22 1118Z.jpg
Storm Cecilia approaching the Bay of Biscay on 22 November.
Cecilia 2019 track.png
Track of storm Cecilia according to the Ocean Prediction Center.
Area affectedSpain
Date of impact22–23 November
Maximum wind gust163 km/h (101 mph), Cape Machichaco [es], Biscay, Spain[57]
Lowest pressure974 mbar (28.8 inHg)[58]
Power outagesUnknown

The Spanish meteorological agency, AEMET, named Cecilia on 21 November, warning for rain and wind on the Iberian Peninsula and the Balearic Islands.[16] On 23 November, the storm split up into three separate depressions.[59] During the storm, a chemical transport ship ran aground at the Galician coast.[60]

Storm Atiyah

Storm Atiyah
Atiyah 2019-12-07 1150Z.jpg
The storm above the Atlantic Ocean on 7 December. The core is just south off the coast of Greenland.
Atiyah 2019 track.png
Track of storm Atiyah according to the Ocean Prediction Center and Met Office.
Area affectedIreland, United Kingdom, Netherlands, France
Date of impact8–9 December
Maximum wind gust150.1 km/h (93.3 mph), Cap Bear, Pyrénées-Orientales, France[61]
Lowest pressure956 mbar (28.2 inHg)[62][note 2]
Power outages40,000+ (27,000 in Ireland,[63] 5500 in Wales,[64] 1500 elsewhere[65])
Damage≥ £40 million (€48 million)[66]

Met Éireann named Atiyah on 6 December, giving off orange wind warnings for the western counties and yellow for the other counties. The agency expected mean wind speeds of 65 to 80 km/h (40 to 50 mph) and gusts up to 130 km/h (81 mph) on Sunday 8 December across Ireland.[67] On 8 December, a red weather warning was issued for Kerry.[68]

The storm affected Ireland and the United Kingdom on 8 December, cutting power to 34,000 homes, downing trees and causing disruptions throughout both countries.[63][64][65] The highest recorded wind gust in the United Kingdom was on The Needles Old Battery, at 134 km/h (83 mph).[69] The Kernow Weather Team, based in Cornwall, recorded a wind gust of 154 km/h (96 mph) in Illogan, Cornwall,[65] however, this gust wasn't recorded by Met Office.

The Netherlands was predicted to be affected by the storm on 8 and 9 December, with gusts around 90 to 100 km/h (56 to 62 mph) and showers.[70] Météo-France recorded the highest confirmed wind gust, at 150.1 km/h (93.3 mph).[61]

Storm Daniel

Storm Daniel
Daniel 2019-12-16 1346Z.jpg
Daniel approaching the Iberian Peninsula on 16 December.
Daniel 2019 track.png
Track of storm Daniel according to the Ocean Prediction Center and Met Office.
Area affectedPortugal, Spain
Date of impact15–20 December
Maximum wind gust135 km/h (84 mph), La Pinilla ski resort, Segovia, Spain[71]
Lowest pressure982 mbar (29.0 inHg)[72]
Power outagesUnknown

AEMET, the Spanish meteorological agency, named Daniel on 15 December.[9] The agency issued an orange warning for Asturias, citing possible wave heights of 5 to 6 m (16 to 20 ft) at the coast. The agency further warned for wave heights of up to 7 m (23 ft) at the Canary Islands, snowfall and gusting to or over 120 km/h (75 mph).[73] Use of snow chains became necessary on the N-630 road for cars, while the Puerto de Pajares mountain pass closed for trucks, articulated vehicles and buses.[74]

The strongest wind gust was measured at La Pinilla ski resort, reaching 135 km/h (84 mph). 108.8 mm (4.28 in) of rain fell at Riaño, León.[71]

Storm Elsa

Storm Elsa
Elsa 2019-12-18 1313Z.jpg
Storm Elsa near the British Isles on 18 December.
Elsa 2019 track.png
Track of storm Elsa according to the Ocean Prediction Center.
Area affectedPortugal, Spain, France, United Kingdom, Ireland, Norway
Date of impact13–20 December
Maximum wind gust168 km/h (104 mph), Cerler-Cogulla, Huesca, Spain[75]
Lowest pressure961 mbar (28.4 inHg)[76][note 2]
Power outages140,000[78]
Damage≥ £170 million (€200 million)[79]

Storm Elsa formed on 13 December above the Gulf of Mexico,[80] whereafter it gradually tracked north-eastward, bottoming out at 961 mbar (28.4 inHg) at the coast of Canada.[76] Thereafter, the storm split up into two systems – one above the west Atlantic Ocean and the other above the east Atlantic Ocean.[81] On 16 December, IPMA named the storm,[9] while AEMET issued wind warnings for speeds of 100 to 120 km/h (62 to 75 mph).[18] The storm was absorbed into another depression, named Zelion by the Free University of Berlin, on 21 December.[82]

Besides a nation-wide yellow warning, Met Éireann issued an orange weather warning for County Cork in the evening of 18 December for a small secondary depression associated with storm Elsa.[83] The yellow warnings for counties Mayo and Galway were further upgraded to orange warnings at 20:00, an hour before the storm passed these counties.[84] Severe flooding and extreme gusts were reported at the County Galway coastline. Close to 22:00, a storm surge breached the Promenade on Salthill in Galway City; over 50 cars were lost to the flood waters. Besides the flooding, a ship was also forced onto rocks.[85] Severe flooding was also reported in the Spanish Arch, Port of Galway, Oranmore and Kinvara areas of Galway.[86] Gusts of up to 125 km/h (78 mph) were reported at the Mace Head weather station on the West Galway coast. Treefalls occurred across the city and county, blocking numerous roads leading to Galway City. Around 22:30, Galway City Council activated its Emergency Response Plan and issued a notice warning people to stay indoors and to remain there unless it was of extreme importance. A similar warning was issued by Galway County Council. Members of the Gardaí, National Ambulance Service, Galway Fire Service and Civil Defence Ireland were deployed to Salthill and conducted searches on cars trapped in flood waters.[84]

Met Éireann's short notice of one hour before the storm hit the counties of Mayo and Galway was criticised. The agency defended their warnings, citing that "the nature of forecasting is that it is never certain [...]" and that they issue warnings when they see fit.[85]

Storm Fabien

Storm Fabien
Fabien 2019-12-20 1200Z.jpg
Storm Fabien above the Atlantic Ocean on 20 December.
Fabien 2019 track.png
Track of storm Fabien according to the Ocean Prediction Center.
Area affectedPortugal, Spain, France
Date of impact21–22 December
Maximum wind gust206 km/h (128 mph), Cap Corse, Corsica, France[87]
Lowest pressure963 mbar (28.4 inHg)[88]
Power outages180,000+ (80,000+ in Galicia,[89] ±100,000 in France[90])
Damage≥ £170 million (€200 million)[91]

AEMET named Fabien on 19 December, warning for wind speeds of 100 to 120 km/h (62 to 75 mph) and wave heights of 9 m (30 ft).[18] The French meteorological agency put orange warnings on fifteen departments in the south-west.[92]

In Galicia, around 80,000 homes were left without power.[89] A wind gust of 183.5 km/h (114.0 mph) was also recorded here.[93] A train crashed into a fallen tree on the railway line between Vigo and Barcelona; no fatalities were reported.[89]

In France, the SNCF canceled services in south-western France due to chances of wind blowing trees on railway tracks[92] and around 100,000 households were left without power in the same region.[90] On Corsica, a wind gust of 206 km/h (128 mph) was recorded, besides numerous treefalls.[87] All of the island's airports were closed and the ferry service between the island and the mainland was suspended as well.[92]

Storm Brendan

Storm Brendan
Brendan 2020-01-13 0337Z.jpg
The storm above the Atlantic Ocean on 13 January 2020.
Brendan 2020 track.png
Track of storm Brendan according to the Ocean Prediction Center and Met Office.
Area affectedIreland, United Kingdom, Belgium, Netherlands, Spain, France
Date of impact13 January 2020
Maximum wind gust182 km/h (113 mph), Aonach Mòr, Scotland[94]
Lowest pressure940 mbar (27.8 inHg)[95]
Power outages100,000+[96]
Damage≥ £2 million (€2.3 million)[97]

Storm Brendan made landfall in Ireland and the UK on 13 January, causing power outages in Ireland, ferry cancellations across Scotland and the closure of schools in the Outer Hebrides.[98][99]

Storm Gloria

Storm Gloria
Storm Gloria.png
Gloria over the western Mediterrannean on 21 January
Gloria 2020 track.png
Track of the storm according to the Ocean Prediction Center.
Area affectedPortugal, Spain, France
Date of impact19–23 January 2020
Maximum wind gust133 km/h (83 mph)[100]
Lowest pressure993 mbar (29.3 inHg)[101]
Fatalities14 (+3 missing)[102]
Power outages31,000+
Damage≥ £150 million (€180 million)[103]

The Spanish meteorological agency expected Gloria to bring wind gusts of 100 to 120 km/h (62 to 75 mph) and cold air to the Iberian Peninsula on 19 through 21 January.[104]

Storm Hervé

Storm Hervé
Herve 2020-02-04 1129Z.jpg
The storm covering much of eastern Europe on February 4.
Herve 2020 track.png
Track of the storm according to Met Office.
Area affectedSpain, France, Italy, Austria, Czech Republic
Date of impact4–5 February 2020
Maximum wind gust195 km/h (121 mph), Cap Corse, Corsica, France[105]
Lowest pressure990 mbar (29.2 inHg)[106]
Power outagesUnknown

The French meteorological agency expected storm Hervé to hit Portugal, Spain, France and the United Kingdom.[19] The storm formed on 3 February around 15:00 UTC from a shortwave above the English Channel. In the 12 hours that followed, it deepened to 996 mbar (29.4 inHg), from 1,012 mbar (29.9 inHg) at 15:00 UTC. It moved generally eastward, expanding in size.[105]

Strong wind gusts and flooding led to two deaths in Austria.[107] Another person died in the Czech Republic.[108] On 3–4 February, the storm brought the highest winds to Switzerland since 1981, also affecting southern Germany and Austria.[109]

Storm Ciara

Storm Ciara
Ciara 2020-02-07 1800Z.jpg
The storm off the eastern coast of the United States on 7 February.
Ciara 2020 track.png
Track of the storm according to the Ocean Prediction Center and Met Office.
Area affectedEastern United States, Ireland, United Kingdom, Belgium, The Netherlands, Germany,France
Date of impact8–10 February 2020
Maximum wind gust219.0 km/h (136.1 mph) Cap Corse, France [110]
Lowest pressure943 mbar (27.8 inHg)[111]

On 4 February 2020, the Met Office issued a yellow weather warning for wind covering all of the United Kingdom across the following weekend due to high confidence in the model forecasts for a potential high-impact storm, although the system involved had not yet formed and no name was issued for it at that time. The next day, Storm Ciara[note 3] was formally named by the Met Office;[20] in Germany the storm is called Sabine.[112] It formed out of a weak area of low pressure emerging into the Atlantic Ocean from the southeastern United States earlier that day; the precursor system had previously brought heavy snowfall to large tracts of the United States and Eastern Canada, with tornadoes across the southern and mid-Atlantic states.[113]

On 6 February, Met Éireann issued a country-wide yellow wind and rain warning for Saturday 8 February through Sunday 9 February, expecting average wind speeds from 50 to 65 km/h (31 to 40 mph) and gusts up to 110 km/h (68 mph) and rainfall of up to 40 mm (1.6 in). Additional orange wind warnings were issued for the counties Galway, Mayo and Donegal on 7 February.[114][115]

The Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute (KNMI) issued a country-wide yellow wind warning on 7 February, expecting wind gusts up to 120 km/h (75 mph).[116] The same date, the Met Office issued an amber warning for southeast England for Sunday. The rest of the United Kingdom remained under a yellow wind warning. The agency expects gusting of 80 to 97 km/h (50 to 60 mph) across the country, with the possibility of gusts up to 130 km/h (80 mph) along the coastal regions.[117] On 8 February, the KNMI updated their warning to orange for wind gusts up to 130 km/h (81 mph) in the whole country.[118] The Royal Dutch Football Association (KNVB) also postponed all premier league matches set for 9 February.[119]

On 9 February, the storm set above Belgium; due to the strong winds, the Royal Belgian Football Association (KBVB) postponed all football events on this day [120] and also the Vlaamse Aardbeiencross was cancelled.[121]

Ciara caused an estimated €500 million in damage in Germany.[122]

Storm Inès

Storm Inès
Ines 2020-02-12 1243Z.jpg
Storm Inès approaching Ireland on 12 February.
Ines 2020 track.png
Track of storm Inès according to the Ocean Prediction Center.
Area affectedFrance, Spain, Ireland, United Kingdom, Netherlands, Belgium, Germany
Date of impact13 February 2020
Maximum wind gust132 km/h (82 mph), Pointe du Raz, Brittany, France[123]
Lowest pressure976 mbar (28.8 inHg)[124]

Inès was named by the French meteorological agency, Météo-France, on 12 February 2020. The agency issued yellow and orange warnings for wind speeds of up to 130 km/h (81 mph) in the northern parts of the country.[22][23]

Inès formed above Newfoundland on 11 February.[125] It affected primarily France with wind speeds up to and surpassing 130 km/h (81 mph) on 13 February,[123] while it brought waves up to 6 m (20 ft) from the Galician to Cantabrian coast.[125]

Storm Dennis

Storm Dennis
Dennis 2020-02-15 1300Z.jpg
Dennis above the Atlantic Ocean on 14 February, with its cold front flanking the east coast of North America.
Dennis 2020 track.png
Track of storm Dennis according to the Ocean Prediction Center.
Area affectedIreland, United Kingdom, Iceland, Netherlands, Belgium, France, Norway
Date of impact11–18 February 2020
Maximum wind gust230 km/h (140 mph)
Lowest pressure920 mbar (27 inHg)

Storm Dennis was named jointly by the UKMet Office, Met Éireann and the Netherlands Meterological Service on 11 February, with heavy rain and strong winds expected to affect the UK from 15 February.[126] It was quickly nicknamed “Dennis the Menace,”[127] as a reference from The Beano character of the same name.

Storm Jorge

Storm Jorge
Jorge 2020-02-29 1347Z.jpg
Jorge approaching the British Isles on 29 February.
Jorge 2020 track.png
Track of storm Jorge according to the Ocean Prediction Center and Met Office.
Area affectedUnited Kingdom, Ireland, Iceland
Date of impact25 February–5 March 2020
Lowest pressure952 mbar (28.1 inHg)

Jorge was named by the Spanish meteorological agency on 27 February. The agency warned for seas up to 5 m (16 ft) high and snow from 1,000 m (3,300 ft).[24] Met Eireann have issued Status Red wind warnings for County Galway and County Clare and Status Orange wind warnings for the remainder of the country[128], while in the United Kingdom the Met Office have issued yellow wind warnings for all of Wales and Northern Ireland, most of England and parts of Scotland before it even hit Iceland.

Storm Karine

Storm Karine
Karine 2020-03-02 1306Z.jpg
Karine covering much of southern Europe on 2 March.
Karine 2020 track.png
Track of storm Karine according to the Ocean Prediction Center and Met Office.
Area affectedFrance, Spain, Italy
Date of impact29 February–4 March 2020
Lowest pressure984 mbar (29.1 inHg)

Storm Karine was named by AEMET on 29 February to impact on 2 March. The storm was named before Leon, however Leon developed before Karine on 1 March and so alphabetical order does not correspond to chronological order of these two storms.[129]

Storm Leon

Storm Leon
Leon 2020-03-01 1054Z.jpg
The storm covering much of France on 1 March.
Leon 2020 track.png
Track of storm Leon according to the Ocean Prediction Center.
Area affectedSpain, France, Belgium
Date of impact29 February–1 March 2020
Lowest pressure990 mbar (29.2 inHg)

Storm Leon was named by MétéoFrance on 1 March to affect the country later the same day.[130]

Storm Myriam

Storm Myriam
Myriam 2020-03-02 1628Z.jpg
The storm above the Atlantic Ocean on 2 March.
Myriam 2020 track.png
Track of storm Myriam according to the Ocean Prediction Center and Met Office.
Area affectedSpain, France, Corsica, Malta, Italy
Date of impact29 February–5 March 2020
Lowest pressure992 mbar (29.3 inHg)

Storm Norberto

Storm Norberto
Norberto 2020-03-05 1350Z.jpg
Norberto covering parts of Europe on 5 March.
Norberto 2020 track.png
Track of storm Norberto according to the Ocean Prediction Center and Met Office.
Area affectedFrance, Germany
Date of impact3–7 March 2020
Lowest pressure982 mbar (29.0 inHg)

Other systems

On 29 September a moderate storm named Mortimer by FUB moved across central Europe and killed 3 people.[131]

In late October 2019, a medicane formed far east in the Mediterranean Sea. It affected Cyprus, Israel and Egypt. The storm formed in the far east of the sea, something which is not seen often.[132]

On the 10–11 December an explosively deepening storm affected Iceland, where the meteorological office declared its first red warning for parts of the country.[133] The system was named Siro by the Free University of Berlin. The storm dropped to a pressure of 949 mbar (28.0 inHg), bringing strong winds and blizzard conditions, causing a complete halt to transportation and power loss to 20,000. The storm was described by Icelandic meteorologists as a once in a decade event.[134]

On 28 January, Storm Lolita, named by FUB, caused two deaths in Germany.[135][136]

On 14 February a rapidly deepening low in the Atlantic affected Iceland, named Uta by the Free University of Berlin. Red wind warnings for the south of Iceland were issued with reports of coastal flooding around the Reykjanes peninsula.[137]

On 27 February Bianca (FUB) affected France, Switzerland and Germany.[138]

Season effects

Storm Dates active Highest wind gust Lowest pressure Fatalities (+missing) Damage Affected areas
Lorenzo 2–4 October 163 km/h (101 mph) 966 mbar (28.5 inHg) 11 (+7) £283 million (€336 million) Azores, Eastern United States (while a hurricane), Ireland, United Kingdom
Amélie 1–4 November 189 km/h (117 mph) 972 mbar (28.7 inHg) 1 £80 million (€90 million) France, Spain, Italy
Bernardo 10–11 November 111 km/h (69 mph) 996 mbar (29.4 inHg) 1 Spain, Algeria
Cecilia 18–23 November 163 km/h (101 mph) 974 mbar (28.8 inHg) 0 Spain
Atiyah 4–9 December 150.1 km/h (93.3 mph) 956 mbar (28.2 inHg) 0 £40 million (€48 million) Ireland, United Kingdom, Netherlands, France
Daniel 15–20 December 135 km/h (84 mph) 982 mbar (29.0 inHg) 0 Portugal, Spain
Elsa 13–20 December 168 km/h (104 mph) 961 mbar (28.4 inHg) 8 £170 million (€200 million) Portugal, Spain, France, United Kingdom, Ireland, Norway
Fabien 16–23 December 206 km/h (128 mph) 963 mbar (28.4 inHg) 0 £170 million (€200 million) Portugal, Spain, France
Brendan 11–17 January 182 km/h (113 mph) 940 mbar (27.8 inHg) 1 £2 million (€2.3 million) Ireland, United Kingdom, Belgium, Netherlands, Spain, France
Gloria 15–20 January 133 km/h (83 mph) 993 mbar (29.3 inHg) 25 (+4) £150 million (€180 million) Portugal, Spain
Hervé 3–6 February 195 km/h (121 mph) 990 mbar (29.2 inHg) 3 Spain, France, Italy, Austria, Czech Republic
Ciara 4–12 February 219.0 km/h (136.1 mph) 943 mbar (27.8 inHg) 18 To be confirmed Ireland, United Kingdom, Belgium, The Netherlands, Germany
Inès 11–14 February 132 km/h (82 mph) 976 mbar (28.8 inHg) 0 France
Dennis 12–20 February 230.0 km/h (142.9 mph) 920 mbar (27 inHg) 6 (+1) To be confirmed Ireland, United Kingdom, Belgium, The Netherlands, Germany
Jorge 25 February–5 March 952 mbar (28.1 inHg) 0 United Kingdom, Ireland, Iceland
Karine 2–4 March 982 mbar (29.0 inHg) 0 France, Spain, Italy
Leon 29 February–1 March 990 mbar (29.2 inHg) 0 Spain, France, Belgium
Myriam 29 February–5 March 992 mbar (29.3 inHg) 0 Spain, France, Corsica, Malta, Italy
Norberto 3–7 March 982 mbar (29.0 inHg) 0 France, Germany
19 windstorms 2 October – ongoing 230.0 km/h (142.9 mph) 920 mbar (27.2 inHg) 74 (+12) £895 million
(€1.06 billion)

Coordination of storms named by European meteorological services

2019–20 named storms table (dates of impact (when warnings are issued for, not duration))
Amélie (FrEsPtBe), Arne (FUB) 2–3 November 2019.[139][140]
Bernardo (FrEsPtBe), Detlef[note 4] (FUB) 9–11 November 2019,[142] a Mediterranean storm.
Cecilia (FrEsPtBe), Luis (FUB)[143] 22–23 November 2019.
Atiyah (IEUKNL),[144] Rudi (FUB)[145] 8–9 December 2019.
Daniel (FrEsPtBe), Xander (FUB) 16 December 2019.
Elsa (FrEsPtBe),[146] Yadid (FUB), 17–18 December 2019.
Fabien (FrEsPtBe),[147] Ailton (FUB) 21–22 December 2019.
Brendan (IEUKNL),[148] Fenja (FUB) 13 January 2020.
Didrik (No) [for high coastal water levels],[149] combination of Brendan and secondary low (IEUKNL), Gerlinde and Fenja (FUB), 14–15 January 2020.
Gloria (FrEsPtBe),[150] Ilka (FUB) 19–23 January 2020, a Mediterranean storm.
Hervé (FrEsPtBe), Petra (FUB),[151] 4–5 February 2020.
Ciara (IEUKNL), Sabine (FUB), Elsa (No) [for high coastal water levels],[152] 8–10 February 2020.
Inès (FrEsPtBe), Tomris (FUB)[153] 13 February 2020.
Dennis (IEUKNL), Victoria (FUB), 15–17 February 2020.[154]
Jorge (FrEsPtBe), Charlotte (FUB), 29 February–1 March 2020.
Karine (FrESPtBe),[155] Diana III (FUB), 2 March 2020.
Leon (FrEsPtBe),[156] Diana II (FUB) 1 March 2020.
Myriam (FrEsPtBe),[138] 3 March 2020.
Norberto (FrEsPtBe),[157] Elli (FUB), 5 March 2020.
Laura (dk),[158] Hanna (FUB), 12 March 2020.


  1. ^ When Met Éireann named the extratropical remnants of Hurricane Lorenzo "Storm Lorenzo",[11] it contradicts what agencies would name remnants of hurricanes which cause issueance of amber, orange or red warnings (Ex-Hurricane Name).[3]
  2. ^ a b This is the lowest pressure achieved within a storm consisting out of multiple depressions.
  3. ^ In this case, Ciara is pronounced Kee-ra according to official Met Éireann guidance issued at the time the naming list was announced, although there are multiple alternative pronunciations of the name Ciara.
  4. ^ On the 10 November 2019 analysis, this system was known as Detlef II.[141]


  1. ^ Gleeson, Colin. "Met Éireann appealing for names for next season's storms". The Irish Times.
  2. ^ "#NameOurStorms: Met Office asks UK weather fans to help name storms". ITV News.
  3. ^ a b "UK Storm Centre". Met Office. Retrieved 5 October 2019.
  4. ^ "Storm Names". Met Éireann. 6 September 2019. Retrieved 6 September 2019.
  5. ^ "Storm names for 2019–20 announced". Met Office. 5 September 2019. Retrieved 6 September 2019.
  6. ^ Met Éireann [@MetEireann] (3 September 2019). "We will be announcing the Storm Names for 2019–20 this Friday morning Sept 6th. Thanks for all your suggestions
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